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  1. Axial Skeleton
    • Center Skeleton.
    • Bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
  2. Appendicular Skeleton
    • Attached skeleton.
    • Bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulders, and hip
  3. Long Bones
    • Longer than they are wide.
    • Ex. Humerus
  4. Short Bones
    • Cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle.
    • Bones that from within tendons.
    • Ex. patella
    • Shorest bone is the stapes
  5. Flat Bones
    • Thing, flattened, and a big curved.
    • Ex. sternum, and most skull bones.
  6. Irregular Bones
    • Bones with complicated shapes.
    • Ex. verebrae and hip bones
  7. Five functions of the bones
    • Support
    • Protections
    • Movement
    • Mineral Storage
    • Blood Cell Formation (hematopoiesis)
  8. Compact Bone
    Dense outer layer
  9. Spongy Bone
    Honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow
  10. Diaphysis
    • Tubular shaft.
    • Compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity (where the yellow bone marrow is)
    • Middle part of a long bone.
    • Seperates the proximal epiphyses and the distal epiphyses
  11. Epiphyses
    • Expanded ends of a long bone.
    • Exterior is compact bone and interior is spongy bone.
  12. Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage
    Covers the surface of a joint
  13. Epiphyses Line
    • Growth Plate.
    • Seperates the diaphysis and the epiphyses
  14. Periosteum
    • Double-layered protective membrane.
    • Outer layer is dence regular connective tissue.
    • Inner osteogenic layer (helps bone grow) is composed of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
    • Containes Sharpey's fibers
  15. Perforating (Sharpey's) Fibers
    Identify bone
  16. Endosteum
    Delicate membrane covering interal surfaces of bone
  17. Where is the hematopoietic tissue in infants?
    In the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
  18. Where is the hematopoietic tissue in adults?
    In the diploe (spongy bone) of flat bones and in the head of the femur and humerus.
  19. Haversian system or osteon
    The structural unit of compact bone
  20. Lamella
    Weight-bearing column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen
  21. Haversain or Central Canal
    Central channel containing blodd vessels and nerves
  22. Volkman's Canals
    Channels laying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian Canal. 
  23. Osteocytes
    Mature bone cells
  24. Lacunae
    Small cavities (space) in bone that containe osteocytes
  25. Canaliculi
    Hairlike canals that connect Lacunae to each other and the central canal
  26. Osteoblasts
    Bone-forming cells
  27. Osteoclasts
    Large cells that resorb and break down bone matrix
  28. Osteoid
    • Materials secreted by osteoblast.
    • Unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen
  29. Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)
    Combine with osteoids and form bone
  30. Osteogenesis
    • The process of bone tissue formation
    • The formation of the bony skeleton in embryos
    • Bone growth untill early adulthood
    • Bone thickness, remodeling, and repair (if broken)
  31. Ossification
    • Making the bone Solid.
    • Starts at 8 weeks of embryo development
  32. Intramembranous Ossification
    Bone develops from a fibrous membrane
  33. Endochondral Ossification
    Bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage
  34. Bone fractures are classified by (4)
    • The position of the bone ends after fracture
    • The completeness of the break
    • The orientation of the bone to the long axis, horizontal, diagnol, veritcal
    • Whether or not the bones ends penetrate the skin
  35. Comminuted Fracture
    Bone fragments into 3 or more pieces (long bones)
  36. Compression Fracture
    Done is crushed (back bone)
  37. Spiral
    Excessive twisting
  38. Epiphyseal
    Epipthysis seperates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate
  39. Depressed
    Broken bone portion is pressed inward (skull, common it kids/toddlers)
  40. Greenstick
    Partial break
  41. The stages of healing a bone fracture (4)
    • Hematoma
    • Inernal Callus
    • Bony Callus of spongy bone
    • Healed Fracture
  42. Osteomalacia (Rickets)
    • Inadequately mineralized bone causing softened weakened bones.
    • Improper growth
  43. Paget's Disease
    Causes more bone formation causing abnormal structures
Card Set:
2012-12-01 02:39:11

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