Describe the characteristics of an existing phenomenon.
What is the purpose of historical research?
Relate events that have occured in the past to current events.
What is the purpose of correlational research?
Examine the relationship between variables.
What is the purpose of qualitative research?
To examine human behavior and the social, cultural, and poltical contexts within which it occurs.
What is the purpose of true experimental research?
To test for true cause and effect relationships.
What is the purpose of quasi-experimental research?
To test for causal relationships without having full control
What is the best way to improve the validity of your research?
Increase sample size
What is population?
The entirety of some group.
What is the sample?
A representative portion of a population
What is generalizability?
The ability to draw inferences and conclusions from data.
What is probability sampling?
The type of sampling used when the likeliihood of selecting any one member of the population is known.
What is non probability sampling?
When the likelihood of selecting any one member of the population is unknown.
What are the 4 types of probability sampling?
Simple random sample.
Stratified random sample.
What are the two types of nonprobability sampling strategies?
What is simple random sampling?
A sampling procedure allowing for the equal and independent chance of subjects being selected as part of sample.
What is systematic sampling?
A random sampling procedure in which increments determine who becomes part of the sample; for example, every third person is selected.
What is a stratified random sample?
A random sampling procedure used when subjects are known to be unequal on some variable in the population.
What is a cluster sample?
A probability sampling procedure wherein units of subjects are selected, rather than the subjects themselves.
What is convenience sampling?
A nonprobability sampling procedure wherein the selected sample represents a captive audience; for example, sophomore college students in an introductory psychology class.
What is quota sampling?
A nonprobability sampling procedure similar to stratified random sampling in that a particular stratum is the focus; however, a specified number is set to be selected and once that number is met, no further selection occurs.
What two things are standardized in standardized tests?
Standard set of instructions.
Standard scoring procedures.
What is a researcher made test?
Tests designed for a specific purpose with specific scoring instructions for that purpose.
What is a norm-referenced test?
A test in which the individual's performance is compared with the results of a larger group of peers.
What is a criterion referenced test?
A test that measures mastery of specific definitions of performance for an individual in a particular content domain.
Usually pass fail.
Drivers license test.
What are the 3 parts of multiple choice questions?
In multiple choice questions, what is a distracter?
Answers that are attractive enough that a person whod oes not know the right answer might find them plausible.
In multiple choice questions, what is the alternative?
The variety of answers available for a multiple choice question.
In multiple choice questions, what is the stem?
The leading part of a multiple choice question.
The question itself.
What are the 8 advantages of multiple choice questions?
Used to assess almost any content domain.
Realtively easy to score by machine.
Test takers don't need to write elaborate answers.
Does not penalize poor writers.
Good questions can be used over and over again.
Bad questions can easily be discarded.
Good distractors can show why the test taker got the question wrong.
Difficult to fake the correct answer.
What are 5 disadvantages to multiple choice questions?
Limit students options to generate creative answers.
Can't evaluate writing skills.
Some people don't like/don't do well.
Content that can be assessed is limited.
Questions must be well written.
According to the book, how many people respond to questionnaires?
Actually is probably less.
What are the 4 types of tests?
What is an achievement test?
Tests used to measure knowledge knowledge in a specific content area, such as math or reading.
What is the thurstone scale?
A method used in constructing attitude tests in which all of the items are assigned an attitude score. It is made up of nearly equal intervals for individuals to agree or disagree with various statmements.
What is the likert scale?
A method used in attitude scales that requires the individual to agree or disagree to a set of statements using a five-point scale.
What is an interview?
A method of collecting data that is similar to an oral questionnaire. An interview can be informal and flexible or structured and focused.
What is face sheet information?
The first or top sheet of a survey that is usually included and used to collect demographic information.
What is a structured question?
Interview questions that have a clear and apparent focus and a clearly called for answer.
Same as closed ended questions.
What are unstructured questions?
Interview questions that provide a broad opportunity for the particpant to respond.