Final Exam- intro

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  1. loss of language as a result of brain damage (affects listening, speaking, reading and writing)
    • Can affect comprehension and/or expression
  2. intellectual decline due to neurogenic causes
    • Umbrella term for a group of pathological conditions and syndromes
  3. swallowing disorder; food enters the airway
  4. endoscopy through the nose to look at swallowing; looking into the nasal space to see from above how the palate works
  5. bleeding within the brain
    • Type of CVA (stroke)
    • Aneurysm, a sack-like bulge on the wall of weakened artery, causes a stroke. The bulge may rupture, causing a cerebral hemorrhage
  6. a ridge on the cortex; the cortex has many gyri (plural)
    • “hills”
  7. a center in the temporal lobe thought to be responsible for both understanding/comprehension and formulation of speech
    • Mainly known for comprehension
    Wernicke’s area
  8. a disorder of sequenced movement of body parts in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis
    • A difficulty in initiating and executing the movement patterns necessary to produce speech when there is no paralysis, weakness, or discoordination of speech muscles
    • Articulation disorders are prominent as a result
    • Difficulty with motor planning/execution
    Apraxia of speech
  9. • Food being propelled back from esophagus and into the pharynx
    • Backflow of food and stomach acid into the esophagus
  10. brain function; neural component; origination from nervous tissues
  11. shallow valley on the surface of the brain
    • “grooves
  12. relatively deep alleys of the brain that form boundaries of broad divisions of the cerebellum (mini brain)
  13. a center for motor speech control within the frontal lobe of the brain
    • Responsible for expressive part of language
    Broca’s Area
  14. a group of speech disorders due to paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles caused by central or peripheral nerve damage
    • Problems with motor execution
    • Affects respiration, phonation, resonance, articulation, and speech prosody
    • Neurogenic communication disorder: some type of neurological deficit underlies it
  15. getting food into the body in order to get the proper nutrients for life
  16. getting water and other liquids into the body to sustain life
  17. improvement to some degree without much help from the SLP
    Spontaneous Recovery
  18. problems with swallowing food or liquid, due to neurological problems (stoke, head injury)
  19. moving x-ray pictures of the swallowing mechanism are taken when the patient swallows food of various consistencies
  20. A decrease in the blood supply to a bodily organ, tissue, or part caused by constriction or obstruction of the blood vessels.
    • the most common kind of stroke; caused by an interruption in the flow of blood to the brain (as from a clot blocking a blood vessel)
  21. EMG
    • Electromyography
    • • Records the electrical activity of the laryngeal muscles
  22. RHD
    • Right Hemisphere Damage
    • • Causes neglect anosgnosia, impaired judgement/self monitoring, lack of motivation and inatiention, communication problems
  23. TBI
    Traumatic Brain Injury
  24. NPO
    • Nothing by Mouth
    • • A non-oral feeding intervention used when patients are at risk for aspiration
  25. FEES
    Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing
  26. GERD
    Gastroesophogeal reflux disorder
  27. CVA
    • Cerebrovascular Accident
    • • Stroke
  28. PNS
    • Peripheral nervous system
    • • Spinal and cranial nerves
  29. CNS
    • Central nervous system
    • • Brain and spinal cord
  30. AD
    • Alzheimer Disease
    • • One kind of dementia
  31. PHW
    • Penetrating Head Wound
    • • Type of TBI
  32. ALS
    • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    • • Lou Gehrig’s Disease
    • • Neurogenic speech disorder that affects nervous system
  33. PD
    • Parkinson’s disease
    • • Affects nervous system
    • • Reduced amount of movement
  34. MS
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • • Autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system)
  35. ANS
    • Autonomic Nervous System
    • • Is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions
  36. List four types of aphasia 
    • a. Anomic (problem with names)
    • b. Broca’s aphasia (problem with speech out put)
    • c. Wernicke’s aphasia (comprehension problems)
    • d. Global aphasia (problems with all four: comprehension, flow of output, ability to repeat, and ability to produce names)
  37. Describe how the left cerebral hemisphere is involved in language. a. Controls motor and sensory information from right side of the body b. Dominant for language skills (language based and processing) c. Language i. Past and future ii. Grammar/words iii. Intonation/emphasis iv. Pattern perception (comprehension and finding words to say)
    • a. Controls motor and sensory information from right side of the body
    • b. Dominant for language skills (language based and processing)
    • c. Language
    •   i. Past and future
    •   ii. Grammar/words
    •   iii. Intonation/emphasis
    •   iv. Pattern perception (comprehension and finding words to say)
  38. Describe the broad categories in an adult language assessment.
    • a. General language performance (everyday use)
    • b. Functional communication (communication in social situations)
    • c. Auditory comprehension
    • d. Oral expressive language
    • e. Reading and writing skills
    • f. Gestures and other nonverbal means of communication
    • g. Conversational skills
    • h. Specific aspects of language GFAORGCS
  39. List and explain the 3 main objective of language treatment for adults. 
    • a. Restore: get back whatever we can
    • b. Compensate: find new ways to do things
    • c. Adjust: pertain as much voice and personality as possible; make some changes RCA
  40. List 4 types of dysarthria in adults following the Mayo Clinic System.
    • a. Flaccid
    • b. Spastic
    • c. Ataxic
    • d. Mixed FSAM
  41. List potential causes of dysarthria and apraxia.
    • a. Dysarthria
    •   i. Many vascular and neurological diseases cause dysarthria
    •   ii. Strokes, TBI, Parkinson’s disease, ALS
    •   iii. Strokes, TBI, and degenerative neurological diseases cause dysarthria because they impair the normal function of speech muscles

    • b. Apraxia
    •   i. Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere
    •   ii. Lesions in Broca’s area in the left frontal lobe
    •   iii. Stroke- injury to frontal and parietal lobe
  42. List at least 3 specific evaluation tasks designed to evaluate dyarthria.
    • a. Determine existence of significant problem
    • b. Describe the nature of impair functions: type, severity, and effect on everyday communication
    • c. Identify functions that are NOT impaired
    • d. Establish appropriate goals
    • e. Form a well reasoned prognosis
  43. List all four phases of normal swallowing.
    • a. Oral preparatory stage
    •   i. Mastication and preparation of bolus
    • b. Oral Stage
    •   i. Transit of bolus through oral cavity
    • c. Pharyngeal Stage
    •   i. Transit of bolus thru the pharynx
    • d. Esophageal stage
    •   i. Transit of bolus thru the esophagus
  44. Name two cranial nerves that are important for swallowing.
    • a. Hypoglossal CN XII
    • b. Trigeminal CN V
  45. Describe the role the cranial nerves in #3 play in swallowing function
    • a. CN III Occulomotor
    •    i. Vision and eye movement
  46. List 3 causes of swallowing problems in adults.
    • a. Stroke
    • b. Cancer of mouth, throat, or larynx
    • c. HIV/AIDS
  47. List three types of swallowing intervention.
    • a. Swallowing techniques
    • b. Surgical intervention
    • c. Pharmaceutical intervention
  48. List three alternative means of nutrition.
    • a. Nasogastric tube
    • b. Gastronomy
    • c. Jejunostomy 
  49. Briefly explain language loss in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type.
    • a. The symptoms have a slow onset for most patients
    • b. Individual may be unable to name things and person then progresses to not being able to understand what people are telling them
    • c. Conversational skills deteriorate quickly
    • d. Mild naming problems → difficulty in understanding what people tell them → problems in describing → conversational skills deteriorate quickly → speech production becomes limited and even incoherent or irrelevant
  50. Name an assessment test (battery) and a treatment approach for dementia.
    • a. ABCD: Arizona Battery for Communicative Disorders in Dementia
    • b. Treatment approach: TEAM EFFORT
  51. List 2 functions for each lobe of the cerebrum.
    • a. Frontal lobe
    •   i. Speech production (Broca’s area)
    •   ii.
    • b. Temporal Lobe
    •   i. Hearing (primary auditory cortex)
    •   ii. Language  (Wernicke’s area)
    • c. Occipital Lobe
    •   i. Primary visual area
    • d. Parietal Lobe
    •   i. Primary sensory cortex ( sense of touch, pressure and positions of body)
    • e. Insula or Isle of Reil
  52. Provide the name, number, motor (and sensory if applicable) function of 3 CN important for speech production.
    • a. Trigeminal V
    •   i. Motor: moves jaw and tongue
    •   ii. Sensory: face
    • b. Facial VII
    •   i. Motor: facial expression
    •   ii. Sensory: tongue
    • c. Hypogloassal XII
    •   i. Motor: tongue
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Final Exam- intro
2012-12-01 19:13:39
CMDS 3000

Chapter 10
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