Psychology Notes

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Psychology Notes
2012-12-02 06:39:48

Psychology notes. Units 3 + 4
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  1. What does the Sympathetic Nervous System do?
    Activates internal muscles, organs and glands to prepare the body for vigorous activity, or to deal with a stressful or threatening situation.
  2. What does the Parasympathetic Nervous System do?
    Restores the body into a state of calm once the need for the activity of the Sympathetic Nervous System has passed.
  3. What does the Nervous System link to?
    The Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System.
  4. What does the Central Nervous System link to?
    The Brain and the Spinal Cord.
  5. What does the Peripheral Nervous System link to?
    The Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System.
  6. What does the Somatic Nervous System do?
    Transmits messages from the sensory receptors to the Central Nervous System and controls voluntary movement of skeletal movements.
  7. What does the Autonomic Nervous System do?
    Connects the brain with the body's internal glands and organs.
  8. What does the Autonomic Nervous System link to?
    The Sympathetic Nervous System and the Parasympathetic Nervous System.
  9. What is Psychology related to?
    Mental processes and Behaviour.
  10. What are Mental processes?
    • Thinking
    • Percieving
    • Learning
    • Remembering
    • Problem-solving
    • Judging
    • Indirectly observable
    • Private
    • Internal
  11. What is Behaviour?
    • Smiling
    • Crying
    • Talking
    • Touching
    • Sweating
    • Flirting
    • Directly observable
  12. What does Psychology refer to?
    The scientific study of mental processes and behaviour.
  13. Define Mental processes.
    A person's thoughts and feelings which are personal or subjectiveand cannot be directly observed.
  14. Define Behaviour.
    Any action made by a living person that can be directly observed; this is the way people physically express their thoughts and feelings when interacting with the environment.
  15. What factors may psychologists consider when studying mental processes and behaviour?
    • Biological factors-
    • -The brain
    • -Brain chemistry
    • -Nervous system
    • -Heredity
    • Psychology factors-
    • -Personality
    • -Attitudes
    • Socio-cultural factors-
    • -Life experiences
    • -Cultural influences
    • -Values
  16. What are experiments used for?
    To test whether one variable influences or causes a change in another variable.
  17. What is a variable?
    Any factor that can change in amount or kind over time.
  18. What is the Independant Variable?
    The variable which is systematically manipulated in some way by the experimenter in order to determine its effect on the particcipant's resopnse.
  19. What is the Dependant Variable?
    The variable which shows any effects of the independant variable on the individual's response, and is the variable expected to change as a result of manipulation of the independant variable.
  20. What is the difference between the Independant Variable and the Dependant Variable?
    The independant variable is the suspected cause of the change in the dependant variable which is measured to determine the effect ofn teh participant's response.
  21. What is the Experimental Condition?
    The purpose of the experimantal group is to determine the effect of the independant variable on the participant's response. The independant variable is present.
  22. What is the Control Condition?
    It provides a baseline for comparisons with the results of the experimental group. The independant variable is not present.
  23. What are the steps in Psychological Research?
    • 1. Formulating the research question.
    • 2. Contructing a hypothesis.
    • 3. Designing the method.
    • 4. Collecting the data.
    • 5. Analysing and interpreting the data.
    • 6. Reporting the findings.
  24. What is a Research Hypothesis?
    A testable prediction of the relationship between two or more variables.
  25. What 5 things need to be in a Research Hypothesis?
    • 1. Independant variable
    • 2. Dependant variable
    • 3.Population
    • 4. The direction of the relationship
    • 5. Comparison group
  26. What does an Operational Independant Variable do?
    Specifically defines how the independant variable will be administered.
  27. What does an Operational Dependant Variable do?
    Specifically defines how the dependant variable will be observed and measured.
  28. What is Convenience Sampling?
    Participants are selected baased on their availiability.
  29. What is Random Sampling?
    Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
  30. What are the steps for Stratified Sampling?
    • 1. Dividing the popuation into distinct subgroups or strata.
    • 2. Taking a sample from each subgroup in the same ratio as they occur in the population of research interest.
  31. What are the steps for Random-Stratified Sampling?
    • 1. Dividing the popuation into distinct subgroups or strata.
    • 2. Taking a RANDOM sample from each subgroup in the same ratio as they occur in the population of research interest.
  32. What is Random Allocation?
    Every participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being selected for either the experimental group or the control group.
  33. What happens in the Independant-Groups Design?
    Participants are allocated to the experimental group or the control group.
  34. What are the two steps in the Matched-Participants Design?
    • 1. The researcher identifies a confounding variable that is believed to have a major effect on the data.
    • 2. Participants are ranked according to their scores on this variable, and then evenly allocated to the experimental and control groups.
  35. What happens in the Repeated-Measures Design?
    Each participant undertakes the experimental condition and the control condition.
  36. What is Quantitative Data?
    Information about the quantity or amount of what is being studied. Numerical data.
  37. What is Qualitative Data?
    Information about particular qualities or characteristics. Non-numerical data.
  38. What is Objective Data?
    Information that comes from a standard measurement.
  39. What is Subjective Data?
    Information based on an opinion.
  40. What does a Case Study involve?
    Researchers making adetailed observations of an individual, group or event over a period of time.
  41. What do Observational Studies refer to?
    A specific approach to collect data by carefully watching and recording behaviour as it occurs.
  42. What is Naturalistic Observation?
    Recording of voluntry behaviours occuring within the participant's normal environment.
  43. What is Controlled Observation?
    Recording of voluntry ehaviours within a structured environment such as a laboratory.