exam 4

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  1. myopia
    • nearsightedness
    • image focused in front of the lens
    • eyeball is too long
  2. hyperopia
    • farsightedness
    • image is focused behind the retina
    • eyeball is too short
  3. astigmatism
    irregular curvature in the cornea or lens
  4. strabismus
    • squint or cross-eye
    • deviation of one eye, resulting in double vision
    • caused by a weak or hypertonic muscle, short muscle or a neurologic defect
  5. diplopia
    • double vision
    • trauma to cranial nerves
  6. presbyopia
    • farsightedness associated with aging
    • loss of elasticity reduces accommodation
  7. amblyopia
    suppression by the brain of the visual image of the affected eye
  8. nystagmus
    • involuntary abnormal movement of one or both eyes
    • may result from neurologic causes, from inner ear or cerebellar disturbacnces, of from drug toxicity
  9. ptosis
    • paralysis of the upper eyelid
    • trauma to cranial nerves
  10. conjunctivitis
    inflammation of the conjunctival mambranes lining the eyelid and sclera
  11. conjunctivitis
    causes (4)
    • viral infections - majory of cases
    • bacterial infections
    •     staphlococcus aureus - skin bacterium
    •     chlamydia trachomatis - problem in newborns
    •     neisseria gonorrhoeae - problem in newborns
    • allergens
    • irritating chemicals
  12. glaucoma
    • results from increased intraocular pressure, caused by accumulation of aqueous humor
    • lenses enlarge with age and can block drainage
    • blood vessels in the retina become compressed and the optic nerve may be damaged
  13. glaucoma
    predisposing factors
    • increasing age
    • diabetes
    • family history (recessive or dominant forms)
  14. where does loss of vision occur in glaucoma
    blurring and loss of vision of peripheral vision first
  15. cataracts
    definition and etiology
    progressive clouding of the lens

    etiology - proteins form insoluble aggregates on the lens
  16. cataracts
    predisposing factors (5)
    • increasing age
    • excessive exposure to sunlight or radiation in the eye
    • diabetes
    • hypertension
    • cigarette smoking
  17. wwhere does loss of vision occur in cataract
    blurring in the center to all of visual field
  18. macular degeneration
    deterioration of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the fovea centralis of the macula lutea on the retina
  19. macula lutea
    • highly pigmented area in the retina
    • contains the fovea centralais
  20. fovea centralalis
    • area with the higest density of cones in the retina
    • allows high-ability (sharp focus) central vision
  21. macular degeneration
    predisposing factors (4)
    • increasing age (AMD age-related madcular degeneration)
    • UV light exposure
    • cigarette smoking
    • family history
  22. where does loss of vision occur in macular degeneration
    blurring and loss of central visual field first
  23. hearing loss
    conduction deafness
    definition and etiology
    results from blockade of sound in the external ear or middle ear

    • physical objects in external ear - wax
    • impaired function of tympanic membrane or ossicles due to scar tissue
  24. hearing loss
    sensorineural deafness
    definition and etiology (6)
    results from damage to the inner ear

    • etiology
    •    infection (rubella, influenza, herpes virus)
    •    head trauma or nerve damage
    •    ototoxic drugs (streptomycin, aspirin)
    •    loud sounds, especially with prolonged exposure
    •    age-related decrease in number of hair cells
    •    congenital defects
  25. ototoxic
    toxic to hair cells in the hair

    streptomycin and aspirin
  26. otitis media
    definition and etiology
    inflammation or infection of the middle ear

    • exudate interferes with movement of ossicles and tympanic membrane
    • pressure buildup may rupture the tympanic membrane

    • etiology
    •    haemophilus influenzae
    •    streptococcus species - skin and throat bacterial
    •    staphylococcus species - skin and throat bacterial
  27. otitis media
    chronic infection
    leads to scar tissue formation and adhesions
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exam 4
2012-12-01 02:29:07
eye ear throat

exam 4
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