AP PSYCH Sensation & Perception

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Chocolatexx14
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AP PSYCH Sensation & Perception
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2012-12-02 01:41:34
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ap pysch sensation perception
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AP PSYCH Sensation and Perception
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  1. Compare/Contrast
    Sensation (Bottom Up Processing)
    Perception (Top Down Processing)
    • Sensation
    • The Stimulation of Sense organs
    • Bottom Up= Progression form INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS to the WHOLE
    • Info starts with sensory receptors and organs working to higher levels
    • Perception
    • The selection, organization and interpretation of sensory input
    • Top Down Processing= Progression from the WHOLE to INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS
    • Experience/Expectations influence what we see
  2. How is stimulus intensity related to absolute thresholds and JNDs?
    • Absolute Threshold= The minimum threshold needed for detection 50% of the time.
    • JND= The smallest amount of difference that can be detected
  3. How is Weber's Law related to JND and how do these relate to psychophysics?
    • Webers Law=States that the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus.
    • Fechner's Law States that larger and larger increases in stimulus intensity are
    • required to produce perceptible increments in the magnitude of sensation.
    • Provides an explanation for Weber's Law
    • JND= The smallest amount of difference that can be detected
    • Psychophysics= Study of how physical energy translates to psychological experience (sensory)
    • JND
    • Intensity change=NOT NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE
  4. What are the 4 Potential Outcomes related to signal detection theory?
    • Signal Detection Theory= Predicts when we detect weak signals near a threshold level
    • FOUR SIGNALS
    • Hit- Correctly detected stimulus (answering a phone correctly)
    • Miss- Stimulus occured, but was not detected (missed call)
    • Correct rejection- No stimulus occured, and none reported (no phone action)
    • False Alarm- No stimulus occured, but one was detected (Feeling phone vibrate, but nothing happened)
  5. Summarize the usage of Subliminal Messages & Discuss its practical implications
    • Subliminal Perception- Stimuli below the absolute threshold....stimuli that are too weak/brief for us to notice
    • Used to help remember things
    • Used in Videos for advertisement/entertainment
  6. What is the significance of Sensory Adaptation?
    • SENSORY ADJUSTMENT
    • Sensory Adaptation- Stimulation that is repetitious or unchanged eventually disappears.
    • ¬†EX: Adapting to a perfume used on a daily basis
    • Habituation- Process of gradually adapting to stimuli that dont change.
    • Our sensory systems are built to detect change
    • Dishabituation- the reappearance of stimulation
    • Sensory Deprivation- Absence of normal levels of sensory stimuli
    • people cant take this for long periods of time, but they compensate after a few days
    • EX: People talk to themselves in prison-->need stimulation of senses
    • Sensory overload- Excessive stimulation can lead to fatigue and mental confusion
    • (Cocktail Party Phenomena)
  7. Advantages/Disadvantages of Selective Attention and how does it play a role in daily life
    • Selective Attention - Focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others
    • Sense receptors- Cells that convert physical energy into electrical energy that can be transmitted as nerve impulse to the brain
    • Sense Organs-Parts of body that contain sense receptors
    • (Sight/Retina)

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