Anatomy Final Review

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Anatomy Final Review
2012-12-07 13:38:17

Anatomy Final Review Fall 2012
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  1. The thoracic duct collects lymph from all of the following except:
    left leg
    right arm
    right foot
    left shoulder
    right arm
  2. The thoracid duct and the right lymphatic duct empty into the:
    superior vena cava
    subclavian veins
    inferior vena cava
    azygos vein
    brachiocephalic veins
    azygos vein
  3. What structures anchor the chordae tendineae?
    semilunar valves
    trabeculae carneae
    pectinate muscles
    papillary muscles
    Papillary muscles
  4. Which of the following structures is not found in the left ventricle?
    the pectinate muscles

    the bicuspid valve
    the papillary muscle
    the trabeculae carneae
    the pectinate muscle
  5. The right ventricle pumps blood into which vessel?
    the pulmonary trunk
    the aorta
    the pulmonary vein
    the superior vena cava
    the pulmonary trunk
  6. A drop of blood returning to the heart from the head region would enter the heart through which vessel?
    a pulmonary vein
    the superior vena cava
    the inferior vena cava 
    the coronary sinus
    the superior vena cava
  7. Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the 
    left ventricle
    right atrium 
    right ventricle
    left atrium
    left atrium
  8. Blood is carried in the capillaries in the myocardium by way of the:
    coronary sinus
    fossa ovalis
    coronary veins
    coronary arteries
    coronary arteries
  9. Which layer of blood vessels contains epithelial tissue?
    tunica intima
    tunica media
    tunica adventitia

    tunica externa
    tunica intima
  10. Choose the blood vessel responsible for draining the majority of blood from the brain?
    internal carotid artery
    cephalic veins
    internal jugular veins
    basilic veins
    internal carotid veins
    internal jugular veins
  11. Functionally there are no valves in arteries (as opposed to in veins) because
    the blood pressure in arteries is high enough that there is no risk of backflow of blood
  12. What vessel in the fetus connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch so that much of the blood bypasses the immature lungs?
    • ductus venosus
    • ductus anteriosus
    • ligamentum arteriosium
    • ligamentum venosum
  13. The abdominal aorta divides its distal end into which arteries?
    the internal iliac arteries
    the femoral arteries
    the external iliac arteries
    the common iliac arteries
    the common iliac arteries
  14. Choose the missing blood vessels in the pathway supplying blood to the right arm:
    Aortic arch, subclavian artery, axillary artery, brachial artery
    brachiocephalic artery
  15. The three arteries that branch from the aortic arch are (in order) the 
    brachiocephalic, left subclavian, and the left common carotid arteries
  16. Which artery arises from the inferior part of the abdominal aorta and supplies the distal half of the large intestine?
    median sacral artery
    gonadal artery
    inferior mesenteric artery
    superior phrenic artery
    Inferior mesenteric artery
  17. Which vessel is missing from the following statement:  "Tracing blood that drains from the small intestine, we find that blood leaves the intestinal capillaries and passes through the superior mesenteric vein, the hepatic portal vein, the liver sinusoid capillaries and the inferior vena cava?
    celiac vein
  18. If both common carotid arteries were blocked, which might continue to carry blood to the brain?
    External carotid
    Internal carotid
    vertebral arteries
    anterior cerebral artery
    dural venous sinuses
    Vertebral arteries
  19. The popliteal artery supplies
    the hip joint
    many thigh muscles
    the knee joint
    the elbow joint
    the palmar region
    the knee joint
  20. The veins that merge to form the inferior vena cava are the
    external iliac veins
    internal iliac veins
    popliteal veins
    posterior and anterior tibial veins
    common iliac veins
    common iliac veins
  21. Which of the following are not involved in systemic circulation?
    right ventricle, pulmonary artery, left atrium
  22. The epicardium is the same as the 
    visceral layer of the serous pericardium
  23. The heart chamber with the thickest wall is the 
    left ventricle
  24. Of the three layers of the heart wall, the layer that contains the cardiac muscle is the 
    visceral layer of serous pericardium
  25. The atrioventricular node is located in the 
    inferior part of the interatrial septum
    right atrium just inferior to the opening of the superior vena cave
    interventricular septum near the heart base
    walls of the ventricles, with the other Purkinje fibers
    inferior part of the interatrial septum
  26. Of the following heart chambers, the one with the thinnest walls is the:
    left ventricle
    right ventricle
    right atrium
    right atrium
  27. Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?
    SA node
    AV valve
    AV node
    AV bundle
    AV valve
  28. Which branch (or branches) of the abdominal aorta supplies the stomach?
    A gastroduodenal
    B celiac trunk
    C superior mensenteric artery
    D all of the above
    E A and B
    E A and B
  29. Which of the following are involved in the pulmonary circulation?
    superior vena cava, right atrium, left ventricle
    inferior vena cave, right atrium, left ventricle
    left ventricle, aorta, and inferior vena cava
    right ventricle, pulmonary artery, left atrium
    right ventricle, pulmonary artery, left atrium
  30. The anterior cardiac vein runs with which artery?
    right coronary
  31. Lymph nodes
    Filter the blood
  32. In the figures know these veins and arteries:
    Great saphenous vein
    Right common iliac artery
    Left cephalic vein
    Left basilic vein
    • Great saphenous vein
    • Left common carotid artery
    • Left cephalic vein
    • Left basilic vein
  33. Know these muscles:
    • Deltoid
    • Teres Major
    • Vastus Medialis
  34. Know the axon structure:
    • Dendrite
    • Telodendrite
    • Structural catergory of  a neuron:unipolar, multipolar, etc
  35. Which lymphatic organ contains red pulp and white pulp?
  36. With respect to the lymphatic system, what do the letters in the acronym MALT stand for?
    Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue
  37. True or False
    The right and left coronary arteries are the only branches of the ascending aorta.
  38. True or False
    Of the three artery types, the elastic arteries have the better ability to vasoconstrict and vasodilate.
  39. True or False
    Among the advantages of the cerebral anterial circle the presence of collateral channels of blood flow to the brain
    a supply artery become blocked.
  40. True or False
    The contraction of skeletal muscles plays an important role in the movement of blood in the veins.
  41. True or False
    The liver is unique in that it receives both oxygenated blood from the brain.
  42. True or False
    The superior sagittal sinus drains deoxygenated blood from the brain.
  43. True or False
    The umbilical arteries bring blood back to the fetal heart, and the umbilical veins return blood to the placenta.
  44. The movement of a body part towards the midline of the body is called:
  45. Clenching fingers to make a fist, then relaxing and straghtening them is an example of:
    flexor and extensor
  46. The joint movement called eversion involves
    turning the sole of the foot laterally
  47. Which does not correctly pair a movement with its opposing movement
  48. Which is a correct listing of a skeletal muscle's components. Beginning with the smallest.
    • a,b,c,d
    • myofribrils, muscle fibers, fascicle, skeletal muscle
  49. Which is the correct order of connective tissue layer's of a skeletal muscle, beginning with the outermost first.
    Endomysium, perimysium, endomysium
  50. Which proteins make up the thick filaments?
  51. What is the letter associated with the dark bands in a sacromere?
    I bands, A bands, Zbands, M bands, H bands
    I bands
  52. What incorrectly describes what happens during skeletal muscle contraction?
    The Z discs of a sacromere more farther apart
  53. The muscle has its origin on the manubrium and sternal end of the clavicle and its insertion on the mastoid process.
  54. The most medial of the abdominal muscles are:
    rectus abdominus
  55. A large diamond-shaped muscle that extends from the skull and vertebral comlumn to the pectoral girdle laterally.  It depresses, retracts, or rotates the scapula.
  56. The prime extensor of the elbow joint is the
    triceps bracchi muscle
  57. The muscle that makes u the "calf" of the leg is the 
  58. The figure is pointing the deltoid.
    Now where deltoid is in an anterior figure.
  59. The peripheral nervous system includes all, except:
    spinal cord
  60. The nervous system has 3 general functions to perform:
    selet the exception:
    Transporting materieals throughout the body
  61. The afferent division of the nervous system is also known as the:
    sensory division
  62. The portion of the nervous system that sends sensations from the skin, joints, skeletal muscles, and special senses is the 
    somatic sensory
  63. The portion of the nervous system that has (usually) voluntary control over skeletal muscles is the 
    visceral sensory
  64. The glial cell that helps to form cerebrospinal fluid is the 
  65. The glial cell that depends the CNS against pathogens is the 
    ependymal cell
  66. The glial cell that protects and supports neuron cell bodies located with in ganglia is the 
    satellite cell
  67. What is a nerve
    a cablelike bundle of parallel axons
  68. Axon communicate with 3 possible items.  Select the exception:
    other neurons
  69. An anterior muscle with an origin on the femur and an insertion on the tibia would be able to produce which of the following body movements?
    Extension of the knee
  70. The meninx composed of a delicate web of collagen and elastic fibers is:
  71. The brain ventricle located between the pons and the cerebellum is:
    4th ventricle
  72. Excess CSF is removed from the subarachnoid space by small structures called
    arachnoid villi
  73. Clusters of gray matter containing neuron cell bodies that lie with in the CNS are called 
    cerebrul peduncles
  74. This space contains areolar connective tissue and adipose connective tissue and surrounds the spinal cord.
    Epidural space
    central canal 
    subdural space
    subarachnoid space
    epiarachnoid space
    subarachnoid space
  75. Which of the abdominal muscles has its fibers running in an inferomedial direction (as though you were putting your hands in your front pockets)?
    External obliques
  76. Which is not one of the hamstring group of muscles?
    Rectus femoris
  77. A sickle-shaped vertical partiction of dura mater that divides the left and right cerebellar hemispheres is the:
    falx cerebelli
  78. A muscle with an origin on the posterior tibia and an insertion on the calcaneus would be likely to perform which of the following
    flexion at the knee
    extension at the knee
    Plantar flexion
  79. Name of the structure: Pons
    Know cranial nerve Oculomotor
    Know atheist cranial nerve is that innervates the eye
    know these
  80. Awareness of sensation is located in the _____________ of the cerebral cortex.
    postcentral gyrus
  81. Name a type of muscle tissue with striations and multiple nuclei per cell.
  82. Name two types of tissues that have lacunae surrounding the cells.
    • Elastic cartilage
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • Fibrocartilage
  83. Embryonic connective tissue is called
  84. Name the specific tissue layers composing a mucous membrane, from superficial to deep.
    • 1. Moist, stratisfied squamous epithelium or simple columnar epithelium
    • 2. Basement membrane
    • 3. Loose connective (areolar) tissue
  85. Fibrocartilage
    Predominant cell type
    Body Location
    • Chrondrocyte
    • symphysis pubis,
    • intervertebral discs, or
    • menisci of knee 
  86. Dense regular connective tissue
    Predominant cell type
    Body location
    • Fibroblast
    • tendons or ligaments
  87. Adipose
    Predominant cell type
    Body location
    • Adipocytes 
    • found wherever loose connective is
    •  (hypodermis);  
    • around kidneys,
    • behind eyeball,
    • on heart surface,
    • around joints
  88. What is the tissue that covers surfaces and lines the inside of organs and body cavities?
    Epithelium tissue
  89. Nervous
    Predominant cell type
    Body location
    • Neuron
    • brain,
    • spinal cord,
    • nerves,
    • sense organs
  90. Cells within epithelium are held together laterally by special connections called junctions.  Which junction provides a direct passageway for small molecules to pass one cell to another?
    Gap junctions
  91. A ______plane cut perpendicular to the long axis of the body or organ?
  92. Where would pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium  be found?
    lining portions of the respiratory system
  93. What type of epithelium would be suited for high levels of diffusion and filtration?
    Simple Squamous Epithelium
  94. Connective tissue included all of these choices except?
    A. Adipose
    B. Bone
    C. Ligaments
    D. All are types of connective tissue

    D. All are types of connective tissue
  95. The unit of compact bone tissue that consists of central canal containing blood vessels and nerves and is surrounded by concentric rings of calcified bone is?
    An Osteon
  96. A metatarsal bone is an example of 
    long bone
  97. The heart is confined within a double walled serous membrane sac.  The part of the membrane that is in contact with the heart is the ___________ layer.
  98. The type of muscle that has elongated, peripheral multinucleated cells and is under voluntary control is?
  99. The medullary cavity of a long mone is lined with a thin layer of tissue called?
  100. The directional term that means "away from the midline of the body is?
  101. Where in the body would you find glial cells?
    The nervous system
  102. Which best defines "superficial"?
    On the outside
  103. The directional term that means close to the point of attachment to the trunk is?
  104. The axillary region is the ________ to the pectoral region.
  105. The best view of the popliteal region is seen from the 
    Posterior view
  106. A professional fighter hit in the mental region would have damage to the?
  107. If you had a disease that prevented collagen from forming in your body, which of the tissues would you expect to be most affected?
    Connective Tissue
  108. In compact bone _________ connect osteocytes to other osteocytes in lacunae there by providing a pathway for nutrient and other materials between osteocytes.
  109. The moist two layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is called
  110. Of the abdominopelvic regions the one that is superior of the middle column is called the?
    Epigastric region
  111. What is the regional term for the hip?
  112. The formation of bone from a cartilage model is termed?
    Endochondral ossification
  113. Bone growth in which the bone increases in diameter is called?
    Appositional Growth
  114. Which hormone inhibits rather than stimulates bone growth?
    Parathyroid hormone
  115. What are the steps in the process of bone repair following a fracture:
    • Fracture hematoma forms
    • Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
    • Bony callus forms
    • Bone is remodeled
  116. Which bones form each pectoral girdle?
    Clavicle & Scapula
  117. The bones of the antebrachium are the?
    Radius & Ulna
  118. In anatomic position the ulna lies ________ to the radius.
  119. The layers of tissue in a hollow internal organ from the lumen to the external organ would be in the following order?
  120. Epithelium Tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Smooth muscle
    • Connective tissue
    • Epithelial tissue
  121. Which fetal fontanel is found at the junction of the parietal bone and temporal bone?
    Mastoid Fontanel
  122. What are risk factors for osteoporosis?
    • Smoking 
    • Small body size
  123. From deep to superficial the order of the strata of the epidermis is?
  124. Hint: But Skin Grows Like Corn
    • Stratum basale
    • Stratum spinosum
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum lucidym
    • Stratum corneium
  125. Know the plural cavity from picture of lungs in chest.
    Know the picure of the perforating canals in the tissue.
    Picture of plural cavity and perforating canals in the tissue
  126. CSF Flow
    • Choroid plesus in the lateral ventricles produces CSF.  
    • CSF flows through interventricular foramina into third ventricle.
    • Choroid plexus in the third ventricle adds more CSF.
    • CSF flows down the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle.
    • Choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle adds more CSF.
    • CSF flows out two lateral apertures and one medial aperture.  
    • CSF fills the subarachnoid space and bathes external surfaces of brain and spinal cord.
    • At the arachnoid villi, CSF is reabsorbed into venous blood of the dural venous sinuses.
  127. Nervous system process for hand on hot stove scenario
    • Heat sensation would be detected by the sensory receptors of the somatic sensory in the afferent division of the peripheral nervous system.
    • This information is then sent to the central nervous system who would make the decision to remove the hand, and then send the information back to the peripheral nervous system through the efferent division to the somatic sensory's skeletal muscle effector who would move the hand.
  128. Nervous system process for upset stomach
    Nauseated feeling would be detected by the sensory receptors of the visceral sensory in the afferent division of the peripheral nervous system.  This information is then sent to the central nervous system who would make the decision to throw up.  Then send the information back to the peripheral nervous system through the efferent division's muscle effector which would then tell your stomach to throw up.
  129. The tissue type that covers surfaces and lines the inside of organs and body cavities is 
  130. Cells within an epithelium are held together laterally by special connections called junctions.  Which junction provides a direct passageway for small molecules to pass from one cell to another?
    Gap junctions
  131. Suppose you had a disease that prevented collagen from forming in your body.  Which of the the tissues would you expect to be most affected?
  132. This figure shows a frontal view of a human.  What does number 1 and number 2?
    • Mediastinum
    • L. pleural cavity
  133. This figure shows the femur.  The view shown is the 
    posterior surface of the right femur
  134. Bones cells called _______ break down bone by dissolving the matrix.
  135. Which bones are part of the axial skeleton?
    A. Cervical vertebra
    B. Ribs
    C. Clavicle
    D. All of the above
    E. A and B only
    A and B only
  136. In anatomic position, the ulna lies ____ to the _____.
    Medial; distal
  137. Identify the bone in the figure:
    Right scapula
    • Trapezium
    • Acronium
    • Right scapula
  138. The layers of the tissue in a hollow internal organ, from the lumen to the external organ, would be in the following order
    Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, smooth muscle, connective tissue, epithelial tissue
  139. Which fetal fonatel is found at the junction of the parietal bone, occipital bone, and temporal bone?
    Mastoid fontanel
  140. Which of the following is a risk factor for osteoporosis?
    A. B and D

    B. Male Gender
    C. Small body size
    D. Smoking
    E. African ancestry
    A. B and D
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  141. From deep to superficial, the order of the strata of the epidermis is
  142. The epithelium lining the vagina is
    stratisfied squamous
  143. Identify the homologous gland (in females) to the male bulbourethral gland
    Greater Vestibule Gland
  144. Which ducts will develop into the uterine tubes in an anatomic female?
    Müllerian ducts