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What is the role of salivary amylase?
It digests starch and glycogen.
Describe the distribution of muscle in the esophagus.
- Upper 1/3 : Skeletal muscle
- Lower 2/3 : Smooth muscle
Describe the esophagus' sphincters.
- Upper : Skeletal, between pharynx and esophagus.
- Lower : Smooth, between esophagus and stomach.
What are the secrections from gastric pits and what cells are they secreted from?
- Pepsinogen : Chief Cells
- Hydrogen Ions : Parietal Cells
- Intrinsitc Factor : Parietal Cells
- Gastrin : G Cells
- Mucus : Neck Cells
What is the Gastric mucosal barier?
What is it secreted from?
- Protective layer of mucus and bicarbonate.
- Secreted from neck cells and goblet.
What is the primary site of digestion and absorbtion?
The small intestine
What is secreted into the duodenum from the pancreas?
- Digestive Enzymes
What is secreted from the gallbladder into the duodenum?
What is its function?
- Contains bile salts which aid in fat digestion.
What structures increase surface area in the small intestine?
Describe the structure of Villi.
- Projection into the small intestine.
- Contains Blood vessels and lacteal.
- Has a brush border made of microvilli.
What is the hepatic portal system?
Vasculature that delivers absorbed nutrients to liver before entering general circulation.
What are the functions of the colon?
- Concentrates wastes into feces.
- Absorbption of most water.
- Stores feces until defecation.
What structures make up the large intestine?
Describe the composition of saliva.
- Rich in bicarbonate.
- Contains mucus.
- Contains Salivary amylase and lysozyme
Describe the composition of pancreatic juices.
- Rich in bicarbonate.
- Contains Pancreatic amylase and lipases
- Contains Proteases and Nucleases
What forms the Ampulla of Vater?
The joining of the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
What is the function of the sphincter of Oddi?
Regulates flow from the pancreas and gallbladder to the duodenum.
What enzymes break down starch?
- Salivary Amylase
- Pancreatic Amylase
List all brushboarder enzymes that break down disaccharides and limit dextrins. (Also give the products given off)
- Dextrinase : Limit Dextrins - Glucose
- Glucoamylase : polysaccharides - glucose
- Sucrase : sucrose - fructose + glucose
- Lactase : lactose - galactose + glucose
- Maltase : maltose - 2 glucose
Describe the absorption of glucose and galactose.
- Secondary active transport across apical membrane.
- Facilitated diffusion across basolateral membrane.
Describe the absorption of fructose.
Facilitated diffusion accross apical and basolateral membrane.
What are the digestion products of proteins?
- Amino acids
List and describe the two types of proteases.
- Endopeptidases: split polypeptides at interior peptide bonds. produces small peptide fragments.
- Exopeptidases: cleave off amino acids from one end of polypeptide. produces amino acids.
- Inactive storage of proteases.
- Stored in zymogen granules.
- Activated by proteolytic activation.
List the pancreatic proteases.
List the brush border proteases.
Describe the absorption of amino acids.
- Cross apical membrane by sodium-linked secondary active transport.
- Cross basolateral membrane by facilitated diffusion.
Describe the absorption of dipeptides and tripeptides.
- Cross apical membrane by active transport.
- Broken down inside cell to amino acids.
- Amino acids cross basolateral membrane by facilitated diffusion.
What is emulsification?
The increase of surface area by breaking large droplets into several small droplets by bile salts.
Where are bile salts synthesized and what are the made from?
In the liver from cholesterol.
Describe the absorption of monoglycerides and Fatty acids.
- Taken into cell via simple diffusion.
- Enter smooth ER and refor triglycerides and other lipids.
- Lipids enter Golgi apparatus to be packaged into chylomicrons.
- Chylomicrons are secreted by exocytosis into interstitial fluid.
- Chylomicrons enter lymphatic system via lacteal.