# LAB FINAL

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1. A Kg is equal to how many grams?
1x10³ grams
2. A mg is equal to how many grams?
1x10⁻³ grams
3. A microgram is equal to how many grams?
1x10⁻⁶ grams
4. A ng is equal to how many grams?
1x10⁻⁹
5. A cm is equal to how many meters?
1x10⁻²
6. What is the conversion for ⁰F --> ⁰C?
⁰F = 1.8C + 32
7. What is the conversion for ⁰C --> ⁰F?
⁰C = ⁰F-32/1.8
8. The ____ variable goes on the Y axis.Bio
Dependent
9. The ____ or ___ variable goes on the X axis.
• Manipulated
• Independent
10. A discrete variable has ___ ___ & employs a ___ graph.
• Limited Values
• Bar
11. A continuous variable has ___ ___ & employs a ___ graph.
• Unlimited Values
• Line
12. Define an acid.
Substance that releases or causes release of H⁺ into solution
13. There is a ___ difference between pH units.
Tenfold
14. Define a base.
A substance that can remove H⁺ fr solution lowering concentration of H⁺
15. Explain buffer solution.
Solutions containing components that enable the solution to somehow resist lg changes in pH when either an acid or base is added
16. What are 4 methods we used for determining pH?
• Red Cabbage
• Phenol Red
• pH meters
• pH papers
17. What is in red cabbage the makes it sensitive to changes in pH?
A pigment called anthocyanin
18. What is pH equal to?
Neg log of H⁺ concentration
19. What are the 2 sets of lenses on a compound microscope?
• Eyepiece
• Objective
20. The total magnification of a microscope is equal too what?
magnification of objective x magnification of eyepiece
21. The ability of a microscope to distinguish 2 objects that are very close together as separate is known as the what?
Resolving Power
22. The slide holding the specimen is placed on the ____ and held in place with ____.
• Stage
• Clips
23. Light on a compound microscope is focused into a beam by a ____ located just below the ____.
• Condensor
• Stage
24. What is used to control the width of the beam of light that reaches a specimen on a compound microscope?
Diaphragm
25. The area of image you see through a microscope is known as the what?
Field of view
26. When an image is focused with one objective and remains in focus when changing objectives it is said to be ____.
Parfocal
27. The thickness of the specimen that can be seen in focus at any time is called the what?
Depth of Focus
28. As we change to higher obj lens the field of view and the depth of focus become ____.
Less
29. What microscope would we use to examine a thin specimen?
Compound Light Microscope
30. What microscope would we use to examine a thicker specimen?
Dissecting Microscope
31. The depth of a specimen is much easier to see w/a a ____ microscope.
Dissecting
32. What is the distance between the eyepieces on a dissecting microscope called?
Interpupillary Distance
33. What are the 2 types of light utilized by a dissecting microscope?
• Transmitted Light
• Reflected Light
34. On a dissecting microscope, ____ light comes from beneath the stage.
Transmitted Light
35. On a dissecting microscope, ____ light shines down on the specimen fr above.
Reflected Light
36. The best type of light on a dissecting microscope to use for specimens that are opaque is what?
Reflected Light
37. On a dissecting microscope, ____ light is used when the specimen is thin & transparent.
Transmitted
38. Benedict's reagent is used t test for the presence of what?
Small sugars - mono- & disaccharides
39. When Benedict's reagent is mixed w/a solution that contains sm sugars & heated what shows a pos result?
A yellow, green, orange or red precipitate forms
40. Name one sm sugar that yields a neg Benedict's reaction.
Sucrose
41. Starch is tested by using ___ reagent.
Iodine
42. In the presence of starch, Iodine reagent does what?
Turn dark blue
43. What is a quick & convenient way to test fr lipids?
Paper test
44. What reagent do we use to test for proteins?
Biuret Reagent
45. A pos Biuret Test for protein yields what result?
The blue reagent becomes light violet or lavender
46. What process separates the lipids from water-soluble, protein-containing parts of butter?
Clarification
47. A lipid rich substance where the lipids occur in sm droplets dispersed throughout a water soluble portion is called an ____.
Emulsion
48. Once butter has been clarified, it can be used to fry at higher temps b/c. . . .
its the water soluble protein part that scorches first
49. What part of genes is responsible for invisible traits such as blood type, ability to carry out metabolic pathways & color vision?
Alleles
50. What chemical did we use to determine who had an allele to taste bitter things?
PTC - phenylthiocarbamide
51. Where is the "bitter taste gene" located?
Chromosome #7
52. Approximately what percentage of ppl can taste PTC?
75%
53. What is the name given to a chart that diagrams trait inheritance patterns?
Pedigree
54. What shape is used to symbolize females on a pedigree chart?
Circle
55. What shape is used to symbolize males on a pedigree chart?
Square
56. A black square/circle on a pedigree chart shows what?
Presence of the cond being studied
57. A white square/circle on a pedigree chart means what?
The condition being studied is absent
58. On a pedigree chart, marriage or mating is shown by a ____ connecting parents.
Line
59. On a pedigree chart, children fr a mating are shown by a ___ ___ between the parents.
Vertical Line
60. All members fr the same generation on a pedigree chart are shown where on a pedigree chart?
Along the same horizontal line
61. The X chromosome is physically ____ in comparison to the Y chromosome.
Larger
62. Alleles that are carried by only one chromosome are said to be X or Y ____.
63. Y-linked alleles are found only in ____.
Males
64. A disorder characterized by an inability to produce proteins necessary for blood clotting is called ____.
Hemophilia
65. What is the name given to a special type of inheritance in which 2 alleles are equally dominant?
Codominance
66. When codominance exists, both ___ are expressed independently resulting in a ____ individual that shows both ____ phenotypes.
• Alleles
• Heterozygous
• Homozygous
67. Sickle-cell anemia is a blood disorder affecting transport of ____ by ____ causing tissues to be ____ of oxygen.
• Oxygen by hemoglobin
• Deprived
68. Heterozygous individuals have sickle-cell trait & are usually healthy but may experience some problems when?
During intense exercise or under low O₂ conditions
69. When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, how is a completely normal individual represented?
HbAHbA
70. When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, how is an individual that is a carrier of the sickle-cell trait represented?
HbAHbS
71. When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, an individual w/ HbSHbS genotype has what phenotype?
Full blown sickle-cell anemia
72. The term used to describe the composition of an organism's alleles for a gene is what?
Genotype
73. The termed to describe the "expression of the genotype" or the physical appearance of an organism is ____.
Phenotype
74. What is the difference between genotype & phenotype?
Genotype is the composition of an organisms alleles for a gene where as phenotype is the organism's physical appearance or "expression of the gene"
75. What disease is caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium?
Malaria
76. When a malaria parasite enters the body it does what?
Travels to liver, reproduces then travels t blood stream where is infects RBCs
77. What blood abnormality decreases the ability of the malaria parasite to reproduce & why?
Sickle-cell anemia b/c of the lower O₂ carrying capacity of RBCs
78. In a pt w/malaria what happens as blood passes thru the spleen?
Abnormal, sickled shape cells are destroyed along w/malaria parasites
79. What is the genotype for Type A blood?
IA IA or IA i
80. What is the genotype for Type B blood?
IB IB or IB i
81. If blood has the genotype IA IB it is Type ___ blood.
AB
82. What is the genotype for Type O blood?
ii
83. In human blood types, the alleles __ & __ are codominant & ____ over the recessive allele ___.
• IA & IB
• Dominant
• ii
84. What are we using PTC paper for?
To help us to determine if we are tasters of bitter things.
85. Most of the time DNA protein complex is found in thread like form called ____.
Chromatin
86. During cell division, chromatin is elaborately wound up into coiled structures called ____.
Chromosomes
87. DNA consists of varying sequences of what 4 nucleotides?
• Thymine
• Guanine
• Cytosine
88. Discrete sections of DNA are called ___.
Genes
89. In eukaryotes such as wheat or humans, DNA is packaged with what?
Proteins
90. In the chromosome/cell division lab, DNA was extracted fr what material?
Wheat Germ
91. A ____ is created when homologous prs of chromosomes are extracted fr a nucleus & organized based on physical characteristics such as size, # & shape.
Karyotype
92. How can we tell if a karyotype is for a M or F individual?
Look @ 23rd pr of chromosomes; XX = F, XY = M
93. What are the 5 phases of mitosis?
• Prophase
• Prometaphase
• Metaphase
• Anaphase
• Telophase
94. What are 3 events during prophase?
• Chromosomes condense
• Spindle begins to develop
• Nuclear env breaks down
95. What are 2 events of metaphase?
• Centrosomes move to opposite ends of cell
• Chromosomes align on metaphase plate
96. During what phase of mitosis do chromatids separate & move toward opposite ends of the spindle?
Anaphase
97. What are the 2 events of telophase & cytokinesis?
• Nuclear env reforms
• Cytoplasm divides
98. What is the overall result of mitosis?
2 identical cells
99. Is mitotic division reductional or equational w/respect to chromosome # & why?
Equational b/c each new cell receives an exact copy of all chromosomes
100. In what stage of the cell cycle does cell division occur?
In between the G2 & G1 portions of interphase
101. Cell division that occurs to produce haploid gamete cells is called ____.
Meiosis
102. What 2 events occur during prophase 1?
• Chromosomes become visible
• Nuclear env disintegrates
103. What 2 events occur during metaphase 1?
• Chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus
• Align along ctr of cell
104. What occurs during anaphase 1?
• Homologous prs separate fr each other
• Sister chromatids remain attached
105. What occurs at telophase 1?
• Homologous prs are at opposite poles
• Cytoplasm divides forming 2 daughter cells
106. During prophase 2 a ___ ___ forms again.
Spindle Apparatus
107. During metaphase 2 chromosomes do what?
Line up at ctr of cell
108. During anaphase 2, sister chromatids do what?
Move to opposite poles
109. At telophase 2 & cytokinesis what happens?
• Division of chromatids is complete
• Cytoplasm divides to form new daughter cells
110. How many daughter cells are formed fr Meiosis 1 & 2?
4 haploid cells
111. Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane fr a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration is called ____.
Osmosis
112. Random mvmt of particles driven by molecular kinetic energy is called ____ mvmt.
Brownian
113. We used ___ particles to view Brownian mvmt.
Carmine
114. Brownian mvmt is described as what driven by?
Random mvmt of particles driven by molecular kinetic energy
115. What happens to RBCs when immersed in a hypertonic solution?
Water will flow out of the cell to an area of higher concentration & the cell will eventually crenate
116. What happens to RBCs when placed in a hypotonic solution?
Water will flow into the cell where solute concentration higher & the cell will eventually lyse or burst
117. When RBCs are placed in an isotonic solution, what happens?
There is no net flow of water into or out of the cell.
118. What characteristic of cell membranes allows for osmosis to occur across them?
Selective permeability
119. A plasma membrane allowing water to pass freely through but regulating mvmt of solvents is called ___ ___.
Selective permeability
120. A solution w/greater concentration of solute inside the cell is called ____.
Hypotonic
121. 2 solutions that are said to be in equilibrium are called ____.
Isotonic
122. A solution w/greater solute concentration outside the cell is called ____.
Hypertonic
123. When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution what happens?
Water moves out of the cell, protoplast shrinks & pulls away fr cell wall in a process called plasmolysis
124. When a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution what happens?
Water moves into the central vacuole expanding the cell against cell wall & creating turgor pressure
125. What happens when plant cells are placed in a isotonic solution?
They begin to plasmolyze b/c they are normally hypertonic to their environment
126. Biological processes depend on molecular catalysts called ____ to speed up chem reactions that are necessary for cells to function
Enzymes
127. Enzymes work by what means?
By lowering the activation energy of a reaction
128. What are the 3 basic components of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?
• Substrate
• Products
• Enzyme itself
129. What is the term given to the reactant molecule that is changed by the enzyme?
Substrate
130. The ____ are the resulting substances of a reaction.
Products
131. T or F; An enzyme is neither changed nor destroyed during a reaction.
True
132. The substrate sucrose →( enzyme ____ )→ products ____ + ____.
• Sucrase
• Glucose & Fructose
133. The extract made fr potatoes is a good source of what enzyme?
Catecholase
134. Catechol + O₂ →(enzyme ____) → ____.
• Catecholase
• Benzoquinone
135. What instrument could we use to visualize how much color change happens during a reaction?
Spectrophotometer
136. Why do we have to 1st zero the spectrophotometer?
So the mat of light can be subtracted fr the amt of light absorbed by the product of the reaction
137. How does Spectronic 20 measure color changes?
By shining light thru reactants in a test tube & measuring mat of light that penetrates thru the tube
138. What is transmission on the spectrophotometer?
How much light penetrates the tube
139. What is absorption when speaking of the spectrophotometer?
How much light is being absorbed by the sample
140. WHat is the relationship between product formation & absorbance?
As absorbance ↑ so does product formed
141. What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO₂ + 12H₂O + Light → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ + 6H₂O
142. The outer layer of cells on a leaf contains pores called ____ through which gas exchange occurs.
Stomata
143. What gases are taken in & given off during photosynthesis?
CO₂ is taken in & O₂ is given off
144. What is the green pigment that carries out photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll
145. What organelle is chlorophyll located in?
Chloroplasts
146. In the lab we used ____ ____ to separate out various pigments in a leaf.
Paper Chromatography
147. Chlorophyll a absorbs what colors of light readily?
Violet/blue & red
148. Which chlorophyll looks bluish-green to the eye?
Chlorophyll a
149. What colors does chlorophyll b readily absorb?
Blue & Red ranges
150. Which chlorophyll looks yellow green to our eyes?
Chlorophyll b
151. Carotenoids absorb a great deal of what colors?
Blue & Green range
152. Carotenoids appear what colors to our eyes?
Yellow & yellow orange
153. In what form do plants store glucose?
Starch
154. What has happened when DCPIP changes fr blue to colorless?
It has been reduced
155. What can we use DCPIP for with regards to photosynthesis?
We can measure the rate of photosynthesis by watching how quickly it changes color
156. What is the relationship between color change of DCPIP and change in % transmission on the spectrophotometer?
As the color of DCPIP goes fr blue to clear the % transmission is going to increase.

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 Author: medic11 ID: 186432 Filename: LAB FINAL Updated: 2012-12-01 22:29:40 Tags: BI 253 Folders: Description: Lab Final 12-1-12 Show Answers:

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