Rad Final Exam

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edgarl
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186267
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Rad Final Exam
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2012-11-30 19:48:37
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257 questions
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  1. The most sensitive cells to ionizing radiation are

    A.      bone
    B.      nerve
    C.      reproductive
    D.      muscle
    C. Reproductive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The best type of x-ray to penetrate body tissue is

    A.      low frequencies
    B.      high frequencies, short wavelength
    C.      long wavelength
    D.      soft rays, long wavelength
    B. High frequencies, short wavelength
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Before seating, the dental patient it is necessary to cover which of the following items with disposable plastic wrap?

    A.      Operator film badge
    B.      X-ray film holding devices
    C.      X-ray exposure control panel
    D.      Lead apron
    C. X-ray exposure control panel
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Milliamperage controls

    A.      The speed with which electrons move from cathode to anode
    B.      Cooling of the anode
    C.      Heating of the anode
    D.      Heating of the cathode
    D. Heating of the Cathode
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The dental assistant must utilize which of the following personal protective equipment (PPE) when exposing films?

    A.      Chin-length face shield
    B.      Safety goggles
    C.      Gloves
    D.      Tinted lenses
    C. Gloves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The lead diaphragm (collimator) determines the size and shape of the

    A.      film used
    B.      filament
    C.      electron cloud
    D.      x-ray beam
    D. X-ray beam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The portion of the target that is struck by electrons is called the

    A.      principal point
    B.      focal spot
    C.      photon point
    D.      end point
    B. Focal spot
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Proper collimation for the film size and target-film distance will

    A.      decrease the radiation received by the patient
    B.      increase the kvp
    C.      increase the wavelength
    D.      decrease the wave length
    A. Decrease the radiation recieved by the patient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. To increase the penetrating quality of an x-ray beam, the auxiliary must

    A.      decrease the kvp
    B.      increase the kvp
    C.      increase FFD
    D.      increase ma
    B. Increase the kvp
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The x-ray at the center of the primary beam is called the

    A.      Photon ray
    B.      Secondary ray
    C.      Central ray
    D.     Restricted beam
    C. Central Ray
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. A test for quality control relative to manual processing may be accomplished utilizing

    A.      stepwedge
    B.      darkroom safelight
    C.      test tube
    D.      water thermometer
    D. Water thermometer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Filtration of the x-ray beam protects the patient by

    A.      eliminating weak wavelength x-ray from the x-ray beam
    B.      eliminating all radiation from the x-ray head
    C.      eliminating short wavelength x-rays from the x-ray beam
    D.      decreasing exposure time
    A. Eliminating weak wavelength x-ray from the x-ray beam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Information and instructions for proper disposal of x-ray processing solutions may be found in the

    A.      Darkroom
    B.      Product material safety data sheet
    C.      Dental laboratory
    D.      Office exposure control plan
    B. Product material safety data sheet
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Scatter radiation is a type of

    A.      filtered radiation
    B.      stray radiation
    C.      secondary radiation
    D.      primary radiation
    C. Secondary Radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The quality, or penetrating power, of secondary radiation is

    A.      unrelated to that of primary radiation
    B.      less than that of primary radiation
    C.      the same as that of primary radiation
    D.      more than that of primary radiation
    B. Less than that of primary radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The time period between the exposure to ionizing radiation and visible tissue damage is the

    A.      Long term period
    B.      Acute effect period
    C.      Latent period
    D.      Short term period
    C. Latent period
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The amount of radiation a person receives

    A.      Is cumulative in the entire body
    B.      Is not harmful in small doses
    C.      begins anew each day
    D.      is cumulative only on the skin
    A. Is cumulative in the entire body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Maximum protection of the patient requires that the x-ray beam pass through a:

    A.      Shielded closed-ended cone
    B.      Lead apron
    C.      Plastic closed ended cone
    D.      Shield open ended cone
    D. Shield open ended cone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. A technique used to measure the operator’s exposure to radiation is

    A.      For the operator to wear a radiation film badge
    B.      To count the number of full mouth x-ray series taken
    C.      To check the color of the operator’s fingernails
    D.      To multiply the number of films the operators has exposed by 0.1 rem
    A. For the operator to wear a radiation film badge
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Accumulated radiation dosage for those who work with radiation may not exceed

    A.      4 rems/year
    B.      0-1 rem/year
    C.      5 rems/year
    D.      3  rems/year
    C. 5 rems/year
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. To avoid exposure to secondary radiation, the operator should stand

    A.      Any distance in back of the x-ray head
    B.      2’ to the right of the primary beam
    C.      4” in front of the patient
    D.      At least 6’ from the x-ray head
    D. At least 6' from the x-ray head
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The most effective way to reduce gonadal exposure from x-rays is to

    A.      Increase the kvp
    B.      Use proper collimation
    C.      Increase vertical angulation
    D.      Use a lead lap apron
    D. Use a lead lap apron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. After each use, the lead lap apron must be

    A.      Discarded for appropriate infection control
    B.      Draped over a support rod unfolded
    C.      Stored in the darkroom
    D.      Folded neatly and stored in the operatory
    B. Draped over a support rod unfolded
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. The best technique for reducing the radiation exposure to both patient and operator is the use of

    A.      Thinner films
    B.      Fast film 
    C.      An automatic timer
    D.      A thicker cellulose acetate base
    B. Fast film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Film speed is determined by the

    A.      Thickness of cellulose acetate base
    B.      Side of the film exposed
    C.      Amount of silver bromide salt
    D.      Size of the silver bromide crystals
    D. Size of the silver bromide crystals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The radiographic film is covered with an emulsion of

    A.      Potassium bromide
    B.      Cellulose
    C.      Silver acetate
    D.      Silver bromide salts
    D. Silver bromide salts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The raised button on the radiograph aids in

    A.      Determining film speed
    B.      Processing
    C.      Drying
    D.      Mounting
    D. Mounting
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The purpose of the lead foil in dental film is to

    A.      Reduce film fogging from backscatter radiation
    B.      Prevent scattered radiation to the patient
    C.      Provide stiffness to the film
    D.      Absorb the primary beam
    A. Reduce film fogging from backscatter radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The detection of Interproximal caries is seen best with a (an)

    A.      Panorex film
    B.      Bite-wings film
    C.      Occlusal film
    D.      Lateral head plate
    B. Bite-wings film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which extraoral film is used to visualize the sinus?

    A.      Water’s film
    B.      Lateral skull film
    C.      Occlusal film
    D.      Posterior-anterior film
    A. Water's film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. X-ray films should be kept by the dentist along with other records for

    A.      2 yr
    B.      5 yr
    C.      Indefinitely
    D.      1 yr
    C. Indefinitely
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The best place to store unexposed x-ray film is in a

    A.      Darkroom
    B.      Warm area protected from stray radiation
    C.      Puncture resistant sealed container
    D.      Lead container
    D. Lead container
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The periapical film reveals

    A.      Upper and lower teeth in the same film
    B.      The entire tooth, including the apex
    C.      The entire jaw
    D.      Interproximal caries
    B. The entire tooth, including the apex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The principle used in panoramic radiography is

    A.      Tomography
    B.      Laminagraphy
    C.      Long cone paralleling
    D.      Horizontal curvature
    A. Tomography
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. A material of substance that does Not stop or absorb X-ray that is dark gray to black is known as

    A.      Radiolucent
    B.      Radiographic
    C.      Radiopaque
    D.      Radiodontic
    A. Radiolucent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. A material or substance that does stop or absorb X-rays that is light gray to black is known as

    A.      Radiographic
    B.      Radiopaque
    C.      Radiodontic
    D.      Radiolucent
    B. Radiopaque
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. All of the tissues listed are radiopaque EXCEPT the

    A.      Pulp chamber
    B.      Cortical plate
    C.      Alveolar bone
    D.      Enamel
    A. Pulp chamber
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Which of these appears radiolucent?

    A.      Torus 
    B.      Root tips
    C.      Calculus
    D.      Caries
    D.Caries
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. What is the name of the diagonal radiopaque line visible at the lower part of the roots of the mandibular molars?

    A.      Inferior border of the mandible
    B.      Mandibular canal
    C.      Internal oblique line
    D.      External oblique ridge
    C. Internal oblique line
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. What is the small circular radiolucency near the roots of the mandibular premolars called?

    A.      Lingual foramen
    B.      Mandibular foramen
    C.      Mental foramen
    D.      Incisive foramen
    B. Mandibular foramen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. What term describes the u-shaped radiopaque structure often seen in the maxillary molar films?

    A.      Tuberosity
    B.      Zygoma
    C.      Hamulus
    D.      Coronoid Process
    B. Zygoma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What is the thin radiopaque band between the maxillary incisors called?

    A.      Inverted Y
    B.      Nasal septum
    C.      Median palatine suture
    D.      Zygoma
    B. Nasal septum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. What is the small circular radiolucency below the mandibular incisor roots called?

    A.      Incisive foramen
    B.      Buccal foramen
    C.      Mental foramen
    D.      Lingual foramen
    D. Lingual foramen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. What is the large radiolucent area shown on maxillary molar radiographs called?

    A.      Maxillary tuberosity
    B.      Maxillary septum
    C.      Maxillary sequestrum
    D.      Maxillary sinus
    D. Maxillary sinus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. What is the long, narrow, and radiolucent area visible below the roots of the mandibular molars called?

    A.      Mandibular canal
    B.      Internal oblique line
    C.      Inferior border
    D.      External oblique line
    A. Mandibular canal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. What is the radiopaque circular area below the apices of the mandibular incisor called?

    A.      Genial tubercles
    B.      Symphysis
    C.      Mental ridge 
    D.      Lamina dura
    A. Genial tubercles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. What is the basic principle of the bisecting the angle technique?

    A.      The central ray must be directed at a 45º angle to the embrasures.
    B.      The central ray must be directed at right angles to the film
    C.      The central ray must be directed at right angles to an imaginary line that bisects the angle formed by the long axis of the tooth and the plane of the film
    D.      The central ray must be directed at right angle to the tooth
    C. The central ray must be directed at right angles to an imaginary line that bisects the angle formed by the long axis of the tooth and plane of the film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. All of the following are basic principles of the paralleling technique EXCEPT

    A.      The film must be parallel to the long axis of tooth
    B.      A 16” extension or long cone must be used
    C.      The source of the x-ray must be directed perpendicularly to tooth and film
    D.      An 8” short cone must be used
    D. An 8" short cone must be used
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. The ala-tragus (Frankfort plane) line is parallel to the floor when taking

    A.      Mandibular occlusal films
    B.      Mandibular periapical films
    C.      Maxillary periapical films
    D.      A panorex
    D. A panorex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The occlusal plane of the maxillary arch being radiographed should be

    A.      At an angel of 45º to the floor
    B.      Perpendicular to the floor
    C.      Parallel to the floor 
    D.      At an angle of 30 º to the floor
    C. Parallel to the floor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Vertical angulation in the bisecting technique for the same radiograph can differ in patients because of

    A.      Anatomic differences
    B.      Gagging
    C.      Age
    D.      The size of the teeth
    A. Anatomic differences
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. The periapical films should extend beyond the occlusal plane

    A.      1/8”
    B.      1/2”
    C.      3/8”
    D.      1/4”
    A. 1/8"
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Firm placement of the film will help prevent

    A.      Elongation
    B.      Gagging
    C.      Overlapping
    D.      Foreshortening
    B. Gagging
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. A latent image is

    A.      A very light image on the developed film
    B.      Found only on fast films
    C.      Composed of energized silver halide crystals
    D.      An image taken with a long exposure
    C. Composed of energized silver halide crystals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Cone cutting results form the central ray

    A.      Being eliminated form a closed plastic cone
    B.      Not being aimed at the center or the film
    C.      Having insufficient vertical angulation
    D.      Having incorrect horizontal angulation
    B. Not being aimed at the center or the film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Black lines across the film may be the result of

    A.      Underexposure
    B.      Excessive bending
    C.      Cone cutting
    D.      Double exposure
    B. Excessive bending
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Blurred films can result form

    A.      Increased KVP
    B.      A faulty x-ray unit
    C.      Movement of the patient
    D.      Old film
    C. Movement of the patient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. If a patient is reluctant to be radiographed, the assistant should

    A.      Reschedule the patient 
    B.      Explain the procedure thoroughly to the patient
    C.      Refer the patient to an x-ray laboratory
    D.      Refer the patient to the dental hygienist
    B. Explain the procedure thoroughly to the patient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Exposure of a radiograph on a child

    A.      Requires the same time as on an adult
    B.      Requires more time than on an adult
    C.      Requires less time than on an adult
    D.      Should never be attempted
    C. Requires less time than on an adult
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Intensifying screens

    A.      Create additional x-rays
    B.      Decrease exposure time of extraoral films
    C.      Fuse with the film
    D.      Are used in intraoral films
    B. Decrease exposure time of extraoral films
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. As the target-film distance is increased by using a long pid there is:

    A.      More chance of foreshortening
    B.      More chance of overlapping
    C.      Less distortion
    D.      More chance of elongation
    C. Less distortion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. The usual number of films in a complete dentulous radiographic survey is

    A.      18-20
    B.      10-12
    C.      24-26
    D.      26-28
    A. 18-20
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. In the paralleling technique, a device used to hold the film in the patient’s mouth is

    A.      A rubber bite block
    B.      A film holder
    C.      A plastic dental instrument
    D.      The patient’s finger
    B. A film holder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Extraoral films are

    A.      Not sensitive to light
    B.      More sensitive to light than intraoral films
    C.      Just as sensitive to light as intraoral films
    D.      Less sensitive to light than intraoral films
    B. More sensitive to light than intraoral films
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. The major disadvantage of the bisecting angle technique is that

    A.      The film is more difficult to place
    B.      The amount of radiation absorbed by the patient is increased
    C.      Image distortion is more likely
    D.      The exposure time is significantly longer
    C. Image distortion is more likely
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. A routine periapical radiograph of a premolar should show

    A.      The first and second premolars, the first molar and the mesial of the second molar
    B.      The distal of the canine, the first and second premolars (bicuspids), and most of the first molar.
    C.      The first and second premolars
    D.      All of the canines and the first and second premolar
    B. The distal of the canine, the first and second premolars (bicuspids), and most of the first molar.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. A film holder is used in intraoral radiography because it

    A.      Aids in beam-film alignment
    B.      Prevents patient movement
    C.      Eliminates fogging
    D.      Is disposable
    A. Aids in beam-film alignment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. When exposing a bitewing radiograph, correct horizontal angulation refers to directing the x-ray beam

    A.      Through the contacts of two adjacent teeth
    B.      Over the entire film
    C.      To the occlusal of the teeth
    D.      At the roots of the teeth
    A. Through the contacts of two adjacent teeth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. X-ray exposure time should be increased if the patient is

    A.      Very old.
    B.      Edentulous
    C.      Very young
    D.      A large adult
    D. A large adult
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. What change in technique should be used for a maxillary periapical radiograph of a patient who has a shallow palate?

    A.      Direct horizontal angulation distally
    B.      Increase vertical angulation
    C.      Decrease vertical angulation
    D.      Direct horizontal angulation mesially
    B. Increase vertical angulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Before exposing a panoramic radiograph on a patient, the operator should request the removal of all the following except

    A.      Removable bridgework
    B.      Earrings
    C.      Watch
    D.      Denture
    E.      Eyeglasses
    C. Watch
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. Which of the following conditions will result in a radiographic image that is to light?

    A.      Inadequate safelight
    B.      Processing solutions to warm
    C.      Weak developing solutions
    D.      Darkroom door opened during developing
    C. Weak developing solutions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. A film with thin density and herringbone pattern across it is the result of

    A.      Double exposure
    B.      Film packet reversal
    C.      Static electricity
    D.      Film bending
    B. Film packet reveral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Incorrect horizontal angulation of the primary beam produces

    A.      Overlapping of proximal surfaces
    B.      Shortening of the image of the tooth
    C.      Lengthening of the image of the tooth
    D.      Overlapping of occlusal surfaces
    A. Overlapping of promixal surfaces
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. The life expectancy of radiographic processing solution depends upon all of the following except

    a.      Number of films processed
    b.      Solution exposure to air
    c.      Solution contaminated
    d.      Temperature of the solution
    e.      All of the above
    E. All of the Above
  76. How can acceptable radiographs be produced if the temperature of the developing solution is slightly above normal?

    A.      Lengthen the exposure time
    B.      Shorten the time in the fixer
    C.      Shorten the time in the developer
    D.      Lengthen time in the wash
    C. Shorten the time in the developer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Insufficient fixation or washing of processed radiographic film will result in a

    A.      Brownish yellow stain on the radiograph
    B.      Completely blackened film
    C.      Very light radiographic image
    D.      Opaque are on the radiograph
    A. Brownish yellow stain on the radiograph
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. When processing a radiograph, the darkroom overhead light was off, the safety light was on, and the door was slightly open. What effect will exposure to minor amounts of room light have on the processed radiograph?  It will appear

    A.      Diagnostically acceptable
    B.      Light
    C.      Black
    D.      Streaked
    C. Black
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Radiographs mounted with the raised portions of the dots toward the observer are examined as though the observer is a

    A.      On the patients left side
    B.      Inside the mouth looking out
    C.      On the patients right side
    D.      Outside the mouth looking in
    D. Outside the mouth looking in
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. If there are no teeth to serve as guides, which of the following landmarks indicates a maxillary molar area radiograph?

    A.      Incisive foramen
    B.      Tuberosity
    C.      Mental ridge
    D.      Internal Oblique ridge
    B. Tuberosity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. Where is the radiographic landmark (incisive foramen) usually locate?

    A.      Mandibular anterior
    B.      Maxillary anterior
    C.      Maxillary posterior
    D.      Mandibular posterior
    B. Maxillary anterior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. Which of the following landmarks would be most likely to indicate the midline of the mandible?

    A.      Mental foramen
    B.      Mandibular canal
    C.      Mandibular foramen
    D.      Genial tubercles
    D. Genial tubercles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Which of the following factors MOST affects the penetrating power of an x-ray?

    A.      Kilovoltage
    B.      Exposure time
    C.      Length of PID
    D.      Milliamperage
    A. Kilovoltage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Which of the following materials is most resistant to the penetration of ionizing radiation?

    A.      Aluminum
    B.      Lead
    C.      Plastic
    D.      Copper
    B. Lead
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. If the operator suspects a malfunction in the x-ray equipment, what is the first thing to be done?

    A.      Stop using the equipment
    B.      Change the mB and kVp settings
    C.     Call the repair service
    D.      Call the state radiation inspector
    A. Stop using the equipment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Which of the following is the major cause of unnecessary radiation to dental patient?

    A.      Faulty operator technique
    B.      Use of excessive cone length
    C.      Use of defective lead aprons
    D.      Use of metal PID’s
    A. Faulty operator technique
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Which is the major advantage in using the highest speed film and higher kilovoltage?

    A.      Makes film easier and faster to develop
    B.      Reduces the radiation to patient
    C.      Produces a clearer image
    D.      Increases film density
    B. Reduces the radiation to patient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. What corrections are necessary if radiographs exhibit cone cuts?

    A.      Adjust  the central ray to cover the film 
    B.      Increase vertical angulation
    C.      Enlarge the collimator
    D.      Decrease the amount of filtration
    A. Adjust the central ray to cover the film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. If all known radiation safety precautions are exercised an operator who is pregnant can safely expose radiographs during the operators

    A.      Entire pregnancy
    B.      First trimester
    C.      Third trimester
    D.      Second trimester
    A. Entire pregnancy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. If a dental auxiliary radiation badge report indicates exposure to small amounts of radiation, what should be done first?

    A.      Ignore the report since the dosage was small
    B.     Change the mB and kVp or exposure time
    C.      Evaluate the x-ray equipment and techniques
    D.      Consult a physician
    C. Evaluate the x-ray equipment and techniques
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. In dental radiography, it is necessary to have a filter to

    A.      Eliminate distortion on the radiograph
    B.      Eliminate the less penetrating x-rays from the primary beam
    C.      Eliminate the short wave x-rays from the primary beam
    D.      Confine the direct x-ray beam to a small area on the patients face
    B. Eliminate the less penetrating x-rays from the primary beam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. What information helps to distinguish maxillary molar radiographs from mandibular molar radiographs?

    A.      Maxillary molars are larger
    B.      The mandibular second molar has one root
    C.      The outline of the maxillary sinus is visible
    D.      The maxillary molar has two fused roots
    C. The outline of the maxillary sinus is visible
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93.  Long, distorted teeth appear on the film when:

    A.   The horizontal angulation is incorrect.
    B.   The vertical angulation is insufficient.
    C.   The vertical angulation is excessive.
    D.   There is a cone-cut.
    B. The vertical angulation is excessive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. The wrinkled (cracked) appearance that results when films go from one solution to another that has wide temperature variations is termed:

    A.         liquefaction
    B.         dichroic fog
    C.         reticulation
    D.         blistering
    C. Reticulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. The coin test is used to test the:

    a          safelight
    b.         developing solution
    c.         film sensitivity
    d.         filtration
    A. Safelight
  96. Where should the thermometer be placed in manual processing?

    A.         rinse tank
    B.         developer tank
    C.         fixer tank
    D.         it doesn’t matter
    B. Developer tank
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. The stepwedge is used to test the:

    a          safelight
    b.         developing solution
    c.         film sensitivity
    d.         filtration
    B. Developing solution
  98. If the temperature of the developing solution is slightly below normal, radiographs of the required density may be obtained by a:

    A.         longer fixing time
    B.         shorter fixing time
    C.         longer developing time
    D.         shorter developing time
    C. Longer developing time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. What is the recommended method for developing films?

    A.         time method
    B.         time-temperature method
    C.         visual-temperature method
    D.         visual method
    B. Time-temperature method
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. The occlusal technique is used to examine:

    A.        For bone loss
    B.        Large areas of the upper or lower jaw
    C.        Interproximal areas
    D.        Third molars
    B. Large areas of the upper or lower jaw
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. Digital radiography uses _____ to produce an image.

    A.         an x-ray processor
    B.         radiographic film
    C.         an electronic sensor and computerized imaging system
    D.         processing chemistry
    C. An electronic sensor and computerized imaging
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. Exposure times are _____ than that required for conventional radiography.

    A.         10% to 20% more
    B.         50% to 80% more
    C.         10% to 20% less
    D.         50% to 80% less
    D. 50% to 80% less
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. Most digital radiography systems use a _____ as the x-radiation source.

    A.         conventional dental x-ray unit
    B.         commercial digital intraoral camera
    C.         flat-bed scanner
    D.         commercial analog intraoral camera
    A. Conventional dental x-ray unit
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. The electrons that make up the silicon charge-coupled device (CCD) can be visualized as being divided into an arrangement of blocks or picture elements known as:

    A.         Phosphors
    B.         A field arrangement
    C.         A grid
    D.         Pixels
    D. Pixels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. Sensors that cannot be sterilized:

    A.         Are placed in an immersion disinfectant for an appropriate amount of time between each patient
    B.         Should be disposed of between patients
    C.         Are wiped off with a surface disinfectant (iodophor) between patients
    D.         Require complete coverage with disposable plastic sleeves for each patient
    D. Require complete coverage with disposable plastic sleeves for each patient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. According to the SLOB rule, when two radiographs are compared, the object that lies to the lingual appears to have moved in the same direction as the position-   indicating device (PID), and the object that lies to the buccal appears to have moved in the opposite direction as the PID.

    A.         The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
    B.         Both statements are false.
    C.         The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
    D.         Both statements are true.
    D. Both statements are true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. In panoramic radiography, the _____ rotates around the patient.

    A.         dental chair
    B.         tubehead and film
    C.         film
    D.         tubehead
    B. Tubehead and Film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. A ghost image occurs when:

    A.         The film is reversed after being removed from the film carrier.
    B.         The patient moves while the film is being exposed.
    C.         The patient raises his or her hand while an exposure is being made.
    D.         All metallic or radiodense objects are not removed before the exposure of a panoramic film.
    D. All metallic or radiodense objects are not removed before the exposure of a panoramic film.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. A lead apron _____ a thyroid collar should be used when exposing a panoramic film and the patient should be told to raise the tongue up to
    the _____.

    A.         with; palate
    B.         with; occlusal plane
    C.         without; palate
    D.         without; occlusal plane
    C. without; palate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. A “reverse smile line” is seen on the radiograph if the patient’s:

    A.         Teeth are positioned too far back on the bite-block
    B.         Teeth are positioned too far forward on the bite-block
    C.         Chin is tipped down
    D.         Chin is tipped up
    D. Chin is tipped up
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. An “exaggerated smile line” is seen on the radiograph if the patient’s:

    A.         Chin is tipped down
    B.         Chin is tipped up
    C.         Teeth are positioned too far back on the bite-block
    D.         Teeth are positioned too far forward on the bite-block
    A. Chin is tipped down
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. The anterior teeth on a pan will appear “skinny” if the:

    A.         Chin is tipped down
    B.         Chin is tipped up
    C.         Teeth are positioned too far back on the bite-block
    D.         Teeth are positioned too far forward on the bite-block
    D. Teeth are positioned too far forward on the bite-block
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. The anterior teeth will appear “fat” if the:

    A.         Chin is tipped down
    B.         Chin is tipped up
    C.         Teeth are positioned too far back on the bite-block
    D.         Teeth are positioned too far forward on the bite-block
    C. Teeth are positioned too far back on the bite-block
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. A disadvantage of panoramic dental radiography when contrasted with intraoral dental radiography is:

    A.         The images seen on a panoramic radiograph are not as sharp as those on intraoral radiographs.
    B.         Fewer anatomic structures can be viewed on a panoramic film than on a complete intraoral radiographic series.
    C.         Panoramic radiography results in higher exposure to the patient than intraoral radiography
    D.         The exposure of a panoramic radiograph is readily accepted by the patient because there is no discomfort involved.
    A. The images seen on a panoramic radiograph are not as sharp as those on intraoral radiographs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. 1) All ionizing radiations are harmful and produce biologic changes in living tissue. 2)  The amount of radiation used in dental radiography is small, but ologic damage does occur.

    A.         Both statements are false.
    B.         The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
    C.         Both statements are true.
    D.         The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
    C. Both statments are true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. What specific mechanism of radiation injury may result in the formation of hydrogen peroxide when x-ray energy is absorbed by patient tissues?

    A.         Creation of a magnetic field may cause polarization.
    B.         An ejected high-speed electron may interact with other atoms within absorbing tissues
    C.         Free radical formation created by the ionization of water molecules .
    D.         Unequal charge distribution may result in negative electrical potential.
    C. Free radical formation created by the ionization of water molecules.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. A nonthreshold dose-response curve suggests that:

    a.         Below a threshold amount of radiation, no biologic damage occurs.
    b.         Below a threshold amount of radiation, a safe amount of biologic damage occurs.
    c.         Above a threshold amount of radiation, some biologic damage occurs.
    d.         No matter how small the amount of radiation received, some biologic damage occurs.
    D. No matter how small the amount of radiation recieved, some biologic damage occurs.
  118. 1) More radiation damage takes place with high dose rates, 2) because a rapid delivery of radiation does not allow time
    for cellular damage to be repaired.

    A.         Both statements are true.
    B.         The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
    C.         The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
    D.         Both statements are false.
    A. Both statements are true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. Which types of cells are more sensitive to radiation: (1) rapidly dividing, (2) slowly dividing, (3) young, and/or (4) old?

    A.         1 and 4
    B.         2 and 4
    C.         2 and 3
    D.         1 and 3
    D. 1 and 3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. Which of the following statements is true of somatic effects of irradiation?

    A.         Changes are in the genetic cells of the individual.
    B.         Changes are not transmitted to future generation
    C.         Damage cannot be repaired.
    D.         Mutations occur that affect the health of offspring.
    B. Changes are not transmitted to future generation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. Which of the following types of cells is most radiosensitive?

    A.         Blood
    B.         Bone
    C.         Nerve
    D.         Muscle
    A. Blood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. The SI equivalent of the rem is:

    A.         The rad
    B.         The roentgen
    C.         The gray
    D.         The sievert
    D. The sievert
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. The SI equivalent of the rad is:

    A.         The gray
    B.         The coulomb
    C.         The roentgen
    D.         The sievert
    A. The gray
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. _____ is/are the single largest contributor to artificial radiation exposure .

    A.         Medical radiation
    B.         The nuclear fuel cycle
    C.         Consumer products
    D.         Fallout from atomic weapons
    A. Medical radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. The use of E-speed film instead of D-speed film reduces the absorbed dose by _____ %.

    A.         50
    B.         25
    C.         10
    D.         60
    A. 50
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. The use of F-speed film instead of D-speed film reduces the absorbed dose by ____ %.

    A.         25
    B.         50
    C.         10
    D.         60
    D. 60
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. Which of the following combinations will result in the lowest absorbed dose for the patient from a 20-film series of
    dental radiographs?

    A.         Round collimation with D-speed film
    B.         Round collimation with F-speed film
    C.         Rectangular collimation with F-speed film
    D.         Rectangular collimation with D-speed film
    C. Rectangular collimation with F-speed film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. Inherent filtration in the dental x-ray tubehead:

    A.         Alone meets the standards regulated by state and federal law.
    B.         Includes the placement of aluminum disks in the path of the x-ray beam between the collimator and the tubehead seal.
    C.         Is equivalent to approximately 5.0 mm of aluminum.
    D.         Includes filtration that takes place when the primary beam passes through the glass window of the x-ray tube, the insulating oil, and the tubehead seal.
    D. Includes filtration that takes place when the primart beam passes through the glass window of the x-ray tube, the insulating oil, and the tubehead seal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. State and federal laws require that dental x-ray machines operating above 70 kVp have a minimum total (inherent plus added filtration) of _____ mm of luminum filtration.

    A.         2.5
    B.         5.0
    C.         2.0
    D.         1.5
    A. 2.5
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  130. Using 10 mA with an exposure time of 3 seconds would result in 30 mAs. If the          milliamperage is increased to 15, the time must be decreased to _____ seconds to maintain the same density of the exposed radiograph.

    A.         1
    B.         2
    C.         1.5
    D.         0.5
    B. 2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  131. The collimator:

    A.         Is always round
    B.         Is a solid piece of aluminum
    C.         Is fitted within the copper stem beneath the molybdenum cup
    D.         Restricts the size and shape of the x-ray beam
    D. Restricts the size and shape of the x-ray beam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. A circular collimator produces a cone-shaped beam that is _____ inch(es) in diameter.

    A.         less than 1
    B.         5.0
    C.         2.75
    D.         1.25
    C. 2.75
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  133. A rectangular collimator:

    A.         Restricts the beam more than a circular collimator.
    B.         Restricts the beam less than a circular collimator.
    C.         Both a and c
    D.         Significantly reduces patient exposure.
    C. Both a and c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  134. The primary dictum of operator protection guidelines is that the operator must:

    A.         Remain in the room with the patient while the film is being exposed.
    B.         Hold the tubehead during x-ray exposure.
    C.         Avoid the primary beam.
    D.         Hold the film in the patient’s mouth with their own finger.
    C. Avoid the primary beam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  135. To avoid the primary beam, the dental radiographer must be positioned at a _____-degree to _____-degree angle to the beam.

    A.         45; 90
    B.         135; 180
    C.         90; 135
    D.         0; 45
    B. 135; 180
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  136. Radiation monitoring can be used to protect the dental radiographer and includes monitoring of:

    A.         Both equipment and personnel
    B.         Personnel
    C.         Drywall for residual radiation
    D.         Equipment
    A. Both equipment and personnel
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  137. A film badge:

    A.         Is clipped to the shirt pocket of the operator
    B.         Is clipped to the shirt pocket of the patient
    C.         Is worn at waist level by the operator
    D.         Is worn at waist level by the patient
    C. Is worn at waist level by the patient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  138. According to the current recommendations (2003) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the current MPD for occupationally exposed persons is _____/year.

    A.         5.0 rem
    B.         5000 rem
    C.         500 millirem
    D.         50 rem
    A. 5.0 rem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  139. According to the current recommendations (2003) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the current MPD for occupationally exposed pregnant women is the same as that for:

    A.         A nonoccupationally exposed person
    B.         An occupationally exposed child under 18
    C.         An occupationally exposed nonpregnant women
    D.         An occupationally exposed male
    A. A nonoccupationally exposed person
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  140. The acronym for the permitted lifetime accumulated dose is:

    A.         MAD—maximum allowed dose
    B.         MAD—maximum accumulated dose
    C.         MPD—maximum permissible dose
    D.         MPD—maximum possible dose
    B. MAD-maximum accumulated dose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  141. The ALARA concept states that all radiation must be kept:

    A.         As long as readily achievable
    B.         As low as reasonably allowable
    C.         As long as reliably achievable
    D.         As low as reasonably achievable
    D. As low as reasonably achievable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  142. The halide in dental x-ray film is primarily silver:

    A.         Fluoride
    B.         Iodide
    C.         Bromide
    D.         Chloride
    C. Bromide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  143. The latent image is stored by the _____ in dental x-ray film.

    A.         film base
    B.         adhesive layer
    C.         silver halide crystals
    D.         gelatin
    C. Silver halide crystals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  144. The invisible pattern of stored energy on the exposed film is called the:

    A.         Emulsion
    B.         X-ray photon
    C.         Variable density pattern
    D.         Latent image
    D. Latent image
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  145. Which of the following types of dental x-ray film is placed inside the mouth?

    A.         Intraoral film
    B.         Duplicating film
    C.         Extraoral film
    D.         Screen film
    A. Intraoral film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  146. A two-film packet requires _____ exposure time as a one-film packet.

    A.         twice the
    B.         four times the
    C.         half the
    D.         the same
    D. The same
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  147. The identification dot is used to:

    A.         Determine film orientation in mounting.
    B.         Identify whether the film is D-speed film or F-speed film.
    C.         Identify whether or not a film has been exposed.
    D.         Indicate the side of the film with an emulsion.
    A. Determine film orientation in mounting.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  148. What is the purpose of the lead foil sheet found within the film packet?

    A.         To shield the film from secondary backscattered radiation.
    B.         To protect the film from moisture.
    C.         To shield the film from primary radiation emitted by the x-ray tubehead.
    D.         To cover the film and shield the film from light.
    A. To shield the film from secondary backscattered radiation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  149. The embossed pattern placed on the lead foil sheet by the manufacturer will reveal:

    A.         Whether or not the film has been exposed
    B.         If the film packet is inadvertently opened before the film is processed
    C.         If the film packet is inadvertently positioned in the mouth backward and then exposed
    D.         If the film has been exposed to moisture
    C. If the film packet is inadvertently positioned in the mouth backward and then exposed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  150. The tube side of the dental film packet:

    A.         Is color-coded
    B.         Should face the patient’s tongue
    C.         Is solid white
    D.         Has the flap used to open the dental film
    C. Is solid white
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  151. The apex (tip) of the tooth roots may be seen on which type(s) of intraoral film?

    A.         Bite-wing
    B.         Occlusal
    C.         Periapical and occlusal
    D.         Periapical
    D. Periapical
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  152. Which type of intraoral film is best for visualizing interproximal surfaces?

    A.         Bite-wing
    B.         Periapical
    C.         Occlusal
    D.         Periapical and occlusal
    A. Bite-wing
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. Which type of intraoral film is best for examination of large areas of the maxilla or mandible?

    A.         Bite-wing
    B.         Periapical and occlusal
    C.         Occlusal
    D.         Periapical
    C. Occlusal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. A fast film responds more quickly than a slow film, because:

    A.         Different processing chemistry is used.
    B.         The tubehead shutter opens wider.
    C.         The silver halide crystals in the emulsion are larger
    D.         The exposure times are longer for fast films.
    C. The silver halide crystals in the emulsion are larger
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. Which of the following types of film exhibits the bony and soft tissue areas of the facial profile and is used in orthodontics?

    A.         Periapical
    B.         Panoramic
    C.         Bite-wing
    D.         Cephalometric
    D. Cephalometric
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. Which of the following types of film shows a wide view of the upper and lower jaws on a single radiograph?

    A.         Bite-wing
    B.         Panoramic
    C.         Periapical
    D.         Cephalometric
    B. Panoramic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. Screen film:

    A.         Is sensitive to fluorescent light
    B.         Is sensitive to direct exposure to radiation
    C.         Requires more exposure time than nonscreen film
    D.         Is not recommended for use in dentistry
    A. Is sensitive to fluorescent light
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. Blue-sensitive screen film must be paired with screens that produce _____ light.

    A.         blue
    B.         red
    C.         yellow
    D.         green
    A. Blue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  159. 1) An intensifying screen is a device that transfers x-ray energy into visible light; 2) the visible light, in turn, exposes the screen film.

    A.         Both statements are true.
    B.         Both statements are false.
    C.         The first statement is true; the second is false.
    D.         The first statement is false; the second is true.
    A. Both statments are true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. Rare earth screens:

    A.         Have phosphors that emit green light
    B.         Are less efficient than calcium tungstate intensifying screens
    C.         Have phosphors that emit blue light
    D.         Are slower than calcium tungstate intensifying screens
    A. Have phosphors that emit green light
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. Duplicating film:

    A.         Both a and c
    B.         Is not exposed to x-rays
    C.         Has an emulsion on one side only
    D.         Has an emulsion on both sides
    A. Both a and c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. Film is best stored in an area that is:

    A.         Exposed to radiation
    B.         Hot
    C.         Cool and dry
    D.         Humid
    C. Cool and dry
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. Radiographic density is defined as:

    A.         A radiopaque radiograph
    B.         The overall blackness or darkness of a radiograph
    C.         The difference in degrees of blackness between adjacent areas on a dental radiograph
    D.         A radiolucent radiograph
    B. The overall blackness or darkness of a radiograph
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. Radiographic contrast is defined as:

    A.         The overall blackness or darkness of a radiograph
    B.         A radiopaque radiograph
    C.         A radiolucent radiograph
    D.         The difference in degrees of blackness between adjacent areas on a dental radiograph
    D.  The difference in degrees of blackness between adjacent areas on a dental radiograph
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. Radiolucent refers to that portion of a processed radiograph that is:

    A.         Gray
    B.         White
    C.         Black
    D.         Coated with an emulsion
    C. Black
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. Radiopaque refers to that portion of a processed radiograph that is:

    A.         White
    B.         Gray
    C.         Black
    D.         Within the plastic base
    A. White
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. A radiograph that has _____ is said to have low contrast.

    A.         many shades of gray
    B.         very dark areas and very light areas
    C.         a very dark overall appearance
    D.         a very light overall appearance
    A. Many shades of gray
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  168. A radiograph that has _____ is said to have high contrast.

    A.         a very light overall appearance
    B.         many shades of gray
    C.         very dark areas and very light areas
    D.         a very dark overall appearance
    C. Very dark areas and very light areas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  169. An increase in _____ temperature will result in a film with increased density.

    A.         room
    B.         water bath
    C.         development
    D.         fixer
    C. Development
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. When a high operating kilovoltage peak (>90kVp) is used, (low/high) subject contrast and (many shades of gray/areas of black and white) are seen on the radiograph.

    A.         low subject contrast; areas of black and white
    B.         low subject contrast; many shades of gray
    C.         high subject contrast; areas of black and white
    D.         high subject contrast; many shades of gray
    B. Low subject contrast; many shades of gray
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  171.  To minimize dimensional distortion, the object and film must be _____ one another.

    A.         parallel to
    B.         at a 45-degree angle to
    C.         perpendicular to
    D.         more than the length of the PID apart from
    A. Parallel to
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  172. To answer questions about the necessity of dental x-ray films, tell the patient:

    A.         All diseases and conditions produce signs and symptoms that render x-ray films unnecessary.
    B.         Tooth decay, gum disease, cysts, and tumors all can be detected eventually simply by looking in the mouth.
    C.         They are an option, not a necessity.
    D.         There are many diseases and conditions that cannot be detected simply by looking into the mouth.
    D. There are many diseases and conditions that cannot be detected simply by looking into the mouth.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  173. Decisions about the number, type, and frequency of dental x-rays are determined by the _____ based on the patient’s individual needs.

    A.         dental assistant
    B.         dental hygienist
    C.         dentist
    D.         insurance company
    C. Dentist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  174. The time interval between radiographic examinations for children should be based on:

    A.         Their age
    B.         The individual needs of the child
    C.         A 12-month interval for bite-wing films
    D.         A 6-month interval for bite-wing films
    B. The individual needs of the child
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  175. According to the “Guidelines for Prescribing Dental Radiographs,” dental x-ray procedures _____ because of pregnancy.

    A.         should be limited to emergency care
    B.         do not need to be altered
    C.         should be minimized
    D.         must be avoided
    B. Do not need to be altered
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. Original dental radiographs are the property of:

    A.         The government
    B.         The patient
    C.         Both patient and dentist
    D.         The dentist
    D. The dentist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. Exposed films should _____ dried and then placed in a _____ for transport to the darkroom for processing.

    A.         be; disposable container
    B.         be; gloved hand
    C.         not be; disposable container
    D.         not be; gloved hand
    A. Be; disposable container
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  178. When handling film with barrier envelopes, the barrier envelopes are opened with ____ hands and the films unwrapped with _____ hands.

    A.         nongloved; nongloved
    B.         gloved; gloved
    C.         gloved; nongloved
    D.         nongloved; gloved
    C. Gloved; nongloved
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. The target is made of:

    A.         copper
    B.         tungsten
    C.         aluminum
    D.         lead
    B. Tungsten
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  180. According to the text, size 1 film is always positioned with the long portion of the film in a _____ direction, and size 2
    film is always positioned with the long portion of the film in a ____ direction.

    A.         horizontal; vertical
    B.         vertical; horizontal
    C.         vertical; vertical
    D.         horizontal; horizontal
    B. Vertical; horizontal 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  181. Anterior film placements are less likely to cause the patient to gag. Once the gag reflex is stimulated, the patient may gag on films that could normally be tolerated.

    A.         The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
    B.         Both statements are true.
    C.         Both statements are false.
    D.         The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
    B. Both statements are true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  182. Radiation is defined as:

    A.         A beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on photographic film.
    B.         A high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube.
    C.         A branch of medicine that deals with the use of x-rays.
    D.         A form of energy carried by waves or streams of particles.
    A. A beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on photographic film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  183. A radiograph is defined as:

    A.         A beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on photographic film.
    B.         The art and science of making radiographs by the exposure of film to x-rays.
    C.         A form of energy carried by waves or a stream of particles.
    D.         A picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body.
    D. A picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  184. Which of the following statements is true regarding the importance of dental radiographs?

    A.         An oral examination with dental radiographs limits the practitioner to what is seen clinically.
    B.         All dental diseases and conditions produce clinical signs and symptoms.
    C.         Many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental radiographs.
    D.         Dental radiographs are not a necessary component of comprehensive patient care
    C. Many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental radiographs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  185. Which of the following statements is/are true of ionizing radiation?

    A.         It may be classified as to whether it is particulate or electromagnetic radiation.
    B.         Both a and c.
    C.         It is strictly an electromagnetic radiation and does not involve particles that have mass.
    D.         It is radiation that is capable of producing ions by removing or adding an electron to an atom.
    B. Both a and c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  186. Electromagnetic radiations:

    A.         Include x-rays and visible light.
    B.         Are a form of particulate radiation.
    C.         Are entirely man-made.
    D.         Have mass.
    A. Include x-rays and visible light
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  187. Which of the following forms of electromagnetic radiation are capable of ionization?

    A.         Ultraviolet light
    B.         Radio waves
    C.         X-rays
    D.         Visible light
    C. X-rays
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  188. Which component of the tubehead aims and shapes the x-ray beam?

    A.         Position-indicating device
    B.         Metal housing
    C.         Aluminum disks
    D.         Tubehead seal
    A. Position-indicating device
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  189. Which transformer in the x-ray machine is used to increase the voltage from the incoming 110- or 220-line voltage to the 65,000 to 100,000 volts required?

    A.         Step-up transformer
    B.         Autotransformer
    C.         Step-down transformer
    D.         Both a and c
    A. Step-up transformer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  190. Thermionic emission of electrons occurs at the:

    A.         Molybdenum cup
    B.         Tungsten filament in the anode
    C.         Tungsten filament in the cathode
    D.         Copper stem
    C. Tungsten filament in the Cathode
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  191. Approximately what percentage of the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted to x-rays at the anode?

    A.         50%
    B.         100%
    C.         25%
    D.         Less than 1%
    D. Less than 1%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  192. The lead collimator:

    A.         Filters the longer wavelength x-rays from the beam.
    B.         Permits a small number of x-rays to exit from the x-ray tube.
    C.         Restricts the size of the x-ray beam.
    D.         Carries away the heat produced during the production of x-rays.
    C. Restricts the size of the x-ray beam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  193. Which form of the x-ray beam is most detrimental to the patient and operator?

    A.         Primary radiation
    B.         Useful beam
    C.         Scatter radiation
    D.         Secondary radiation
    C. Scatter radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  194. In dental radiography, the term _____ is used to describe the energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.

    A.         quality
    B.         quantity
    C.         wavelength
    D.         intensity
    A. Quality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  195. When the voltage is increased:

    A.         Electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
    B.         Photons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
    C.         Electrons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
    D.         Photons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
    A. Electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  196. When kilovolt peak is increased, a:

    A.         Higher energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.
    B.         Lower energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
    C.         Higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
    D.         Lower energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.
    C. Higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  197. The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by:

    A.         Voltage
    B.         Kilovoltage peak
    C.         Kilovoltage
    D.         Milliamperage
    D. Milliamperage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  198. Milliamperage regulates the _____ of electrons produced at the cathode filament.

    A.         quantity
    B.         power
    C.         quality
    D.         speed
    A. Quantity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  199. Milliampere-seconds (mAs) is a combination of milliamperes and:

    A.         Voltage
    B.         Contrast
    C.         Exposure time
    D.         Density
    C. Exposure time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  200. Aluminum filters are used to remove _____-energy, _____ wavelength x-rays.

    A.         low; longer
    B.         high; longer
    C.         high; shorter
    D.         low; shorter
    A. Low; longer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  201. When overlapped contacts appear on film, the cause is:

    A.         An underexposed film
    B.         Incorrect horizontal angulation
    C.         Incorrect vertical angulation
    D.         A dropped film corner
    B. Incorrect horizontal angulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  202. Short teeth with blunted roots (foreshortening) appear on the film when:

    A.         The vertical angulation is excessive.
    B.         The horizontal angulation is incorrect.
    C.         There is a cone-cut.
    D.         The vertical angulation is insufficient.
    A. The vertical angulation is excessive.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  203. What kind of safelight can be used with a pan?

    a.         red
    b.         yellow
    A. Red
  204. All processing solutions are interchangeable. They can be used with any type of processor, manual or automatic.

    a.         true
    b.         false
    B. False
  205. Children are more susceptible to damage from equal doses of x-rays than are adults because:

    A.         their epithelium is more sensitive and repair is less rapid
    B.         a child has less bone tissue
    C.         children are more active
    D.         a child’s cells are reproducing more rapidly
    e.         none of the above--children are not actually more susceptible
    D. A child's cells are reproducing more rapidly
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  206. A radiation-detecting badge is essential for use in the dental office and in our own radiographic clinic situation to:

    A.         protect the x-ray machine from overheating
    B.         reduce the exposure of the patient to radiation
    C.         estimate the radiation absorbed by the wearer
    D.         protect the wearer from radiation exposure
    e.         all of the above
    C. Estimate the radiation absorbed by the wearer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  207. Which of the following is/are correct about the characteristics of x-rays?

    1.         travel at the speed of light
    2.         carry a positive charge
    3.         affect photographic film
    4.         have no mass

    A.         1 and 3
    B.         1, 3, and 4
    C.         2 and 3
    d.         all of the above
    B. 1, 3, and 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  208. Using Clark’s rule (The slob rule)  if an object image moves in the opposite direction of the tube shift, then the object
    is located on the:

    A.         buccal
    B.         mesial
    C.         distal
    D.         lingual
    A. Buccal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  209. How many impulses of x-rays are there in 1/6 of a second?

    A.         60
    B.         15
    C.         10
    D.         90
    E.         30
    C. 10
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  210. X-rays are generated by:

    A.         electrons striking the target
    B.         electrons striking the patient
    C.         the propelling of electrons
    D.         the formation of electrons
    E.         electrons striking the copper stem
    A. Electrons striking the target
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  211. Self-rectification means that:

    A.         x-rays are produced during the whole electrical cycle
    B.         x-rays are produced any time electrons are present and the x-ray machine is turned on
    C.         x-rays are produced only when the electrical cycle is going from (-) cathode to (+) anode
    D.         x-rays are produced only when the electrical cycle is going from (+) anode to (-) cathode
    C. X-rays are produced only when the electrical cycle is going from (-) cathode to (+) anode
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  212. The contrast of the radiograph is determined by the:

    A.         b and c
    B.         kVp
    C.         time
    D.         a and b
    E.         ma
    B. kVp
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  213. Adjustments in exposure time are made in order to control the:

    A.         penetrating power of the radiation
    B.         contrast of the film
    C.         density of the film
    D.         speed of the electrons
    C. Density of the film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  214. Which of the following measures the absorbed dose of radiation?

    A.         The gray
    B.         The roentgen
    C.         The coulomb
    D.         The sievert
    A. The gray
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  215. Which of the following measures the biological effect of a dose of radiation?

    A.         The roentgen
    B.         The coulomb
    C.         The sievert
    D.         The gray
    C. The sievert
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  216. High scale(short scale) contrast is achieved by:

    A.         decreasing the mAs
    B.         decreasing the kVp
    C.         increasing the kVp
    D.         increasing the mAs
    B. Decreasing the kVp
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  217. A low contrast (long scale) image may be produced by using a:

    A.         high mA
    B.         low kVp
    C.         low mA
    D.         high kVp
    D. High kVp
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  218. To correct a foreshortened image, the _________ angulation is ____________.

    A.         vertical, decreased
    B.         horizontal, decreased
    C.         horizontal, increased
    D.         vertical, increased
    A. Vertical, decreased
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  219. If an operator wants to change from short-scale contrast to long-scale contrast and maintain the same density, what should be done?

    A.         decrease the kVp, and increase the mA or time
    B.         increase the kVp, and decrease the mA or time
    C.         decrease the kVp, and the or time
    D.         increase the kVp and or time
    B. Increase the kVp, and decrease the mA or time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  220. Bisecting the angle technique satisfies which of the following principles of shadow casting?

    A.         long source to object distance
    B.         film parallel to object
    C.         short object to film distance
    D.         the central ray is perpendicular to the film
    C. Short object to film distance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  221. Bisecting is called the __________cone technique.

    a.         long
    b.         short
    B. Short
  222. Paralleling is called the __________cone technique.

    a.         long
    b.         short
    A. Long
  223. The mA circuit goes from the:

    A.         step-up transfer to the cathode
    B.         step-up transfer to the filament wire
    C.         step-down transformer to the filament wire
    D.         step-down transformer to the cathode
    C. Step-down transformer to the filament wire
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  224. All of the following are principles of shadow casting except:

    A.         large source of radiation
    B.         short object to film distance
    C.         parallelism of subject and film
    D.         large source to object distance.
    A. Large source of radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  225. When an electron is stopped by the nucleus, the x-rays produced are termed bremsstrahlung radiation.

    a.         true
    b.         false
    A. True
  226. Which is the correct order for manually processing radiographs?

    A.            Develop, wash, fix, wash, dry
    B.            Fix,develop, wash, dry
    C.            Fix, wash, develop, wash, dry
    D.            Develop, fix, wash, dry
    A. Develop, wash, fix, wash, dry
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  227. A film developed for 3 minutes must be fixed for_________minutes.

    A.         6
    B.         10
    C.         3
    D.         12
    B. 10
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  228. If the temperature of the developing solution is slightly below normal, radiographs of the required density may be obtained by a:

    A.         shorter developing time
    B.         longer developing time
    C.         shorter fixing time
    D.         longer fixing time
    B. Longer developing time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  229. The optimum time and temperature for developing is:

    A.         6 minutes at 70 degrees
    B.         4 minutes at 68 degrees
    C.         4 minutes at 65 degrees
    D.         5 minutes at 65 degrees
    E.         5 minutes at 68 degrees
    E. 5 minutes at 68 degrees
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  230. Sodium thiosulfate or hyposulfate :

    A.         controls activity of developing agents
    B.         shrinks and hardens the emulsion   
    C.         softens and swells the emulsion
    D.         removes unexposed silver halide crystals
    D. Removes unexposed silver halide crystals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  231. What chemical is a presertative and prevents the developer and fixer from oxidizing and thereby prolongs longevity of the
    solutions ?

    A.         potassium alum
    B.         sodium hyposulfate
    C.         sodiumnitrate
    D.         sodium carbonate
    E.         sodium sulfite

     
    E. Sodium sulfite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  232. Agitating the film prevents air bubbles from adhering to the film while in the dip tank.

    a.         true
    b.         false
    A. True
  233. The chemical that shrinks and hardens the emulsion is:

    A.         potassium alum
    B.         sodium carbonate
    C.         acetic acid
    D.         potassium bromide
    E.         sodium hyposulfate
    A. Potassium alum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  234. Which of the following does not affect the life of the processing solutions?

    A.         accuracy in preparation
    B.         number of films processed
    C.         size of films processed
    D.         cleanliness of tank
    E.         temperature of solutions
    ab.       all of the above effect the longevity 
    AD. All of the above effect the longevity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  235. A major difference between automatic and manual processing of radiographs is thatautomatic processing:

    A.         produces more better quality films
    B.         is more expensive
    C.         allows more latitude in exposure techniques
    D.         requires higher concentrated solutions at higher temperatures
    D. Requires higher concentrated solutions at higher temperatures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  236. The chemical that reduces the exposed silver halide crystals is:

    A.         sodium carbonate
    B.         hydroquinone
    C.         acetic acid
    d          potassium bromide
    e        sodium hyposulfate
    B. Hydroquinone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  237. A safelight with a red filter (GBX2)can be used for________.

    A.         both intraoral and extraoral films 
    B.         intraoral films only
    C.         extraoral films only
    A. Both intraoral and extraoral films
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  238. A safelight with a yellow filter (ML2) can be used for________.

    A.         both intraoral and exraoral films
    B.         extraoral films only
    C.         intraoral films only
    C. Intraoral films only
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  239. The safelight should be located a minimum of ________from the counter.

    A.         2 feet
    B.         3 feet
    C.         5 feet
    D.         4 feet
    E.         6 feet
    D. 4 feet
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  240. Which of the following are purposes of the fixing solution in processing radiographs?
    1.         soften emulsion
    2.         hardenemulsion
    3.         reduce exposed silver halide salts
    4.         remove undeveloped silver halide salts

    A.         1 and 3
    B.         2 and 4
    C.         2 and 3
    D.         1 and 4
    C. 2 and 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  241. Which of the following are purposes of the developing solution in processing radiographs?
    1.         soften emulsion
    2.         harden emulsion
    3.         reduce exposed silver halide salts
    4.         remove undeveloped silver halide salts

    A.         1 and 4
    B.         1 and 3
    C.         2 and 3          
    B. 1 and 3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  242. What is the sign of exhausted fixing solution?

    A.         a milky coating on the film
    B.         a thin faded image
    C.         a yellow brown film
    D.         fogging
    E.         a green film
    A. A milky coating on the film
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  243. What is the sign of exhausted developer solution?

    A.         a milky coating on the film
    B.         fogging
    C.         a thin faded image
    D.         a green film
    E.         a yellow brown film
    C. A thin faded image
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  244. Insufficient washing or fixing  will produce a:

    A.         thin, faded image
    B.         fogging          
    C.         dark image
    D.         dense radiograph
    E.         yellow, brown image
    E. Yellow, brown image
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  245. Duplicating film:

    A.   Is not exposed to x-rays
    B.   Both a and c
    C.   Has an emulsion on one side only
    D.   Has an emulsion on both sides
    B. Both a and c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  246. What is ionization?

    A.         cell death takes place
    B.         photons penetrate matter
    C.         an electron is displaced from the orbit of an atom
    D.         radiant energy is converted into heat
    C. An electron is displace from the orbit of an atom
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  247. Nasal septum radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiopaque
  248. Nasal fossae radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiolucent
  249. Median palatine suture radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiolucent
  250. Mental foramen radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiolucent
  251. Mandibular canal radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiolucent
  252. Genial tubercle radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiopaque
  253. Hamular process radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiopaque
  254. Anterior nasal spine radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiopaque
  255. Zygomatic process radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiopaque
  256. Maxillary sinus radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiolucent
  257. Lingual foramen radiolucent or radiopaque?
    Radiolucent

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