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2012-11-30 22:55:41
Study Guide Week

Study Guide Week 1
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  1. Where are Microbes found and what are microbes?
    • organisms that are invisible to the naked eye
    • Virus
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa 
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Algae
    • Helminths
  2. Robert Hooke
    The first person to report seeing microbes under the microscope was an Englishman
  3. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • Father of microbiology
    • Although not the FIRST TO DISCOVER THE MICROSCOPE or to use magnifying lens, he
    • was the first to see and describe bacteria.
  4. Francisco Redi
    • Disproved Spontaneous Generation 
    • By proving maggots are not spontaneously produced in rotten meat
  5. Pasteur
    • Important founder of medical microbiology
    • Breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases
    • Microbes are everywhere - even in the air and dust
  6. Robert Koch 
    • The Germ Theory of Disease
    • Microbes (germs) cause disease and specific microbes cause specific diseases
  7. Edward Jenner
    smallpox inoculation
  8. How are microbes impt?   Impact on Human Health
    • •Disadvantage: Cause disease (flu, STD, infection) and basis for bioterrorism (anthrax)
    • •Benefit: Digestion, synthesis of vitamins, and production of antibiotics
  9. How are microbes impt?  Balance of Nature
    • •Maintain balance of environment (microbial ecology)
    • •Basis of food chain
    • •Nitrogen fixation
    • •Photosynthesis
  10. How are microbes impt? Environmental
    • •Bioremediation: use microbes to remove toxins (oil spills)
    • •Recycling sewage
  11. How are microbes impt? Industrial 
    • •Genetic engineering
    • •Synthesis of chemical products
    • •Manufacture of food and drink
  12. How are microbes impt? Agricultural
    • •Use of microbes to control crop pests
    • •Increase livestock
    • •Food spoilage
  13. What are stains
    A stain, or dye, is a molecule that can bind to a structure and give it colo
  14. Most microbial stains are cationic
    cationic (positively charged), or basic dyes, such as methylene blue, crystal violet, or safrannin
  15. Some microbial stains are Anionic dyes
    anionic dyes (negatively charged), or acidic dyes, such as nigrosin or India ink
  16. Stains → combine chemically with the 
    the bacterial protoplasm.
  17. -Basic dyes: 
    • colored cation + colorless anion
    •    e.g. methylene
    • blue (methylene blue chloride)

                  MB+   +  Cl- 
  18. Cation
    An ion or group of ions having a positive charge
  19. Anion
    a negatively charged ion
  20. -Acidic dyes:
    • colored anion + colorless cation  e.g. eosin ( Na+ plus
    • eosin-).
  21. Eosin
    is a fluorescent red dye resulting from the action of bromine on fluorescein. It can be used to stain cytoplasm
  22. Acidic dyes do not stain the 
    • do not stain the bacterial cell → they can stain the background material with a contrasting
    • color
  23. Simple stains 
    use one dye and reveal basic cell morphology.
  24. Differential stains 
    use two or more dyes and distinguish various properties or organisms
  25. Negative stains 
    color the background around cells and their parts, which resist taking up the stain. (acidic dyes will “stick” to the glass slide since glass has a + charge).
  26. Prokaryotes
    include all bacteria, FREE DNA no nucleus
  27. Eukaryotes
    include all organisms other than bacteria, HAVE NUCLEUS
  28. prokaryotes and eukaryotes What is the difference?
    • •Prokaryotes are much smaller and simpler constructed than eukaryotes
    • –Membrane bound organelles
    • –Nucleus
    • –Reproduction
    • –Linearvs circular DNA
    • –Size
  29. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are similiar in 
    • Cell membrane
    • Have nucleic acid (DNA)
    • Hace cytoplasm
  30. Prokaryotes
    • •Single-celled(unicellular)
    • or Filamentous (strings of single cells)
    • •Collective prokaryote biomass outweighs all eukaryotes combined by at least tenfold.  
    • •They exist almost everywhere, including places where eukaryotes cannot
  31. Prokaryote cells are simply built 
    • •capsule: slimy outer coating
    • •cellwall: tougher middle layer
    • •cell membrane: delicate inner skin
    • Flagella
  32. Almost all prokaryotes have cell walls external to the plasma membrane composed of 
  33. What is metabolism?
    refers to all of the chemical processes that occur inside living cells
  34. What is ATP?
    • •ATP is a molecule with stored energy
    • •Biological reactions require energy to proceed.
  35. ATP consists of 
    adenosine (adenine + ribose) and a triphosphate group
  36. Difference between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.
    • Aerobic respiration (in the presence of oxygen)
    •  - A large amount of ATP is made during aerobic   respiration. 
    • •Anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen).   - NAD+ is recycled during the anaerobic process of fermentation
  37. In aerobic respiration, ATP forms as 
    • •ATP forms as electrons are harvested, transferred along the electron transport chain and eventually donated to O2 gas.
    • –Oxygen is required!
    • –Glucose is completely broken-down
  38. Glycolysis – coupled reactions used to make 
    • •used to make ATP.
    • –Occurs in cytoplasm
    • –Doesn’t require O2
  39. Oxidation
    • •harvests electrons and uses their energy to power ATP production.
    • –Only in mitochondria
    • –More powerful
  40. Anaerobic Metabolism
    • •Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen.
    • •Different electron acceptors are used instead of oxygen (sulfur, or nitrate).
    • •Does not ATP
  41. The term microbial growth refers to 
    to the growth of a population (or an increase in the number of cells), not to an increase in the size of the individual cell.
  42. Cell division leads to 
    •the growth of cells in the population
  43. Factors Regulating Growth
    • •Nutrients
    • •Environmental conditions: temperature, pH, osmotic pressure
    • •Generation time
  44. How do bacteria acquire new DNA?
  45. Environmental Factors Influencing Growth
    • •Temperature
    • •O2 
    • •pH
    • •Osmotic Pressure (tonicity)
    • •Moisture
    • •Hydrostatic pressure
    • •Radiation
    • •Nutrients
  46. How do bacteria acquire new DNA?
    •  bacteria acquire new DNA by
    • transformation
    • conjugation
    • transduction
  47.  Transformation
    DNA transformation involves the transfer of naked DNA into a recipient cell
  48. Conjugation
    The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells
  49. Transduction
    Is the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus