SLCC Physio Lab Final

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SLCC Physio Lab Final
2013-02-18 23:56:47
SLCC Physio

SLCC Physio final
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  1. Endocrine glands secret product into blood and do not
    have ducts
  2. Which of the following are not types of tissue:
  3. What is considered a type of connective tissue:
    blood, bone, tendon, fat
  4. What is negative feedback?
    When a variable moves away from a set point the body moves it back to the set point.
  5. Oxytocin causes an increased contraction which causes an increase of Oxytocin is an example of
    Positive feedback
  6. An amino acid is a monomer for
  7. Phospholipids are considered
  8. Phosphate is hydrophilic fatty acid and so it is also
  9. In 2 glucose molecules from together via dehydration synthesis there is local disaccharide and what other small molecule:
  10. Pancreas secretes multiple protein hormones and enzymes.  Based only on this information what organelle would you expect to see a great abundance of pancreatic tissue?
    Rough ER
  11. Which of the following bases is not considered apremadine
  12. Translation is MRNA being converted into
    a protein
  13. Transcription is DNA being converted into
  14. DNA being converted into protein is
    protein synthesis
  15. Which molecule used in the creation of protein recognizing codon recognizes the codon on MRNA and is also physically bound on the amino acids
  16. What is the breakdown of the molecule
  17. Anabolism is the synthesis of a
  18. Which of the following is not affecting an enzymes reaction rate
    all of the above
  19. Glycolysis takes place in the
  20. Which step in the metabolism of glucose takes ACH and produces electron barrier Co2 and ATP?
    Krebs cycle
  21. According to the lecture how many ATP a recreated in phosphorylation
  22. . … acid is broken down by beta oxidation into ACH which can then be plugged into the
    Krebs cycle
  23. If you hold your breath as long as you can the result is a small increase in blood co2 concentration.  What would be the effect on blood pH and on the h+ concentration?
    If co2 increases,  h+ increases and ph decreases
  24. If a molecule X moves across a membrane from low concentration of X to a low concentration of X it is
    Active Transport
  25. . 2 solutions are placed in a beaker and separated by a membrane permeable to potassium and you let it set for 5 mins the concentration of h+ and potassium
    will be equal
  26. Which is Isotonic to body fluids
    9% nacl
  27. . In the last 15 years or some there’re have been a handful of reported cases in which people died from drinking too much water.  How is this possible?
    Too much water taken into the body causes the body to become hypotonic and causes the cell to swell.
  28. Pinocytosis:
  29. Phagocytosis
  30. . t-cells with no extracellular signals involved Which of the following protein structure would you expect to find present in both of these cells?
    Conexons are part of the gap junctions and results no extracellular signal is gap junctions that allow communication
  31. eyrotheropoetean released from kidneys and travels through the blood and the receptors on the stem cells this would be endocrine messaging aka hormonaldopamine epinephrine or norepinephrine is what type of chemical messenger
  32. smooth muscle cell needs to send a signal to another cell it will create a fast nearly immediate response by using:
    gap junctions
  33. steroid hormones are lipophilic and will bind to receptors in 2 possible places:
    nucleus or cytoplasm
  34. Activation of g protein coupled receptors can elicit multiple responses in the target cells can do
  35. Schwan cells are glial cells in the
  36. Normal neuron in the human body has the resting membrane potential of
  37. Threshold is:
    -50 to -55
  38. In terms of all cells hypo-polarized is
  39. Sensory signal goes through an
    afferent neuron
  40. Motor signals go through
  41. Sodium potassium & ATPase will pump ___
    against the concentration gradient against its concentration gradient into the cell the potassium
  42. What is the most influential ion in resting membrane potential
    potassium because of the linked channels.
  43. If you artificially add potassium into the extracellular environment this will
    have a drastic effect.  It will result in a strong hypo-polarization and result in depolarization.
  44. If the following drugs are toxins it causes a single action potential
  45. The volume that would cause hyper polarization in a resting membrane
    increasing the potassium leak channels.
  46. Assuming normal physicaloigical conditions movement of sodium down its concentration gradient moves always goes
    outside to in
  47. Which ion channel is responsible for repolarization
    potassium voltage gated
  48. During a relative refractory period what is the main reason a stronger signal is required to enable the cell to reach threshold:
    Potassium is more permeable during the relative refractory period than at rest.
  49. What is the main determining factor discerning which ion will have the greatest influence
  50. What ion is most important during the depolarization
    sodium due to the voltage gated channels
  51. Of the following steps of the excitatory synaptic transmission or form earliest to latest:
    3. action potential on presynaptic neuron. 1. Opening the voltage gated channels binding the ligand
  52. Signaling the synapse can go
    in only one direction
  53. What mechanism ensures ACH released from the synaptic cliff
    all of the above
  54. IPSP will result in which of the following
    opening of the sodium channel
  55. . 4 Neurons all synapse on the neuron resulting in a Hyperpolarization membrane.
    Inhibitory spatial summation.
  56. Which of the following is not considered a part of the autonomic nervous system
  57. When would the sympathetic most likely be activated?
    While fighting a bear
  58. When would the parasympathetic NS most likely be activated
    after a thanksgiving dinner
  59. What would not be the result of parasympathetic NS activation
    increased heart rate
  60. Where is the majority of the blood delivered in a parasympathetic response?
    Brain only
  61. Chromatin cells are in the adrenal medulla and release
  62. Albuterol is a drug prescribed to patients who have asthma.  What receptor is activated?
    Beta 2
  63. Which of the following is a result of beta one lnergic receptor
    Beta one is increased heart rate
  64. What type of receptor is located on cell body o post ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic and sympathetic receptors of the f the autonomic NS
  65. Which of the following are classified as cholinergic receptor
    nicotinic and muslerinic cholinergic
  66. After taking the drug inhibit the parasympathetic NS by blocking musolerinic receptors. The pt suffered from which of the following and What side effects might they have.
    help with severe heart burn and increased heart rate
  67. Homeostasis
    • The ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of stability within its internal
    • environment when dealing with external changes.
  68. Hypothesis
    Example: man-made pollution causes global warming.
  69. Circadian rhythms
    Are a daily rhythmic change in behavior or physiological process
  70. Standard Deviation
    • 1. Find the mean  (add all #;s and divide   
    •     by the total count of #’s)
    • 2. Subtract mean from every #
    • 3. Square the mean from every #
    • 4. Add all #’s together
    • 5. Divide by one less than the total #
    • 6. Obtain the square root
  71. BMI
    BMI=mass(kg)/(height (m))2
  72. Function of Biruet reagent
    Reacts with proteins to determine its concentration in a solution
  73. Factors that affect diffusion
    • Temp.
    • Particle Size
    • Viscosity
  74. Permeable solutes
    Permeable solutes do not affect tonicity across a semi-permeable membrane
  75. If you took a RBC and placed it in a beaker with water from the Great Salt Lake, the RBC would...
  76. If a RBC is placed in a hypotonic solution , then water will...
    flow into the cell
  77. If a RBC is placed in a hypertonic solution, then water will...
    flow out of the cell
  78. If nothing hinders the movement of a solute...
    it will diffuse until it reaches equilibrium
  79. If nothing hinders the movement of a solute...
    it will diffuse until it reaches equilibrium
  80. Hypertonic
    • *Higher concentration of solutes outside the 
    •   cell
    • *Water moves out of the cell
    • *Crenate
  81. Isotonic
    • *Equilibrium
    • *No movement
  82. Hypotonic
    • *lower concentration of solutes outside the cell
    • *water moves into the cell
    • *hemolyse
  83. Which way will water flow across a membrane?
    High to low concentration
  84. How to solve for molarity and osmolarity
    %=Grams/100 ml * 1 mole/58grams * 1000 ml/1 liter = moles/liter *2 if NaCl or 3 if MgCl2
  85. If you place two solutions with different osmolarities into a beaker with a semi-permeable membrane, towards which solution will the water flow, the higher or lower osmolarity solution?
    Higher osmolarity
  86. If you place RBC in a solution with a low solute
    the solution will appear clear
  87. Buffers
    Buffering has no affect on enzyme activity
  88. Iodine test
    Is used to detect the presence of starch
  89. Benedict’s test
    Is used to detect the presence of maltose
  90. Sequence of steps in an ELISA
    Antigen, serum, antibody-linked enzyme, substrate
  91. Purpose of the enzyme linked to the antibody
    It catalyzes the conversion of a colorless substrate to a colored product
  92. Spatial summation
    increases the number of motor units in muscle contractions
  93. Temporal Summation
    increases the rate of stimulus in muscle contractions
  94. Tentanization
    A steady state of contraction when muscles are stimulated at high frequencies
  95. Four events of a muscle twitch
    • Stimulus
    • Latent period
    • Contraction
    • Relaxation
  96. How is the release of thyroxine controlled
    It is controlled by the pituitary gland which secretes TSH.  This is carried by the blood to the thyroid gland and causes the thyroid to produce more thyroxine.
  97. Catabolism
    Breaking up compounds
  98. Anabolisms
    generating complex compounds amino acids
  99. Function of estrogen and where it’s produced
    Produced in the ovaries Estrogen enables the endometrium of the uterus to grow and develop so that the uterus may receive fertilized eggs for implantation
  100. Function of insulin
    It is vital to the regulation of blood glucose levels because it enables the body’s cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream
  101. Type I Diabetes Mellitus
    body does not make insulin. Autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency.
  102. Type II Diabetes Mellitus
    body makes insulin but does not respond to it. it is unable to be absorbed through the cells
  103. Systolic
    120 mm Hg
  104. diastolic
    • 80 mm Hg
    • The lowest pressure of the larger arteries during ventricular relaxation
  105. hypertension
    When the diastolic pressure remains elevated, above 90 to 100 mm Hg
  106. Cardiac output
    Cardiac output is not divided evenly among the areas of the body
  107. Blood typing
    • Type A: has A antigens, creates Anti-B antibody, agglutinate with A antiserum.
    • Type B: has B antigents, creates Anti-A antibody, agglutinate with B antiserum.
    • Type AB: has A & B antigens, Crates no antibodyagglutinate with a & b antiserum.
    • Type O:  has no antigens, Creates both A & B antibodies, agglutinates with neither.
  108. Right atrium
    blood enters  SA node found in this
  109. Sequential order of conduction system
    SA, AV, Bundle of His, Perkunjee Fibers
  110. Label an ECG
    • Isometric Line
    • P-wave: Atrial Depolarization
    • QRS Complex: Ventricular DepolarizationT-wave: Ventricular Repolarization
  111. Leads
  112. Blood clotting
    Vessel Damage Factor (Extrinsic Pathway)     OR Platelet Factor (Intrinsic Pathway) --->Prothrombin (Inactive)--->Thrombin (Active)--->Fibrinogen (Soluble)--->Fibrin (Insoluble Clot)
  113. Hematocrit
    the percentage of packed RBCs in whole blood
  114. Anemia
    Reduced capacity of carrying o2 in the blood
  115. H+ ions readily combine non-enzymatically with bicarbonate ions that are available in the blood to form
    carbonic acid
  116. carbonic anhydrase is produced in the ____ & _____ and triggers_________to convert ___________________________________
    carbonic anhydrase is produced in the RBC and the kidney tubule cells.  It triggers Carbonic Acid  to convert to water by binding the H+ ions into a molecule with a pH of 7 and CO2 that is eliminated during expiration from the lungs.
  117. Bicarbonate reaction
    •                               Carbonic anhydrase 
    • H+(+)HCO3-<-->H2CO3<-->H2O+CO2
    • Bicarbonate Ion      carbonic acid
  118. Function of hemoglobin
    The major component of hemoglobin, the O2 carrying pigment in red blood cells, is protein.  All proteins are charged molecules and are capable of absorbing H+ ions.  Thus, the hemoglobin found in RBCs also act as a buffer.
  119. Spirometer
    what you breath into to create spirogram
  120. Spirogram
  121. Tidal Volume (TV):
    the volume of air inspired or expired with each normal breath
  122. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV):
    the volume of air that can be inspired above the normal tidal volume
  123. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
    the volume of air that can be expired by forced expiration after normal tidal expiration.
  124. Residual Volume (RV):
    the volume of air remaining in lungs after forceful expiration.  The RV is necessary to allow continuous diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the capillaries
  125. Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
    Tidal + Inspiratory Reserve (TV+IRV).
  126. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC):
    Expiratory Reserve + Residual Volume
  127. Vital Capacity (VC): 
    The volume of air expired from maximal inspiration to maximal expiration or the volume of air inspired from maximal expiration to maximal inspiration (VC=IRV+TV+ERV).
  128. Total Lung Capacity (TLC):
    the sum of the inspiratory reserve, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume (TLC=IRV+TV+ERV+RV).
  129. cellular respiration
    the liberation of energy from glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to form ATP at the cellular level, hence,
  130.  ventilation
    • External Environment Respiration
    • the process by which the blood becomes oxygenated and releases carbon dioxide via the lungs.
  131. The primary functions of the kidneys are
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorption
    • Secretion
    • Erythropoisis
  132. Filtration
    The kidneys filter the blood plasma.  Blood components that are not filtered are RBCs, WBCs, platelets and most plasma proteins. 
  133. Reabsorption
    • from tube to blood
    • Some of the components of plasma that are reabsorbed are ions (Na+, K+, Ca++), water, glucose, amino acids, etc
  134. Secretion
    • blood to tube :waste products
    • Some products that are secreted are urea, creatinine, and hydrogen ions
  135. Erythropoisis
    The kidneys produce a hormone, erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of RBCs in the bone marrow.
  136. Sequential order of blood passing through nephron
    • Glomerulus
    • Bowman’s Capsule
    • U shaped loop
    • Collection Duct
  137. glomerulus
    cluster of blood vessels
  138. Bowman's capsule
    hollow tube surrounding the glomerulus
  139. U-shaped tubule
    empties into a collecting duct
  140. collecting ducts
    The collecting ducts from the various nephrons merge together, and ultimately empty into the bladder
  141. ADH
    antidiuretic hormone, reabsorption of water
  142. Urinalysis of an untreated diabetic
    Glucose in urine, protein, ketones, density, specific gravity