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- Center Skeleton.
- Bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
- Attached skeleton.
- Bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulders, and hip
- Longer than they are wide.
- Ex. Humerus
- Cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle.
- Bones that from within tendons.
- Ex. patella
- Shorest bone is the stapes
- Thing, flattened, and a big curved.
- Ex. sternum, and most skull bones.
- Bones with complicated shapes.
- Ex. verebrae and hip bones
Five functions of the bones
- Mineral Storage
- Blood Cell Formation (hematopoiesis)
Dense outer layer
Honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow
- Tubular shaft.
- Compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity (where the yellow bone marrow is)
- Middle part of a long bone.
- Seperates the proximal epiphyses and the distal epiphyses
- Expanded ends of a long bone.
- Exterior is compact bone and interior is spongy bone.
Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage
Covers the surface of a joint
- Growth Plate.
- Seperates the diaphysis and the epiphyses
- Double-layered protective membrane.
- Outer layer is dence regular connective tissue.
- Inner osteogenic layer (helps bone grow) is composed of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
- Containes Sharpey's fibers
Perforating (Sharpey's) Fibers
Delicate membrane covering interal surfaces of bone
Where is the hematopoietic tissue in infants?
In the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
Where is the hematopoietic tissue in adults?
In the diploe (spongy bone) of flat bones and in the head of the femur and humerus.
Haversian system or osteon
The structural unit of compact bone
Weight-bearing column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen
Haversain or Central Canal
Central channel containing blodd vessels and nerves
Channels laying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian Canal.
Mature bone cells
Small cavities (space) in bone that containe osteocytes
Hairlike canals that connect Lacunae to each other and the central canal
Large cells that resorb and break down bone matrix
- Materials secreted by osteoblast.
- Unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen
Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)
Combine with osteoids and form bone
- The process of bone tissue formation
- The formation of the bony skeleton in embryos
- Bone growth untill early adulthood
- Bone thickness, remodeling, and repair (if broken)
- Making the bone Solid.
- Starts at 8 weeks of embryo development
Bone develops from a fibrous membrane
Bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage
Bone fractures are classified by (4)
- The position of the bone ends after fracture
- The completeness of the break
- The orientation of the bone to the long axis, horizontal, diagnol, veritcal
- Whether or not the bones ends penetrate the skin
Bone fragments into 3 or more pieces (long bones)
Done is crushed (back bone)
Epipthysis seperates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate
Broken bone portion is pressed inward (skull, common it kids/toddlers)
The stages of healing a bone fracture (4)
- Inernal Callus
- Bony Callus of spongy bone
- Healed Fracture
- Inadequately mineralized bone causing softened weakened bones.
- Improper growth
Causes more bone formation causing abnormal structures
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