Peace among ______ countires in unprecedented; there has been no ______ or _______ war since ________.
Western; general; world; 1945
A simple definition of peace would be:
Simply an absence of war.
What would a more positive concept of war include? (2 things)
The absence of any expectation of war
The elimination of deprivation
Who does war occur between?
What entities fight wars?
States or entities that intend to become states.
True/False: It takes at least two states to go to war.If false, why?
What is a classical war?
An example of a classical war would be:
Are there any other types of wars?
What are the other types of wars? (2 types)
War within a state
War between rival groups or communities
True/False: There is a prospect of nuclear war? If false, why?
False. There is a prospect of nuclear power.
When do we have wars?
The elements of conflict include: actual, which means....
existing or current
intentional, which means...
premeditated, by design
and commitment, which means...
pledge or promise.
What must conflict of arms be in order to count as war?
Actual, and not merely latent
War requires ___________ commitment and significant __________.
What is the importance of intention?
There is no real war until the fighters intend to go to war.
And when fighters do intend to go to war, they must do it with a heavy quantum of ________.
Intention provides an aim that guides ______; an _______.
What does not count as actions of war?
Actions of war do not include: isolated clashes between rogue ________;
and ______ patrols.
Types of wars
Define interstate war.
A war that takes place between sovereign states.
Define intrastate war.
A war that takes place within states.
What are general wars?
Wars that use all available weapons, and targets both civilians and military sites.
What is a total war?
A war in which civilians are targeted and the entire society is mobilized; when every member of the society has to contribute to the war effort.
What is a "war of liberation"?
A war to liberate an occupied country.
Some of the terms used for wars include: (3 terms)
A civil war is a war in which parties within the same ________, _______, or ________ fight for _______ power or control of an _______.
culture; society; nationality; political; area
Civil wars are wars between ______ within a ______.
A civil war has to involve attempts to grab ________.
True/False: These factions areusually roughly equal in power. If false, why?
What is one example where a civil war has had international repercussions?
The Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)
One criteria in order for something to be attributed the term civil war is there must be prolonged __________.
Why is calling the conflict in Iraq a "civil war" an anti-Bush statement?
It suggests the failure of U.S. occupation.
A conflict may be both a cil and ______ war at the same time.
What is an example of this?
The Vietnam War. ( War between the Vietnamese, and between North and South Vietnam)
An insurgency is an organized group movement aimed at the overthrow of a ________ _______ through ________ ____________.
constituted government; armed conflict
What is the other term for an insurgency?
What marks current insurgencies?
How is the past unlike the present? (2 ways)
The U.S. is unable to halt the flow of insurgents from Iraq
There are precedents of transnational insurgenies in Vietnam and Afghanistan.
Why are there problems countering insurgences?
The general assumption that insurgents are drawn from native populations is an old theory by today's standards.
Insurgencies exploit transnational opportunities
Opportunities allow insurgents to: ________;
reap benefits of _________;
________-based funding and recruiting;
and ________ borders.
What do neighboring sympathetic states enable insurgents to do?
To survive difficult conditions.
Why do states sponsor insurgencies?
To enhance strategic, political, and ethno-nationalist interests.
Terrorism: Important Definitive Characteristics
True/False: The act of destruction is performed by a person or group of persona not acting on behalf of an established government. If false, why?
What kind of injustice is the act of destruction performed to redress? (2 types)
This act is aimed directly at what?
At an established government.
Why is the act aimed at an established government?
They are seen as the cause of the injustice.
The use of violence and threats are used to _______ or _________; especially for ______ purposes.
intimidate; coerce; political
What state is produced by terrorism and terrorization?
A state of fear and submission.
What is the purpose of terrorism?
To frighten target audiences.
What does state terrorism target?
A government's own population.
What would be a current day example?
Combating International Terrorism
As a result of terrorism, there has been an increase of states resorting to _________.
The ______ Charter permits states to use force for self-defense.
What is the term used for apprehending terrorists or thwarting terrorist attacks?
What is one example of using military force against terrorist organizations?
The United States-led occupation of Afghanistan.
National Security Defined
National security refers to policy enacted by governments to ensure the ______ and _____ of the nation-state.
"...a condition in which the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of a country are guaranteed."
Irony of the Security Dilemma
What is the Security Dilemma?
The concept in which actors with no hostile or aggressive intentions may be led by their own insecurity into a costly and risky arms race.
True/False: As one state's security increases, the security of the others is decreased. If false, why?
This results in a vicous circle of _______ __________, a permanent condition of ______, and an _____ race.
power accumulation; tension; arms
Is security achievable?
Security is difficult to achieve due to ______ aspects of the international system.
True/False: Universal security is impossible. If false, why?
It is theoretically possible, but unlikely.
It is unlikely because states with growing poulations and economic needs will seek more scarce ________, which creates the potential for conflict.
The Many Faces of Security
Such faces include the: (4 things)
What aspect dominated during the Cold War?
The military aspect.
What aspects dominated in the post-Cold War? (2 aspects)
Economic and environmental aspects
New Security Issues in Post-Cold War: (4 issues)
The Deterrence Doctrine
What is the deterence doctrine?
Measures taken by a state or an alliance of states to prevent hostile action by another state.
What is an example of this?
The policy or practice of stockpiling nuclear weapons to deter another nation from making a nuclear attack.
An extension of the detterence doctrine is to discourage attackos on ______/______.
What is one flaw of the deterrence doctrine?
It addresses rational decision-makers, who don't always act rationally.
Assumptions of Deterrence Theory:
decision makers are _______;
The threat of mutual destruction from warfare is ______;
and alternatives to war are _________.
Difference between psychological and physical deterrence
Defense is primary ______, while deterrence is ______.
Defence is the _______ of an enemy's ability to inflict damage after _______ has failed.
Three Requirements for Deterrence
1) The defender must possess the capability to _______ or _________;
Punishment or retaliation means...
the physical capability to inflict damage
2) Signal _______ to realiate if opponent attacks;
3) The defender's commitment must have _______.
How does a country obtain credibility?
Through the political will to emply force.
Does deterrence work under all conditions?
Deterrence is an "______".
What does this result depend on?
The opinion the opponent has of his adversary's capability to win.
This explains why it is difficult to deter those who have different _______ or ________.
True/False: We can deter Al Qadea. If false, why?
False. Deterrence does not address terrorist groups since weapons, whether conventional or nuclear, do not intimidate such groups.
Does deterrence exist without threat of nuclear war?
What is deterrence, above all, about?
The threat of nuclear war.
True/False: The actions of the past 40 years is proof of that. If false, why?
What guarantees peace better: atomic threat or conventional arms?
Victory in a conventional war is ______;
in a nuclear war, destruction is _______.
"The nuclear amrs race creates _______, just as the nuclear race creates _______".
Nuclear deterrence works, not conventional deterrence
Conventional detterence has been unable to prevent wars for the past _____ years.
Some regional war examples include (2 examples):
India vs. Pakistan
Advantages of nuclear weapons
Some advantages of nuclear weapons: They prevent ______ war;
prevent even _______ war;
provide general foreign __________ support;
Iran strives for: providing ________ status and _______;
help secure ______ control.
Negotiating on conventional arms reduction means securing eventual nuclear _______.
Tactical Nuclear Weapons
Tactical nuclear weapon refers to a nuclear weapon which is designed to actually be used on a ______ in a ______ situation.
This is opposed to ________ nuclear weapons.
Strategic nuclear weapons are designed to threaten large _____ or to generally ______ attacks.
What are tactical weapons generally considered part of limited or total nuclear war?
National Security Doctrines
What is first-strike capability?
The ability to destroy defender's retaliatory forces.
What does this prevent the defender from doing?
Inflicting major damage on the attacker.
A situation like this is highly ________.
The other side would have an incentive to launch a __________ strike.
Second-strike capability is the ability to....
launch an attack even if the other side strikes first.
What does a state need in order to have second-strike capability?
Survivable retaliatory forces.
What does second-strike capability negate?
The advantage for attacking first.
What concept does second-strike capability lead to?
Mutual Assured Destruction
The concept of MAD is the popular belief at that time that once each side had an effective second strike force, _______ would result as each side would realize the pointlessness of using nuclear weapons: even with their first strike, they would still be hit with a full nuclear force.
By when did the US & USSR acheive this?
By the 1960s.
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
What is the SDI?
A proposal to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.
Who proposed this? When?
U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983.
This is commonly referred to as ________ ________.
What do SDIs reduce the effectiveness of?
Criticisms of Deterrence
Criticisms of deterrence include: assumed ______ of leaders;
difficulty in determining if deterrence has __________ or ______;