Wars, National Security

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gandalfthegrey
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Wars, National Security
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2012-12-07 02:39:57
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  1. War and Peace
  2. Peace among ______ countires in unprecedented; there has been no ______ or _______ war since ________.
    Western; general; world; 1945
  3. A simple definition of peace would be:
    Simply an absence of war.
  4. What would a more positive concept of war include? (2 things)
    • The absence of any expectation of war
    • The elimination of deprivation
  5. Who does war occur between?
    Political communities.
  6. What entities fight wars?
    States or entities that intend to become states.
  7. True/False: It takes at least two states to go to war. If false, why?
    True.
  8. What is a classical war?
    International war.
  9. An example of a classical war would be:
    • WWI
    • WWII
  10. Are there any other types of wars?
  11. What are the other types of wars? (2 types)
    • War within a state
    • War between rival groups or communities
  12. True/False: There is a prospect of nuclear war? If false, why?
    False. There is a prospect of nuclear power.
  13. When do we have wars?
  14. The elements of conflict include: actual, which means....
    existing or current
  15. intentional, which means...
    premeditated, by design
  16. and commitment, which means...
    pledge or promise.
  17. What must conflict of arms be in order to count as war?
    Actual, and not merely latent
  18. War requires ___________ commitment and significant __________.
    conscious; mobilization
  19. What is the importance of intention?
    There is no real war until the fighters intend to go to war.
  20. And when fighters do intend to go to war, they must do it with a heavy quantum of ________.
    force
  21. Intention provides an aim that guides ______; an _______.
    action; objective
  22. What does not count as actions of war?
  23. Actions of war do not include: isolated clashes between rogue ________;
    officers
  24. and ______ patrols.
    border
  25. Types of wars
  26. Define interstate war.
    A war that takes place between sovereign states.
  27. Define intrastate war.
    A war that takes place within states.
  28. What are general wars?
    Wars that use all available weapons, and targets both civilians and military sites.
  29. What is a total war?
    A war in which civilians are targeted and the entire society is mobilized; when every member of the society has to contribute to the war effort.
  30. What is a "war of liberation"?
    A war to liberate an occupied country.
  31. Some of the terms used for wars include: (3 terms)
    • Armed conflict
    • Hostilities
    • Police action
  32. Civil Wars
  33. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same ________, _______, or ________ fight for _______ power or control of an _______.
    culture; society; nationality; political; area
  34. Civil wars are wars between ______ within a ______.
    factions; state
  35. A civil war has to involve attempts to grab ________.
    power
  36. True/False: These factions are usually roughly equal in power. If false, why?
    True.
  37. What is one example where a civil war has had international repercussions?
    The Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)
  38. One criteria in order for something to be attributed the term civil war is there must be prolonged __________.
    violence
  39. Why is calling the conflict in Iraq a "civil war" an anti-Bush statement?
    It suggests the failure of U.S. occupation.
  40. A conflict may be both a cil and ______ war at the same time.
    interstate
  41. What is an example of this?
    The Vietnam War. ( War between the Vietnamese, and between North and South Vietnam)
  42. Insurgencies
  43. An insurgency is an organized group movement aimed at the overthrow of a ________ _______ through ________ ____________.
    constituted government; armed conflict
  44. What is the other term for an insurgency?
    Revolution.
  45. What marks current insurgencies?
    Transnationalism.
  46. How is the past unlike the present? (2 ways)
    • The U.S. is unable to halt the flow of insurgents from Iraq
    • There are precedents of transnational insurgenies in Vietnam and Afghanistan.
  47. Why are there problems countering insurgences?
    The general assumption that insurgents are drawn from native populations is an old theory by today's standards.
  48. Insurgencies exploit transnational opportunities
  49. Opportunities allow insurgents to: ________;
    survive
  50. reap benefits of _________;
    sanctuary
  51. ________-based funding and recruiting;
    diaspora
  52. and ________ borders.
    porous
  53. What do neighboring sympathetic states enable insurgents to do?
    To survive difficult conditions.
  54. Why do states sponsor insurgencies?
    To enhance strategic, political, and ethno-nationalist interests.
  55. Terrorism: Important Definitive Characteristics
  56. True/False: The act of destruction is performed by a person or group of persona not acting on behalf of an established government. If false, why?
    True.
  57. What kind of injustice is the act of destruction performed to redress? (2 types)
    • Real
    • Imaginary
  58. This act is aimed directly at what?
    At an established government.
  59. Why is the act aimed at an established government?
    They are seen as the cause of the injustice.
  60. The use of violence and threats are used to _______ or _________; especially for ______ purposes.
    intimidate; coerce; political
  61. What state is produced by terrorism and terrorization?
    A state of fear and submission.
  62. What is the purpose of terrorism?
    To frighten target audiences.
  63. What does state terrorism target?
    A government's own population.
  64. What would be a current day example?
    Syria.
  65. Combating International Terrorism
  66. As a result of terrorism, there has been an increase of states resorting to _________.
    force
  67. The ______ Charter permits states to use force for self-defense.
    U.N.
  68. What is the term used for apprehending terrorists or thwarting terrorist attacks?
    Antiterrorism.
  69. What is one example of using military force against terrorist organizations?
    The United States-led occupation of Afghanistan.
  70. National Security Defined
  71. National security refers to policy enacted by governments to ensure the ______ and _____ of the nation-state.
    survival; safety
  72. "...a condition in which the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of a country are guaranteed."
  73. Irony of the Security Dilemma
  74. What is the Security Dilemma?
    The concept in which actors with no hostile or aggressive intentions may be led by their own insecurity into a costly and risky arms race.
  75. True/False: As one state's security increases, the security of the others is decreased. If false, why?
    True.
  76. This results in a vicous circle of _______ __________, a permanent condition of ______, and an _____ race.
    power accumulation; tension; arms
  77. Is security achievable?
  78. Security is difficult to achieve due to ______ aspects of the international system.
    anarchic
  79. True/False: Universal security is impossible. If false, why?
    It is theoretically possible, but unlikely.
  80. It is unlikely because states with growing poulations and economic needs will seek more scarce ________, which creates the potential for conflict.
    resources
  81. The Many Faces of Security
  82. Such faces include the: (4 things)
    • Physical
    • Economic
    • Environmental
    • Cultural
  83. What aspect dominated during the Cold War?
    The military aspect.
  84. What aspects dominated in the post-Cold War? (2 aspects)
    Economic and environmental aspects
  85. New Security Issues in Post-Cold War: (4 issues)
    • Economic Development
    • Human Rights
    • Environmental Protection
    • Health Care
  86. The Deterrence Doctrine
  87. What is the deterence doctrine?
    Measures taken by a state or an alliance of states to prevent hostile action by another state.
  88. What is an example of this?
    The policy or practice of stockpiling nuclear weapons to deter another nation from making a nuclear attack.
  89. An extension of the detterence doctrine is to discourage attackos on ______/______.
    allies/partners
  90. What is one flaw of the deterrence doctrine?
    It addresses rational decision-makers, who don't always act rationally.
  91. Assumptions of Deterrence Theory:
  92. decision makers are _______;
    rational
  93. The threat of mutual destruction from warfare is ______;
    great
  94. and alternatives to war are _________.
    available
  95. Difference between psychological and physical deterrence
  96. Defense is primary ______, while deterrence is ______.
    physical; psychological
  97. Defence is the _______ of an enemy's ability to inflict damage after _______ has failed.
    reduction; deterrence
  98. Three Requirements for Deterrence
  99. 1) The defender must possess the capability to _______ or _________;
    punish; retaliate
  100. Punishment or retaliation means...
    the physical capability to inflict damage
  101. 2) Signal _______ to realiate if opponent attacks;
    commitment
  102. 3) The defender's commitment must have _______.
    credibility
  103. How does a country obtain credibility?
    Through the political will to emply force.
  104. Does deterrence work under all conditions?
  105. Deterrence is an "______".
    effect
  106. What does this result depend on?
    The opinion the opponent has of his adversary's capability to win.
  107. This explains why it is difficult to deter those who have different _______ or ________.
    cultures; lifestyles
  108. True/False: We can deter Al Qadea. If false, why?
    False. Deterrence does not address terrorist groups since weapons, whether conventional or nuclear, do not intimidate such groups.
  109. Does deterrence exist without threat of nuclear war?
  110. What is deterrence, above all, about?
    The threat of nuclear war.
  111. True/False: The actions of the past 40 years is proof of that. If false, why?
    True.
  112. What guarantees peace better: atomic threat or conventional arms?
    Atomic threat.
  113. Victory in a conventional war is ______;
    unilateral
  114. in a nuclear war, destruction is _______.
    bilateral
  115. "The nuclear amrs race creates _______, just as the nuclear race creates _______".
    instability; stability
  116. Nuclear deterrence works, not conventional deterrence
  117. Conventional detterence has been unable to prevent wars for the past _____ years.
    50
  118. Some regional war examples include (2 examples):
    • India vs. Pakistan
    • Arab-Israeli Wars
  119. Advantages of nuclear weapons
  120. Some advantages of nuclear weapons: They prevent ______ war;
    nuclear
  121. achieve _____-stability;
    crisis
  122. prevent even _______ war;
    conventional
  123. provide general foreign __________ support;
    policy
  124. Iran strives for: providing ________ status and _______;
    global; prestige
  125. help secure ______ control.
    arms
  126. Negotiating on conventional arms reduction means securing eventual nuclear _______.
    disarmament
  127. Tactical Nuclear Weapons
  128. Tactical nuclear weapon refers to a nuclear weapon which is designed to actually be used on a ______ in a ______ situation.
    battlefield; military
  129. This is opposed to ________ nuclear weapons.
    strategic
  130. Strategic nuclear weapons are designed to threaten large _____ or to generally ______ attacks.
    populations; deter
  131. What are tactical weapons generally considered part of limited or total nuclear war?
    Limited war.
  132. National Security Doctrines
  133. First-strike capability
  134. What is first-strike capability?
    The ability to destroy defender's retaliatory forces.
  135. What does this prevent the defender from doing?
    Inflicting major damage on the attacker.
  136. A situation like this is highly ________.
    unstable
  137. The other side would have an incentive to launch a __________ strike.
    preemptive
  138. Second-strike capability
  139. Second-strike capability is the ability to....
    launch an attack even if the other side strikes first.
  140. What does a state need in order to have second-strike capability?
    Survivable retaliatory forces.
  141. What does second-strike capability negate?
    The advantage for attacking first.
  142. What concept does second-strike capability lead to?
    Mutual Assured Destruction
  143. The concept of MAD is the popular belief at that time that once each side had an effective second strike force, _______ would result as each side would realize the pointlessness of using nuclear weapons: even with their first strike, they would still be hit with a full nuclear force.
    stability
  144. By when did the US & USSR acheive this?
    By the 1960s.
  145. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
  146. What is the SDI?
    A proposal to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.
  147. Who proposed this? When?
    U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983.
  148. This is commonly referred to as ________ ________.
    Star Wars
  149. What do SDIs reduce the effectiveness of?
    Mutual deterrence.
  150. Criticisms of Deterrence
  151. Criticisms of deterrence include: assumed ______ of leaders;
    rationality
  152. difficulty in determining if deterrence has __________ or ______;
    succeeded; failed
  153. challenger may ________ deterrence messages.
    misinterpret

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