Endocrine System Vocabulary

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Endocrine System Vocabulary
2012-12-01 20:03:23
Chapter 16 anatomy endocrine

Endocrine System Vocabulary
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  1. Hormone-producing glands located superior to the kidneys; each consists of medulla & cortex areas.
    Adrenal glands (suprarenals)
  2. Anterior pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex.
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  3. Initial reaction to stress.
    Alarm reaction
  4. Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+ reabsorption & K+ secretion by the kidneys.
  5. An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP.
    Adenylate cyclase
  6. Potent vasoconstrictor activated by renin; also triggers release of aldosterone.
    Angiotensin II
  7. Hormone that stimulates kidneys to reabsorb more water, reducing urine volume; produced by the hypothalamus & released by posterior pituitary
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  8. Hormone released by certain cells of the heart atria that reduces blood pressure & volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and Na+ & H20 retention.
    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
  9. Hormone that lowers blood calcium levels only when present at high levels; released by thyroid.
  10. A physiologically active metabolic derivative of cholecalciferol that is synthesized in the liver & kidney, stimulates the intestinal absorption of calcium.
  11. Intracellular molecule generated by the binding of a chemical (hormone or neurotransmitter) to a plasma membrane receptor; mediates intracellular responses to the chemical messenger.
    cAMP (second messenger)
  12. Intestinal hormone that stimulates gallbladder constraction & pancreatic juice release.
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  13. Reduction in a cellular resonse to a molecule due to a decrease in the number of receptors on the cell surface.
    Down regulation
  14. Homeostasis mechanism that monitors hormones within the body and self-corrects to maintain a therapeutic level of the hormone.
    Endocrine feedback loop
  15. Chief hormone produced by the adrenal medulla, also called adrenaline.
  16. Hormones that stimulates female secondary sex characteristics; femal sex hormone.
  17. Hormone that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females & sperm production in males; produced by anterior pituitary.
    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  18. Hormone that regulates gastric juice secretion by stimulating HCL production; secreted in stomach.
  19. Sequence of physiological reaction to prolonged stress that includes alarm, resistance & exhaustion.
    General adaptation syndrome
  20. Hormone that targets anterior pituitary to release growth hormones; synthesized in hypothalamus.
    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
  21. Hormone that raises glucose level of blood; formed by alpha cells of pancreatic islets.
  22. Formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules.
  23. Breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
  24. Regulatory molecules inside cells that couple membrane receptors to intracellular second messengers.
  25. Hollow muscle that pumps blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions.  Found in all animals with a circulatory system.
  26. Hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced by anterior pituitary.
    Human growth hormone (hGH)
  27. Hormone specifically bound to it's receptor either on the plasma membrane or intracellularly.
    Hormone-receptor complex
  28. Steroidal or amino acid-based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions.
  29. Region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the 3rd ventrical of the brain; directly above the pituitary gland.
  30. Glycoprotein hormone that inhibits secretion of follicle stimulating hormone; secreted by pituitary gland.
  31. Hormone that enhances the carrier-mediated diffusion of glucose in tissue cells, lowering blood glucose levels.
  32. Pair of vertebrate organs situated in the body cavity near the spinal cord that excretes wast products of metablism.
  33. An enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding a phosphate group, usually results in a functional change of the protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins.
    Kinase proteins
  34. Type of hormones that encompass all amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormones; act on receptors in the plasma membrane.
    Lipid insoluble hormones (water soluble)
  35. Type of horome (steroid & thyroid) that act on intracellular receptors which directly activate genes.
    Lipid soluble hormones
  36. Lobed accessory organ that overlines the stomach; produces bile to help digest fat and serves metabolic & regulatory functions.
  37. Biologically active lipids released by nearly all cell membranes.  Typically highly localized, acting as paracrines & autocrines, so do not fit the definition of true hormones.
  38. Hormones that act within tissues that produced them to stimulate actions required for growth:
    1.  Uptake of nutrients from blood & their incorporation into proteins & DNA allowing growth by cell division;
    2.  Formation of collagen & deposition of bone matrix.
    Insulin-like growth factors (IGF)
  39. Local hormone that is a gaseous chemical messenger; diverse functions include participation in memory formation in the brain, and causing vasodilation throughout the body.
    Nitric oxide
  40. Anterior pituitary hormone that aids maturation of cells in the ovary & triggers ovulation in females.  In males, causes interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone.
    Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  41. CNS neurotransmitter involved in control of appetite; low levels found in plasma.  Comes from pro-opiomelancortin (POMC).
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
  42. Hormone secreted by the pineal glands; secretion peaks at night & helps set sleep-wake cycles; also a powerful anti-oxidant.
  43. Catecholamine neurotransmitter & adrenal medullary hormone, asociated with sympathetic nervous system activation.
  44. Female reproductive organs in which ova are produced; female gonad.
  45. Hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus & secreted by the posterior pituitary; stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth & ejection of milk during nursing.
  46. Gland located behind the stomach, between the spleen & duodenum; produces both endocrine & exocrine secretions.
  47. Small endocrine glands, usually 4, located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
    Parathyroid glands
  48. Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level.
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) phosphorylated enzymes
  49. Hormone-secreting part of the diencephalon of the brain thought to be involved in setting the biological clock & influencing reproductive function.
    Pineal gland
  50. Neuroendocrine gland located beneath the brain that serves a variety of functions including regulation of gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, lactation & water balance.
    Pituitary gland
  51. Glandular part of pituitary gland that produces hormones in response to signals from hypothalamus.
    Anterior lobe (adenohypohysis)
  52. Stalk of tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
  53. Portion of the pituitary derived from the brain that stores hormones produced in the hypothalamus.
    Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
  54. Hormone partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum.
  55. Adenohypophyseal hormone that stimulates the breasts to produce milk.
    Prolactin (PRL)
  56. Protein that binds specifically with chemical molecules.
  57. Hormone produced by placenta that causes pelvic ligaments & pubic symphysis to relax, widen & become more flexible in preparation for childbirth.
  58. Hormones secreted by neurons in the ventral hypothalamus that circulate to the anterior pituitary where they regulate secretion of its hormones.
    Releasing & inhibiting hormones
  59. Hormone released by the kidneys that is involved with raising blood pressure.
  60. External sac enclosing the testes.
  61. Peptide secreted from the duodenum, triggering pancreas & liver to to release bicarbone-rich juice and inhibits secretory activity of the stomach.
  62. Temporary reservoir in the GI tract where chemical breakdown of proteins begins & food is converted into chyme.
  63. The specific tissues that specific hormones are meant to influence.
    Target cells
  64. Male primary reproductive organ that produces sperm; male gonad.
  65. Male sex hormone produced by the testes; during puberty promotes virilization and is necessary for normal sperm production.
  66. Lympoid organ & endocrine gland active in immune response; site of maturation of T lymphocytes.
    • Thymus
  67. One of the larges of the body's endocrine glands; straddles the anterior trachea.
  68. Tissue mass that connect the two lateral lobes of the thyroid.
  69. Major hormones secreted by the thyroid follicles, stimulates enzymes concerned with glucose oxidation; Thyroxine (T4) Iodine containing hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; accelarates cellular metabolic rate in most body tissues.
    Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
  70. Hypothalamic peptide that triggers TSH release from cells of the anterior pituitary.
    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; prolactin releasing hormone)
  71. Adenohypophyseal hormone that regulates secretion of thyroid hormones.
    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  72. A process by which target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specific hormones to which they respond.
    Up regulation