Card Set Information
Lab Final 12-1-12
A Kg is equal to how many grams?
A mg is equal to how many grams?
A microgram is equal to how many grams?
A ng is equal to how many grams?
A cm is equal to how many meters?
What is the conversion for ⁰F --> ⁰C?
⁰F = 1.8C + 32
What is the conversion for ⁰C --> ⁰F?
⁰C = ⁰F-32/1.8
The ____ variable goes on the Y axis.Bio
The ____ or ___ variable goes on the X axis.
A discrete variable has ___ ___ & employs a ___ graph.
A continuous variable has ___ ___ & employs a ___ graph.
Define an acid.
Substance that releases or causes release of H⁺ into solution
There is a ___ difference between pH units.
Define a base.
A substance that can remove H⁺ fr solution lowering concentration of H⁺
Explain buffer solution.
Solutions containing components that enable the solution to somehow resist lg changes in pH when either an acid or base is added
What are 4 methods we used for determining pH?
What is in red cabbage the makes it sensitive to changes in pH?
A pigment called anthocyanin
What is pH equal to?
Neg log of H⁺ concentration
What are the 2 sets of lenses on a compound microscope?
The total magnification of a microscope is equal too what?
magnification of objective x magnification of eyepiece
The ability of a microscope to distinguish 2 objects that are very close together as separate is known as the what?
The slide holding the specimen is placed on the ____ and held in place with ____.
Light on a compound microscope is focused into a beam by a ____ located just below the ____.
What is used to control the width of the beam of light that reaches a specimen on a compound microscope?
The area of image you see through a microscope is known as the what?
Field of view
When an image is focused with one objective and remains in focus when changing objectives it is said to be ____.
The thickness of the specimen that can be seen in focus at any time is called the what?
Depth of Focus
As we change to higher obj lens the field of view and the depth of focus become ____.
What microscope would we use to examine a thin specimen?
Compound Light Microscope
What microscope would we use to examine a thicker specimen?
The depth of a specimen is much easier to see w/a a ____ microscope.
What is the distance between the eyepieces on a dissecting microscope called?
What are the 2 types of light utilized by a dissecting microscope?
On a dissecting microscope, ____ light comes from beneath the stage.
On a dissecting microscope, ____ light shines down on the specimen fr above.
The best type of light on a dissecting microscope to use for specimens that are opaque is what?
On a dissecting microscope, ____ light is used when the specimen is thin & transparent.
Benedict's reagent is used t test for the presence of what?
Small sugars - mono- & disaccharides
When Benedict's reagent is mixed w/a solution that contains sm sugars & heated what shows a pos result?
A yellow, green, orange or red precipitate forms
Name one sm sugar that yields a neg Benedict's reaction.
Starch is tested by using ___ reagent.
In the presence of starch, Iodine reagent does what?
Turn dark blue
What is a quick & convenient way to test fr lipids?
What reagent do we use to test for proteins?
A pos Biuret Test for protein yields what result?
The blue reagent becomes light violet or lavender
What process separates the lipids from water-soluble, protein-containing parts of butter?
A lipid rich substance where the lipids occur in sm droplets dispersed throughout a water soluble portion is called an ____.
Once butter has been clarified, it can be used to fry at higher temps b/c. . . .
its the water soluble protein part that scorches first
What part of genes is responsible for invisible traits such as blood type, ability to carry out metabolic pathways & color vision?
What chemical did we use to determine who had an allele to taste bitter things?
PTC - phenylthiocarbamide
Where is the "bitter taste gene" located?
Approximately what percentage of ppl can taste PTC?
What is the name given to a chart that diagrams trait inheritance patterns?
What shape is used to symbolize females on a pedigree chart?
What shape is used to symbolize males on a pedigree chart?
A black square/circle on a pedigree chart shows what?
Presence of the cond being studied
A white square/circle on a pedigree chart means what?
The condition being studied is absent
On a pedigree chart, marriage or mating is shown by a ____ connecting parents.
On a pedigree chart, children fr a mating are shown by a ___ ___ between the parents.
All members fr the same generation on a pedigree chart are shown where on a pedigree chart?
Along the same horizontal line
The X chromosome is physically ____ in comparison to the Y chromosome.
Alleles that are carried by only one chromosome are said to be X or Y ____.
Y-linked alleles are found only in ____.
A disorder characterized by an inability to produce proteins necessary for blood clotting is called ____.
What is the name given to a special type of inheritance in which 2 alleles are equally dominant?
When codominance exists, both ___ are expressed independently resulting in a ____ individual that shows both ____ phenotypes.
Sickle-cell anemia is a blood disorder affecting transport of ____ by ____ causing tissues to be ____ of oxygen.
Oxygen by hemoglobin
Heterozygous individuals have sickle-cell trait & are usually healthy but may experience some problems when?
During intense exercise or under low O₂ conditions
When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, how is a completely normal individual represented?
When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, how is an individual that is a carrier of the sickle-cell trait represented?
When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, an individual w/ HbSHbS genotype has what phenotype?
Full blown sickle-cell anemia
The term used to describe the composition of an organism's alleles for a gene is what?
The termed to describe the "expression of the genotype" or the physical appearance of an organism is ____.
What is the difference between genotype & phenotype?
Genotype is the composition of an organisms alleles for a gene where as phenotype is the organism's physical appearance or "expression of the gene"
What disease is caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium?
When a malaria parasite enters the body it does what?
Travels to liver, reproduces then travels t blood stream where is infects RBCs
What blood abnormality decreases the ability of the malaria parasite to reproduce & why?
Sickle-cell anemia b/c of the lower O₂ carrying capacity of RBCs
In a pt w/malaria what happens as blood passes thru the spleen?
Abnormal, sickled shape cells are destroyed along w/malaria parasites
What is the genotype for Type A blood?
IA IA or IA i
What is the genotype for Type B blood?
IB IB or IB i
If blood has the genotype IA IB it is Type ___ blood.
What is the genotype for Type O blood?
In human blood types, the alleles __ & __ are codominant & ____ over the recessive allele ___.
IA & IB
What are we using PTC paper for?
To help us to determine if we are tasters of bitter things.
Most of the time DNA protein complex is found in thread like form called ____.
During cell division, chromatin is elaborately wound up into coiled structures called ____.
DNA consists of varying sequences of what 4 nucleotides?
Discrete sections of DNA are called ___.
In eukaryotes such as wheat or humans, DNA is packaged with what?
In the chromosome/cell division lab, DNA was extracted fr what material?
A ____ is created when homologous prs of chromosomes are extracted fr a nucleus & organized based on physical characteristics such as size, # & shape.
How can we tell if a karyotype is for a M or F individual?
Look @ 23rd pr of chromosomes; XX = F, XY = M
What are the 5 phases of mitosis?
What are 3 events during prophase?
Spindle begins to develop
Nuclear env breaks down
What are 2 events of metaphase?
Centrosomes move to opposite ends of cell
Chromosomes align on metaphase plate
During what phase of mitosis do chromatids separate & move toward opposite ends of the spindle?
What are the 2 events of telophase & cytokinesis?
Nuclear env reforms
What is the overall result of mitosis?
2 identical cells
Is mitotic division reductional or equational w/respect to chromosome # & why?
Equational b/c each new cell receives an exact copy of all chromosomes
In what stage of the cell cycle does cell division occur?
In between the G2 & G1 portions of interphase
Cell division that occurs to produce haploid gamete cells is called ____.
What 2 events occur during prophase 1?
Chromosomes become visible
Nuclear env disintegrates
What 2 events occur during metaphase 1?
Chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus
Align along ctr of cell
What occurs during anaphase 1?
Homologous prs separate fr each other
Sister chromatids remain attached
What occurs at telophase 1?
Homologous prs are at opposite poles
Cytoplasm divides forming 2 daughter cells
During prophase 2 a ___ ___ forms again.
During metaphase 2 chromosomes do what?
Line up at ctr of cell
During anaphase 2, sister chromatids do what?
Move to opposite poles
At telophase 2 & cytokinesis what happens?
Division of chromatids is complete
Cytoplasm divides to form new daughter cells
How many daughter cells are formed fr Meiosis 1 & 2?
4 haploid cells
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane fr a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration is called ____.
Random mvmt of particles driven by molecular kinetic energy is called ____ mvmt.
We used ___ particles to view Brownian mvmt.
Brownian mvmt is described as what driven by?
Random mvmt of particles driven by molecular kinetic energy
What happens to RBCs when immersed in a hypertonic solution?
Water will flow out of the cell to an area of higher concentration & the cell will eventually crenate
What happens to RBCs when placed in a hypotonic solution?
Water will flow into the cell where solute concentration higher & the cell will eventually lyse or burst
When RBCs are placed in an isotonic solution, what happens?
There is no net flow of water into or out of the cell.
What characteristic of cell membranes allows for osmosis to occur across them?
A plasma membrane allowing water to pass freely through but regulating mvmt of solvents is called ___ ___.
A solution w/greater concentration of solute inside the cell is called ____.
2 solutions that are said to be in equilibrium are called ____.
A solution w/greater solute concentration outside the cell is called ____.
When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution what happens?
Water moves out of the cell, protoplast shrinks & pulls away fr cell wall in a process called plasmolysis
When a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution what happens?
Water moves into the central vacuole expanding the cell against cell wall & creating turgor pressure
What happens when plant cells are placed in a isotonic solution?
They begin to plasmolyze b/c they are normally hypertonic to their environment
Biological processes depend on molecular catalysts called ____ to speed up chem reactions that are necessary for cells to function
Enzymes work by what means?
By lowering the activation energy of a reaction
What are the 3 basic components of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?
What is the term given to the reactant molecule that is changed by the enzyme?
The ____ are the resulting substances of a reaction.
T or F; An enzyme is neither changed nor destroyed during a reaction.
The substrate sucrose →( enzyme ____ )→ products ____ + ____.
Glucose & Fructose
The extract made fr potatoes is a good source of what enzyme?
Catechol + O₂ →(enzyme ____) → ____.
What instrument could we use to visualize how much color change happens during a reaction?
Why do we have to 1st zero the spectrophotometer?
So the mat of light can be subtracted fr the amt of light absorbed by the product of the reaction
How does Spectronic 20 measure color changes?
By shining light thru reactants in a test tube & measuring mat of light that penetrates thru the tube
What is transmission on the spectrophotometer?
How much light penetrates the tube
What is absorption when speaking of the spectrophotometer?
How much light is being absorbed by the sample
WHat is the relationship between product formation & absorbance?
As absorbance ↑ so does product formed
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO₂ + 12H₂O + Light → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ + 6H₂O
The outer layer of cells on a leaf contains pores called ____ through which gas exchange occurs.
What gases are taken in & given off during photosynthesis?
CO₂ is taken in & O₂ is given off
What is the green pigment that carries out photosynthesis?
What organelle is chlorophyll located in?
In the lab we used ____ ____ to separate out various pigments in a leaf.
Chlorophyll a absorbs what colors of light readily?
Violet/blue & red
Which chlorophyll looks bluish-green to the eye?
What colors does chlorophyll b readily absorb?
Blue & Red ranges
Which chlorophyll looks yellow green to our eyes?
Carotenoids absorb a great deal of what colors?
Blue & Green range
Carotenoids appear what colors to our eyes?
Yellow & yellow orange
In what form do plants store glucose?
What has happened when DCPIP changes fr blue to colorless?
It has been reduced
What can we use DCPIP for with regards to photosynthesis?
We can measure the rate of photosynthesis by watching how quickly it changes color
What is the relationship between color change of DCPIP and change in % transmission on the spectrophotometer?
As the color of DCPIP goes fr blue to clear the % transmission is going to increase.