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How many cranial nerves are there?
12 pairs of cranial nerves
How many spinal nerves are there?
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Where does the first spinal nerve emerge?
The first cervical nerve between the atlas and occipital bone
Where do the spinal nerves emerge?
- Spinal nerves emerge through the intervertebral foramina
How are the spinal nerves organized?
- 8 pairs of cervical spinal nerves
- 12 pairs of thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacral
- 1 coccygeal
Organized by the name of the vertbra sections in order from head to coccyx.
What is the name for motor nerves? Do these nerves carry information to or from the Central Nervous System?
Efferent (motor) neurons carry information to and from the Central Nervous System.
What nerves are sensory only? Do they carry information to or from the CNS?
Afferent (sensory) neurons such as optic, olfactory, and auditory nerves, carry information to the CNS via Efferent neurons.
What are examples of mixed nerves of motor and senory?
- Vagus Nerve
- Spinal Nerves at their origins
What are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
- Somatic so-ma-tic
- Autonomic auto-no-mic
What does the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system do?
- Somatic division of nerves controls skeletal muscles
- Registers conscious sensory information
What does the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system do?
Controls involuntary activities
What are the divisions of autonomic nerves?
- 1) para-sym-pa-the-tic
- 2) sym-pa-the-tic
What do parasympathetic nerves control?
Parasympathetic nerves control actvites under non-stressful conditions
What does sympathetic division of nerves control?
The Sympathetic division of nerves controls reactions under stress.
Recall the memory device for the names of the cranial nerves from I to XII.
Match the memory devices with the names of the cranial nerves and funtions for O3
- Optic ----------Vision
- Oculomotor ---Moves:
- Controls iris
Match the memory devices with the names of the cranial nerves and funtions for T2.
- Tro-chl-ear -------- moves eyeball
- Tri-ge-min-al ------chewing
Match the memory devices with the names of the cranial nerves and funtions for: A fox and goat vactioned at Hawaii.
- Ad-du-cens ------------------Moves Eyeball
- Facial ------------------Facial Expression, saliva, tears
- Vest-i-bul-oco-chlear----Hearing and Balance
- Glossopharyngeal------------Taste, Production of Saliva
- Vagus -------------------------Slows heart rate, Stimulates
- Accesory (spinal _-----------Turning of the head
- Hypoglossal------------------Moving of the tongue
What is an effector?
The effector is the gland or muscle that causes the response, stimulated by the nervous system. So, for example, when you touch somthing hot the muscle that draws your hand away would be the effector.
What are the location the neurons within the peripheral nervous system within the somatic division?
In the somatic division, motor neurons have a cell body in the CNS and an axon that extends to the effector.
What are the two neurons in series for a motor pathway?
1) The pre-gang-li-onic neuron has its cell body in the CNS and an axon (usually myelinated) that extends to an autonomic ganglion
2) The second neuron, (post-gang-li-onic neurton) has its cell body in a ganglion and its unmyelinated axon extends to the effector.
For the sympathetic division are the neurons preganglionic or postganglionic?
In the sympathetic division, neurons are preganglionic
What are the two locations of sympathetic division neurons?
- 1) Preganglionic neurons in the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord and autonomic ganglia in the sympathetic trunk
- a) a row of gangia on either side of the vertebral column
- 2) In a collateral ganglion such as the celiac ganglion.
What are the three locations of parasympathetic division of neurons? Are they preganglionic or postganglionic?
- 1) are in the brain for the cranial nerves
- 2) in some sacral segments of the spinal cord
- 3) has autonomic ganglia very close to or in the wall of visceral organs
What neurons are involved in neurotransmitions?
What neurotransmitters do cholinergic neurons use?
All sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons and all parasympatheic postganglionic neurons use what neurotransmitter and what is the name of this type of neuron?
acetylcholine, cholinergic neurons
What are the possible neurotransmitters for ad-ren-er-gic neurons?
- norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
- epinephrine (adrenaline)
What neurotransmitter is most likely to be used in sympathetic postganglionic axons?
Other neurotransmitters what are not acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or epinephrine are derived from what?
amino acids or peptides
Where are the receptors for neurotransmitters located?
What sense receptor responds to chemicals, including odors, taste, fluid composition such as pH?
What sense receptor responds to heat or cold?
What sense receptor responds to light?