Endocrine glands secret product into blood and do not
Which of the following are not types of tissue:
What is considered a type of connective tissue:
blood, bone, tendon, fat
What is negative feedback?
When a variable moves away from a set point the body moves it back to the set point.
Oxytocin causes an increased contraction which causes an increase of Oxytocin is an example of
An amino acid is a monomer for
Phospholipids are considered
Phosphate is hydrophilic fatty acid and so it is also
In 2 glucose molecules from together via dehydration synthesis there is local disaccharide and what other small molecule:
Pancreas secretes multiple protein hormones and enzymes. Based only on this information what organelle would you expect to see a great abundance of pancreatic tissue?
Which of the following bases is not considered apremadine
Translation is MRNA being converted into
Transcription is DNA being converted into
DNA being converted into protein is
Which molecule used in the creation of protein recognizing codon recognizes the codon on MRNA and is also physically bound on the amino acids
What is the breakdown of the molecule
Anabolism is the synthesis of a
Which of the following is not affecting an enzymes reaction rate
all of the above
Glycolysis takes place in the
Which step in the metabolism of glucose takes ACH and produces electron barrier Co2 and ATP?
According to the lecture how many ATP a recreated in phosphorylation
. … acid is broken down by beta oxidation into ACH which can then be plugged into the
If you hold your breath as long as you can the result is a small increase in blood co2 concentration. What would be the effect on blood pH and on the h+ concentration?
If co2 increases, h+ increases and ph decreases
If a molecule X moves across a membrane from low concentration of X to a low concentration of X it is
. 2 solutions are placed in a beaker and separated by a membrane permeable to potassium and you let it set for 5 mins the concentration of h+ and potassium
will be equal
Which is Isotonic to body fluids
. In the last 15 years or some there’re have been a handful of reported cases in which people died from drinking too much water. How is this possible?
Too much water taken into the body causes the body to become hypotonic and causes the cell to swell.
. t-cells with no extracellular signals involved Which of the following protein structure would you expect to find present in both of these cells?
Conexons are part of the gap junctions and results no extracellular signal is gap junctions that allow communication
eyrotheropoetean released from kidneys and travels through the blood and the receptors on the stem cells this would be endocrine messaging aka hormonaldopamine epinephrine or norepinephrine is what type of chemical messenger
smooth muscle cell needs to send a signal to another cell it will create a fast nearly immediate response by using:
steroid hormones are lipophilic and will bind to receptors in 2 possible places:
nucleus or cytoplasm
Activation of g protein coupled receptors can elicit multiple responses in the target cells can do
Schwan cells are glial cells in the
Normal neuron in the human body has the resting membrane potential of
-50 to -55
In terms of all cells hypo-polarized is
Sensory signal goes through an
Motor signals go through
Sodium potassium & ATPase will pump ___
against the concentration gradient against its concentration gradient into the cell the potassium
What is the most influential ion in resting membrane potential
potassium because of the linked channels.
If you artificially add potassium into the extracellular environment this will
have a drastic effect. It will result in a strong hypo-polarization and result in depolarization.
If the following drugs are toxins it causes a single action potential
The volume that would cause hyper polarization in a resting membrane
increasing the potassium leak channels.
Assuming normal physicaloigical conditions movement of sodium down its concentration gradient moves always goes
outside to in
Which ion channel is responsible for repolarization
potassium voltage gated
During a relative refractory period what is the main reason a stronger signal is required to enable the cell to reach threshold:
Potassium is more permeable during the relative refractory period than at rest.
What is the main determining factor discerning which ion will have the greatest influence
What ion is most important during the depolarization
sodium due to the voltage gated channels
Of the following steps of the excitatory synaptic transmission or form earliest to latest:
3. action potential on presynaptic neuron. 1. Opening the voltage gated channels binding the ligand
Signaling the synapse can go
in only one direction
What mechanism ensures ACH released from the synaptic cliff
all of the above
IPSP will result in which of the following
opening of the sodium channel
. 4 Neurons all synapse on the neuron resulting in a Hyperpolarization membrane.
Inhibitory spatial summation.
Which of the following is not considered a part of the autonomic nervous system
When would the sympathetic most likely be activated?
While fighting a bear
When would the parasympathetic NS most likely be activated
after a thanksgiving dinner
What would not be the result of parasympathetic NS activation
increased heart rate
Where is the majority of the blood delivered in a parasympathetic response?
Chromatin cells are in the adrenal medulla and release
Albuterol is a drug prescribed to patients who have asthma. What receptor is activated?
Which of the following is a result of beta one lnergic receptor
Beta one is increased heart rate
What type of receptor is located on cell body o post ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic and sympathetic receptors of the f the autonomic NS
Which of the following are classified as cholinergic receptor
nicotinic and muslerinic cholinergic
After taking the drug inhibit the parasympathetic NS by blocking musolerinic receptors. The pt suffered from which of the following and What side effects might they have.
help with severe heart burn and increased heart rate
The ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of stability within its internal
environment when dealing with external changes.
Example: man-made pollution causes global warming.
Are a daily rhythmic change in behavior or physiological process
1. Find the mean (add all #;s and divide
by the total count of #’s)
2. Subtract mean from every #
3. Square the mean from every #
4. Add all #’s together
5. Divide by one less than the total #
6. Obtain the square root
Function of Biruet reagent
Reacts with proteins to determine its concentration in a solution
Factors that affect diffusion
Permeable solutes do not affect tonicity across a semi-permeable membrane
If you took a RBC and placed it in a beaker with water from the Great Salt Lake, the RBC would...
If a RBC is placed in a hypotonic solution , then water will...
flow into the cell
If a RBC is placed in a hypertonic solution, then water will...
flow out of the cell
If nothing hinders the movement of a solute...
it will diffuse until it reaches equilibrium
If nothing hinders the movement of a solute...
it will diffuse until it reaches equilibrium
*Higher concentration of solutes outside the
*Water moves out of the cell
*lower concentration of solutes outside the cell
*water moves into the cell
Which way will water flow across a membrane?
High to low concentration
How to solve for molarity and osmolarity
%=Grams/100 ml * 1 mole/58grams * 1000 ml/1 liter = moles/liter *2 if NaCl or 3 if MgCl2
If you place two solutions with different osmolarities into a beaker with a semi-permeable membrane, towards which solution will the water flow, the higher or lower osmolarity solution?
If you place RBC in a solution with a low solute
the solution will appear clear
Buffering has no affect on enzyme activity
Is used to detect the presence of starch
Is used to detect the presence of maltose
Sequence of steps in an ELISA
Antigen, serum, antibody-linked enzyme, substrate
Purpose of the enzyme linked to the antibody
It catalyzes the conversion of a colorless substrate to a colored product
increases the number of motor units in muscle contractions
increases the rate of stimulus in muscle contractions
A steady state of contraction when muscles are stimulated at high frequencies
Four events of a muscle twitch
How is the release of thyroxine controlled
It is controlled by the pituitary gland which secretes TSH. This is carried by the blood to the thyroid gland and causes the thyroid to produce more thyroxine.
Breaking up compounds
generating complex compounds amino acids
Function of estrogen and where it’s produced
Produced in the ovaries Estrogen enables the endometrium of the uterus to grow and develop so that the uterus may receive fertilized eggs for implantation
Function of insulin
It is vital to the regulation of blood glucose levels because it enables the body’s cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
body does not make insulin. Autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency.
Type II Diabetes Mellitus
body makes insulin but does not respond to it. it is unable to be absorbed through the cells
120 mm Hg
80 mm Hg
The lowest pressure of the larger arteries during ventricular relaxation
When the diastolic pressure remains elevated, above 90 to 100 mm Hg
Cardiac output is not divided evenly among the areas of the body
Type A: has A antigens, creates Anti-B antibody, agglutinate with A antiserum.
Type B: has B antigents, creates Anti-A antibody, agglutinate with B antiserum.
Type AB: has A & B antigens, Crates no antibodyagglutinate with a & b antiserum.
Type O: has no antigens, Creates both A & B antibodies, agglutinates with neither.
H+ ions readily combine non-enzymatically with bicarbonate ions that are available in the blood to form
carbonic anhydrase is produced in the ____ & _____ and triggers_________to convert ___________________________________
carbonic anhydrase is produced in the RBC and the kidney tubule cells. It triggers Carbonic Acid to convert to water by binding the H+ ions into a molecule with a pH of 7 and CO2 that is eliminated during expiration from the lungs.
Bicarbonate Ion carbonic acid
Function of hemoglobin
The major component of hemoglobin, the O2 carrying pigment in red blood cells, is protein. All proteins are charged molecules and are capable of absorbing H+ ions. Thus, the hemoglobin found in RBCs also act as a buffer.
what you breath into to create spirogram
Tidal Volume (TV):
the volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV):
the volume of air that can be inspired above the normal tidal volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
the volume of air that can be expired by forced expiration after normal tidal expiration.
Residual Volume (RV):
the volume of air remaining in lungs after forceful expiration. The RV is necessary to allow continuous diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the capillaries
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
Tidal + Inspiratory Reserve (TV+IRV).
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC):
Expiratory Reserve + Residual Volume
Vital Capacity (VC):
The volume of air expired from maximal inspiration to maximal expiration or the volume of air inspired from maximal expiration to maximal inspiration (VC=IRV+TV+ERV).
Total Lung Capacity (TLC):
the sum of the inspiratory reserve, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume (TLC=IRV+TV+ERV+RV).
the liberation of energy from glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to form ATP at the cellular level, hence,
External Environment Respiration
the process by which the blood becomes oxygenated and releases carbon dioxide via the lungs.
The primary functions of the kidneys are
The kidneys filter the blood plasma. Blood components that are not filtered are RBCs, WBCs, platelets and most plasma proteins.
from tube to blood
Some of the components of plasma that are reabsorbed are ions (Na+, K+, Ca++), water, glucose, amino acids, etc
blood to tube :waste products
Some products that are secreted are urea, creatinine, and hydrogen ions
The kidneys produce a hormone, erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of RBCs in the bone marrow.
Sequential order of blood passing through nephron
U shaped loop
cluster of blood vessels
hollow tube surrounding the glomerulus
empties into a collecting duct
The collecting ducts from the various nephrons merge together, and ultimately empty into the bladder
antidiuretic hormone, reabsorption of water
Urinalysis of an untreated diabetic
Glucose in urine, protein, ketones, density, specific gravity