Card Set Information

2012-11-29 22:08:22

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  1. "America is the land of the second chance and when the gates of the prison open, the path ahead should lead to a better life", was said by_______________
    George W. Bush
  2. The conditional release of a prisoner, prior to completion of the imposed sentenced, under the supervision of the stateis called________.
  3. The scale developed from a risk-screening instrument used to predict parole outcome is the _________________.
    Salient Factor Score
  4. Early release based on the paroling authority's assessment of eligibilty is called _____________.
    Discretionary release
  5. Early release after a time period specified and set by law is called ____________.
    Mandatory release
  6. An executive act that removes both punishment and guilt is called a __________.
  7. From 1775 through 1856, English offenders were sent to _________ as punishment for crimes.
  8. The parole concept has its roots in an 18th century English penal practice of __________.
    Indentured servitude
  9. Pardons are granted by ________________.
    Presidents and Governors
  10. Prisoners who were sent to Australia, and then committed further felonies, were sent to __________.
    Norfolk Island
  11. In 1840, British Navy Captain ____________ was appointed superintendent of Norfolk Island.
    Alexander Maconochie
  12. The first legislation authorizing parole in the United States was enacted in ___________.
    Massachusetts in 1837
  13. The first reformatory to implement an extensive parole program was ___________.
    Elmira reformatory
  14. Zebulon Brockway was the first superintendent of ____________.
    Elmira reformatory
  15. The Wickersham Commission was appointed by President__________________.
    Herbert Hoover
  16. Captain Maconochie would have preferred an _________ sentencing model.
  17. A person who is conditionally released from prison to community supervision is referred to as a ____________.
  18. A national survey of a parole board members said that the most important factors in the decision to grant or deny parole was the _________.
    Nature of inmate offence
  19. A correctional agency that has the authority to grant parole is a called a ________.
    Parole board
  20. The recidivism rate in the United States is ______.
  21. The process of transition that offenders make from prison or jail to the community is called________.
  22. The earliest date on which an inmate might be paroled is called his _____________.
    Parole eligibility date
  23. At least_________ percent of the inmates who enter prisons eventually return to the community.
  24. The region of the country with the highest number of parolees is the ___________.
  25. Women make up ______ percent of the parole population.
  26. According to BJS, _______ percent of the people discharged from parole in 2006 completed the terms of their community supervision without returning to prison or jail or absconding.
  27. The normal patterns of behavior expected of those holding particular social positions are called__________.
  28. The patterns of behavior expected of correctional staff members in particular jobs are called__________.
    Staff roles
  29. The mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners occurred at _________.
    Abu Ghriab prison
  30. The torture of Iraqi prisoners occurred under President__________.
    George W. Bush
  31. Wardens, superintendents, assistant superintendents and others charged with running the institution and its programs are called__________.
    Administrative staff
  32. Majors, captains and correctional officers charged with maintaining order and security are called_____________.
    Custodial staff
  33. Psychologists, psychiatrists, medical doctors, nurses, teachers and others who contract with the institution to provide services are called___________.
    Program staff
  34. The _________ would be most involved in encouraging prisoners to participate in educational, vocational and treatment programs.
    Program staff
  35. Correctional officers have power by virtue of their positions within the organization. They have formal authority to command. This is called _________.
    Legitimate power
  36. Inmates' belief that a correctional officer can and will punish disobedience gives the officer __________.
    Coercive power
  37. The inmates' perception that certain correctional officers have valuable skills gives rise to ___________.
    Expert power
  38. When an officer is using "persuasive diplomacy" it is called ___________.
    Referent power
  39. Correctional officers dispense both formal and informal sanctions to induce cooperation among inmates. This is called__________.
    Reward power
  40. Time taken off an inmate's sentence for participating in certain activities such as going to school, learning a trade and working inprison is called _____________.
    Gain Time
  41. The tension between prison staff members and inmates that arises out of the correctional setting is called____________.
    Structured conflict
  42. The beliefs, values and behaviors of staff that differ greatly from those of the inmates are called____________.
    Staff subculture
  43. Guidelines for correctional officers---e.g., always go to the aid of an officer in distress, don't "lug" drugs, don't rat on other officers---are all part of ______.
    Officer code
  44. While blacks account for 12% of the U.S. population they account for _____ of the correctional workforce.
  45. Many prison movies have been made in recent years. Your text shows Tom Hanks in ___________ as an example of these movies.
    The Green Mile
  46. There are many common personality types that have been identified in correctional officers. The _______ likes to give orders and seems to enjoy the feeling of power that comes from ordering inmates around.
  47. The correctional officer that believes that close association with inmates will make it easier to control the inmates is called a ___________.
  48. A ________ usually interacts little with other officers and does the minimum necessary to get through the workday.
  49. The ___________ constantly finds problems with the way the institution is run or with existing policies and rules.
  50. A correctional officer who provides commodities to the inmate population is a called a ________.
  51. Those officers who are responsible for supervising inmates in housing areas are called __________.
    Block officers
  52. Those officers assigned to security (or gun) towers, wall posts and perimeter patrols are called _____________.
    Perimeter security officers
  53. Those officers who supervise inmates in the prison athletic areas or recreational areas are called ___________.
    Yard officers
  54. Officers who control the keys and weapons and sometimes oversee visitation are called ___________.
    Administrative officers
  55. Officers who oversee the work of individual inmate work crews are called ____________.
    Work detail supervisors
  56. ___________ officers are experienced correctional officers who know and can perform almost any custody role in the institution. They can replace any officer who is absent.
  57. The majority of inmates in the Federal Bureau of Prisons have been convicted of _____.
    Drug offenses
  58. Which of the following statements is most true?
    Penitentiaries are relatively modern social institutions and their development is distinctly American.
  59. The __________ advocated a prison system which shifted the emphasis from punishing the body to reforming the mind and soul.
  60. The first historical phase of prison discipline, involving soiltary confinement in silence instead of corporal punishment was called the ____________.
    Pennsylvania System
  61. This system called for solitary confinement at labor, with instruction in labor, morals and religion.
    Pennsylvania System
  62. This system called for silence but allowed the inmated to work together in groups.
    The Auburn System
  63. The Auburn system was also known as the __________.
    The congregate system
  64. ______________ of isolation and silence became popular in Europe.
    The Pennsylvania System
  65. The first reformatory for young men opened at ______________.
    Elmira, New York, in 1876
  66. The ___________ was influenced by progressive beliefs that education and science were vehicles for controlling crime.
    Reformatory Era
  67. A method the U.S. Supreme Court uses to decide prisoner's rights cases, weighing the rights claimed by inmates against the legitimate needs of prisons is called the__________?
    Balancing Test
  68. A place where the same people work, eat, sleep and engage in recreation together day after day is called?
    A Total Institution
  69. "The taking on of the ways, mores, customs and general culture of the penitentiary" is known as?
  70. Pseudofamilies exist in men's prisons in the same manner they exists in women's prisons.
  71. The set of norms and values among prison inmates is called?
    The prison code
  72. The special language of the inmate subculture is called?
    Prison argot
  73. A search of a prisoner's cell is called a?
  74. Over 5 percent of women are pregnant at the time of incarceration.
  75. Stud broads in a women's prison?
    Assume the male role in a homosexual relationship
  76. According to Schmalleger, the ___________ adapts to prison by exploiting the minimal pleasures it offers. They always seek the easy path and they plot to win the cushiest jobs.
  77. The belief that inmate subcultures develop in response to the deprivations in prison life is called?
    Deprivation theory
  78. The case of Cruz v. Beto established the right of prisoners to have visits.
  79. The sources of prisoners' rights are all except which of the following?
    Inmate unions
  80. The historical policy of American courts not intervening in the affairs of prison management was called?
    The hands off doctrine
  81. A previous judicial decision that judges should consider in deciding future cases is called?
  82. The court held that prison officials could not lawfully demonstrate deliberate indifference to the medical needs of prisoners in the case of?
    Estelle v. Gamble
  83. A "jailhouse lawyer" is?
    An inmate who helps other inmates with various legal problems
  84. The power, right or authority of a court to interpret and apply the law is called?
  85. Habeas corpus is Latin for?
    "You have the body"
  86. The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known as the ?
    Bill of Rights
  87. Constitutional rights of inmates may be restricted by all except?
    The general belief that inmates are bad
  88. ___________ is/are the common denominator for most offenders in the criminal justice system?
    Alcohol and drug problems
  89. Incarcerated individuals who exhibit unique physical, mental, social and progammatic needs that distinguish them from other prisoners are called?
    Special-needs inmates
  90. The use of Drug Courts has been?
    Successful in reducing recidivism rates
  91. Treating HIV and AIDS in prison is difficult for all but one of the following reasons?
    The frequency of taking medications
  92. In 2006 the State of __________ had the highest incidence of AIDS related deaths in its prison population?
  93. The most common sexually transmitted disease, one which affects the eyes and lungs, is?
  94. The principle of least eligibility holds that?
    Everyone is entitled to equal medical treatment without regard to status
  95. The most common cause of death among the world's prisoners is?
  96. The case of Gates v. Rowland dealt with the issue of?
    HIV-positive inmates working in the kitchen
  97. The estimated national cost per year to confine an inmate over 55 years old is?
  98. The nation's best-known prison hospice program is the one at?
    Angola Prison
  99. The key to curbing recidivism of people who are mentally ill is to expand_______________into jails and prisons so that inmates can begin therapy the moment they walk into custody?
    Public Health Services
  100. "Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted" is part of the____Amendment?
  101. A punishment that is grossly disproportionate to the offense as well as those that transgress today's broad and idealistic concepts of dignity, civilized standards, humanity and decency is said to be?
    Cruel and unusual
  102. The halting or suspension, before conviction, of formal criminal proceedings against a person, conditional upon some form of counter-performance by the defendant is called?
  103. The "Founder of Probation" is John Augustus.
  104. Revocation hearings usually begin with a violation report prepared by the probation officer.
  105. Diversion has its roots in ________theory.
  106. Evidence based corrections have shown very strong evidence that drug courts_______the future criminal activities of offenders.
  107. A due process hearing that must be conducted to determine whether the conditions of probation have been violated is called?
    A probation revocation hearing
  108. Punishment options for initial sentences more restrictive than traditional probation but less restrictive than jail or prisons are called?
    front-end programs
  109. The states of________,Georgia and Texas are making extensive use of communtity service.
  110. Intensive supervision probation(ISP) involves?
    All of these
  111. A special court that is given responsibilty to handle cases involving drug-addicted offenders is called?
    Drug court
  112. A financial penalty used as a criminal sanction is called a?
  113. Emergency release options for special docket offenders, generally used to relieve prison overcrowding are called?
    Trap-door or side-door programs
  114. Intermediate Sanctions are sometimes referred to as?
    Alternatives to incarceration
  115. ___________are locally operated correctional facilities that confine people before and after conviction.
  116. The fundamental difference between jail and prison is the nature of their.
  117. In general, people sentenced to jail have a sentence of?
    Less than one year
  118. The first jail in America was________in Philadelphia.
    Walnut street jail
  119. The religious order that pushed for prison reform of the Walnut Street Jail was the?
    Philadelphia Quakers
  120. Juveniles can never be held in adult jails.
  121. "Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted" is the 5th Amendment.
  122. The typical female jail inmate is?
    poor, a high school dropout, unmarried, with children
  123. To conduct themselves as professionals, jail staff must have all except which of the following?
    intolerance for ethnic groups
  124. A contract process that shifts public functions, responsibilties, and capital assets, in whole or in part, from the public sector to the private sector is called?
  125. The "poorhouse of the twentieth century" are?
  126. John Irvin said in 1986 that the purpose of jails was rabble management.
  127. Approximately_________of women were under the influence of alcohol or drugs at the time of their arrest.
  128. A jail where inmates are housed in small groups or pods, staffed 24 hours a day by specially trained officers who interact with the inmates is called a Second-Generation Jail.
  129. In addition to charging inmates housing and medical co-pay fees as a way to offset jail operations, some jurisdictions have added pay-to-stay jails. The typical offender has been convicted of?
    minor offenses
  130. The court held that a potential juror's mere reservation about the death penalty was insufficient grounds to prevent that person from serving on the jury in a death penalty case in?
    Witherspoon v. Illinois
  131. In 1972, the case of__________ruled that the application of the death penalty, as it was then carried out, was unconstitutional and set aside 40 death penalty statutes.
    Gregg v. Georgia
  132. The case of__________supported the use of the death penalty if the State used guided discretionary capital statutes.
    Furman v. Georgia
  133. The federal death row is located in?
    Terre Haute, Indiana
  134. The_______leads the United States in executions.
  135. Currently, the predominant method of execution in the United States is?
    lethal injection
  136. Most, though not all, death row inmates spend_______hours a day in their cell.
  137. In the case of_______, the Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to sentence a 15-year-old to death.
    Thompson v. Oklahoma
  138. A death sentence that the legislature has required to be imposed upon people convicted of certain offenses is called a?
    mandatory death penalty
  139. When the court has two separate hearings for different issues in a trial, one for guilt and the other for punishment, it is called a?
    bifurcated trial
  140. Factors that may be considered to increase the culpability of the offender are called?
    aggravating circumstances
  141. Factors that, although not justifying or excusing action, may reduce the culpability of the offender are called?
    mitigating circumstances
  142. On June 19, 2002, the Supreme Court held in_______that the execution of the mentally retarded is cruel and unusual punishment prohibited by the Eighth Amendment.
    Atkins v. Virginia
  143. The Supreme Court ruled in__________that it was unconstitutional and a violation of the Eighth Amendment's ban on cruel and unusual punishment to execute people for crimes that were committed before turning age 18.
    Stanford v. Kentucky
  144. A Latin term that refers to the state as guardian of minors and incompetent people is called?
    parens patriae
  145. The first legally chartered American custodial institution for juvenile offenders was?
    the New York House of Refuge
  146. A penal institution to which especially young or first-time offenders are committed for training and reformation is called?
    a reform school
  147. The first juvenile court established in 1899 in?
    Chicago, Illinois
  148. In adult court the offender is convicted; in juvenile court the offender is?
  149. Adult offenders are known as criminals, juvenile offenders are known as?
  150. Adult offenders are arrested; juvenile offenders are?
    taken into custody
  151. Adult offenders have trials; juvenile offenders have?
    adjudicatory hearings
  152. An adult offender receives a verdict; a juvenile offender receives a?
  153. In the case of In re Gault, Gerald Gault was charged with?
    making lewd phone calls
  154. The United States Supreme Court awarded Gerald Gault all of the following rights except?
    the right to a jury trial
  155. Samuel Winship was charged with?
    stealing $112 from a woman's purse
  156. The case of_________ruled that "guilty beyond a reasonable doubt" should be the standard in all delinquency adjudications.
    In re Winship
  157. The case of McKeiver v. Pennsylvania ruled that juveniles do not have?
    the right to a jury trial
  158. An act that is a law violation only for juveniles but not for adults is referred to as a?
    status offense
  159. A person appointed by the juvenile court to serve as a special guardian for the youth being processed through the juvenile justice system is called a?
    guardian ad litem
  160. When a juvenile court transfers jurisdiction of a case to an adult court it is called a?
  161. With severe correctional budget cuts, prisons struggle to obtain money for?
    inmate programs
  162. The_______has the highest per capita incarceration rate in the world.
    United States
  163. According to your authors, the Three-State Recidivism Study concluded?
    that good educational programs reduce recidivism
  164. High rates of turnover among corrections officers are the result of?
    all of these
  165. Which of the following is sacrificed so that prisons and jails can continue to operate in an efficient manner given the budget cutbacks?
    all of these
  166. Overcrowding, one of the most pressing problems, has created the dilemma of?
    having to admit more inmates than there is available space
  167. Funding to various correctional agencies has been cut since 9/11 and has been allocated to?
    homeland security
  168. The field of corrections is improving. The process, however, remains slow and difficult, primarily because the necessary funding is simply not available. This impacts correctional administrators' ability to?
    all of these
  169. A committment to a set of agreed-upon values aimed at the improvement of the organization while maintaining the highest standards of excellence is called?
  170. Prison construction is estimated to be at______a year.
    6 billion dollars
  171. The imprisonment rate for the United States is approximately_______per 100,000 citizens.
  172. A crime punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility for a year or more is called a?
  173. The major Code of Ethics governing the field of corrections was created?
    Board of Governors and Delegates Assembly 1994
  174. Some crimes are classified as felonies in one part of the country and as misdemeanors in another part of the country.
  175. A crime punishable by confinement in a local jail for a year or less is called?
  176. A person's race is a simple biological fact, and not a social construct.
  177. Crime in the United States has continued to increase over the last decade despite our best efforts to control it.
  178. Cultural restrictions on behavior that forbid serious violations of group's values---such as murder, rape and robbery are called?
  179. Branding has been in use as a punishment since at least Roman times.
  180. Robert-Francois Damiens was sentenced to be quartered publicly in Paris for attempting to kill?
    King Louis XV
  181. Branding as a punishment for a crime was never practiced in the American colonies.
  182. The idea that people are motivated by pleasure and pain and that the proper amount of punishment can deter crime is called?
    Hedonistic Calculus
  183. The most honorable form of punishment for men was decapitation with a sword.
  184. Instant death was usually reserved for members of the poorer classses and not the nobility.
  185. Prisons, or institutions in which large numbers of convicted offenders spend time as punishment for crimes, are over a thousand years old.
  186. For more than 200 years, England practiced a form of criminal exile known as transportation.
  187. Michel Foucalt, the French historian and philosopher, says that the purpose of the physical punishment was?
    primarily revenge
  188. The principle that the highest objective of public policy is the greatest happiness for the largest number of people is called?
  189. The term flogging means a type of hanging conducted in London.
  190. To deal with the growing prison population England used floating prion ships called hulks.
  191. The first written laws of Rome were called?
    12 Tables
  192. After the American Revolution, England sent its prisoners to Scotland.
  193. The author of On Crimes and Punishments was?
    Cesar Beccaria
  194. A device consisting of nine knotted cords fastened to a wooden handle used for whipping a convicted subject was a Cat-o'-nine tails.
  195. France transported many of its criminals to Devil's Island.
  196. The most frequent penalty in the Twelve Tables was?
  197. For his crimes, Fay received a sentence of?
  198. A particularly mean device for whipping, called the Russian Knout, had fishhooks in it.
  199. The religious group________sometimes burned witches and unruly slaves; made wide use of the stocks, the pillory and ducking stool; branded criminal offenders; and forced women convicted of adultery to wear "scarlet letters".
  200. "Ne'er-do-wells" were shiftless and irresponsible individuals.
  201. The country of_______was known for burning people alive.
  202. The term Lex Talionis means "Let the punishment be just".
  203. The punishment device that held the prisoner in a sitting position, with feet and hands locked in a frame, was called the stocks.
  204. The period of Western social thought that began in the 17th century and lasted until the dawn of the 19th century is known as?
    Age of Enlightenment
  205. The Panopticon was designed to allow prison staff to observe inside each______.
  206. Women started working in corrections in the 1970's and now are becoming more accepted.
  207. A crime which is a violation of a local ordinance and is punishable by only a fine is called an?
  208. The process by which a court arrives at a final decision in a case is called?
  209. In some states, if you are convicted of a felony it is grounds for an uncontested divorce.
  210. A writ issued by an appellate court to obtain from a lower court the record of its proceeding in a particular case is called a?
    Writ of certiorari
  211. There are fewer women working as correctional officers than there are working as police officers.
  212. If the defendant accepts a penalty without admitting guilt it is called?
    Nolo contendere
  213. The "evidence" that evidence based corrections is based on is highly controversial.
  214. The prison population is higher today in the United States than at any time in our history.
  215. Race, ethnicity and sex are all aspects of?
    Social diversity in corrections
  216. Serious crime in the United States continues to go down but the prison poplation continues to go up.
  217. The use of___________in corrections and public policy is now considered the gold standard for policy and program development.
    Evidence-based practices
  218. If a prosecutor drops charges after filing them, it is called?
    Nolle prosequi
  219. Punishment as vengeance is called?
  220. According to the text, for punishment to be effective as a deterrent it must be________,_________, and_______.
    • Certain
    • Swift
    • Severe
  221. The process of making the offender a productive member of the community again is called?
  222. Sentences that are served together are called?
    concurrent sentences
  223. Restorative justice is especially concerned with repairing the harm to the offender.
  224. The process of changing criminal lifestyles into law-abiding ones by "correcting" the behavior of offenders through treatment, education or training is called?
  225. According to Cullen and Gendreau, rehabilitation strangely enough, works very well with murderers.
    Fails when it's ill conceived and/or not implemented as designed