Final Exam

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Final Exam
2012-12-11 22:35:39
Final Exam

Aaron Fetty Final Exam
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  1. a ductless gland that secretes its product (hormone) directly into the blood
    endocrine gland
  2. the organ system that consists of the endocrine glands that secret homormones into the bood
    endocrine system
  3. a gland that secretes its product inot a duct to the taken to a cavity or surface
  4. a control system in which a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus, thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again and there is a need for the response
    negative feedback loop
  5. the organ or tissue in which a hormone exerts its specific effects
    target organ
  6. this gland hangs by a short stalk (infundibulum) from the hypothalamus and is enclosed by the sella turica of the sphenoid bone.
    pituatary gland or aka hypophysis
  7. a high blood calcium level
  8. the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production
  9. the conversion of excess amino acids to simple carbohydrates or to glucose to be used for energy production
  10. a low blood glucose level
  11. the conversion of glucose to glycogen to be stored as potential energy
  12. the converison of excess amino acids to simple carbohdrates or to glucose to be used for energy production
  13. Hyposecretion of insulin  by the pancreas of the inability of insulin to exert its effects; characterized by pherglycemia, increased urinary output with glycosuria and thirst.
    diabetes mellitus
  14. the outer layer of an organ, such as the cerebrum, kidney, or adrenal gland.
  15. the part of the brain superior to the spinal cord; regulates vital funcations such as heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.
    2. The inner part of an organ, such as the renal medulla or the adrenal medulla
  16. An inflammatory chemical released by damaged tissues as part of innate immunity; stimulates increased capillary permeability and vasodialtion
  17. locally acting hormone-like substances producted by virtually all cells from the phospholipids of their cells membranes; the many types have many varied functions.
  18. hangs by a short stak (infundibulum form the hypthalamus and is enclosed by the sella turcica of the spenoid bone
    pituatary gland aka hypophysis
  19. hypophysis
    pituatary gland
  20. neurohypophysis
    posterior pituitary gland
  21. is an extension of the nerve tissue of the hypothalamus
    posterior pituitary gland
  22. adenohypophysis
    anterior pituitary gland
  23. is a separate glandular tissue
    anteior pituitary gland
  24. what are the two hormones of the posterior pituitary gland aka neurohypophysis
    • antidiuretic hormone
    • oxytocin
  25. increases the reabsorption of water by kidney tubules, which decreases the amount of urine formed
    antidiuretic hormone
  26. vasopressin
    antidiuretic hormone
  27. stimulates contraction of the uterus at the end of pregnancy and stimulates release of milk from the mammary glands when the baby is nursing
  28. What are the six hormones of the anterior pituitary gland
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • Prolactin
    • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  29. GH targets which organs
    Bones and Organs
  30. ACTH targets which organs
    Adrenal cortex
  31. TSH targets which organ
  32. FSH targets which organ
    testes and ovaries
  33. LH targets which organ
    testes and ovaries
  34. Prolactin targets which organ
  35. Oxytocin targets which organ
    uterus and breasts
  36. ADH targets which organ
  37. Increase mitosis, amino acid transport into cells, protein synthesis, use of fats for energy
    Growth Hormone (GH)
  38. Increases secretion of thyroxine and T3 by thyroid gland
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  39. increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  40. In women intiates growth of ova in ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen by follicle cells
    In men intiates sperm production in the testes
    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  41. In women causes ovulation and rutprued ovarian follicle to become the corpus luteum.
    Increases secrtion of progesterone by the corpus luteum
    In men increases secretion of testosterone by the interstitial cells of th testes
    Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  42. increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
    increases the use of excess amino acids and of fats for energy
    Glucagon (alpha cells)
  43. increases glucose transport into cells and the use of glucose for energy production
    increases the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen in the liver and muscles
    increases amino acid and fatty acid transport into cells, and their use in synthesis reactions
    Insulin (beta cells)
  44. decreases secretion of insulin and glucagon
    slows absorption of nutrients
    somatostatin (delta cells)
  45. secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
    adrenal medulla
  46. functions of norepinephrine
    • vasoconstriction in skin, viscera, skeletal muscle and
    • vasodilation in skeletal muscle
  47. function of epinephrine
    • increases rate and force of contraction (heart), coversion of glycogen to glucose (liver), use of fats for energy and cell respiration
    • dilates bronchioles (lungs)
    • also have the same effect on the skin, stomach, and skeletal muscle as norepinephrine
  48. Adrenal Cortex secrete 3 stypes of steroid hormones
    Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids), (Cortisol) glucocorticoids, and sex hormones
  49. target organ for aldosterone is
  50. is the most abundant of the mineralocorticoids
  51. aldosterone functions are
    • increases the reabosrption of sodium and the excretion of K+ by the kidney tubules. Na+ is returned to blood and K+ is excreted to urine.
    • Na+ is reabsorbed, H+ may be excreted in exchange.
  52. Cortisol functions
    • increases uses of fats, excess amino acids for energy use
    • Conserves glucose
    • increase conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver
    • Limits inflammation
    • anti-inflammatory effect: stabilizes lysosomes and blocks the effects of histamine
  53. is the liquid part of blood and is approximately 91% water
  54. A protein in the blood plasma that is essential for the coagulation of
    blood and is converted to fibrin by thrombin and ionized calcium.
  55. 1. any protein that is soluble in water and also in moderately concentrated salt solutions. 2. the
    major plasma protein, responsible for much of the plasma colloidal
    osmotic pressure and serving as a transport protein for large organic
    anions (e.g., fatty acids, bilirubin, some drugs) and for some hormones
    when their specific binding globulins are saturated.albu´minous
  56. A group of proteins in blood plasma whose levels can be measured by
    electrophoresis in order to diagnose or monitor a variety of serious
  57. red blood cells, are the most common type of blood cells.
    give the characteristic red color to the blood. Their principle function
    is to deliver oxygen to the different parts of the body.
  58. white blood cells, form the main part of the immune system of the body.
  59. platelets
    not whole cells but rather fragments or pieces of cells
  60. The formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
  61. The ratio of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.An instrument for measuring this, by centrifugation.
    measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells. It is useful when evaluating a person for anemia
  62. hormone produced by kidney which stimulates the red bone marrow to increase the rate of RBC production (that is the rate of stem cell mitosis)
  63. the act or process of uniting by glue or other
    tenacious substance. 2. the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts. 3. that which is united; Clumping
  64. A reduction in the number of white cells in the blood, typical of various diseases.
    low WBC count
  65. high WBC, count
    is often an indication for infection
  66. prevention of blood loss
  67. the clot itself
  68. a clot or other tissue transported from elsewhere that lodges in and obstructs a vessel.
  69. what are the components of blood
    • Plasma, Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
    • White blood cells (leukocytes) -
    • Lymphocytes.
    • Monocytes.
    • Eosinophils.
    • Basophils.
    • Neutrophils (granulocytes).
    • Platelets (thrombocytes) - help in blood clotting.
    • Fat globules.
    • Chemical substances, including: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Hormones.
    • Gases, including: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide,Nitrogen.
  70. how are blood cells produced
    produced from stem cells in hemopoietic tissue
  71. where are blood cells produced
    in the red bone marrow found in flat and irregular bones
  72. what are the 3 blood types
    • A
    • B
    • O
  73. what is the antigen and antibody of blood type A
    • antigen A
    • antibody - anti B
  74. what is the antigen and antibody of blood type B
    • Antigen B
    • Antibody- Anti A
  75. what is the antigen and antibody of blood type o
    • antigen - neither A or B
    • antibody - both Anti A and Anti B
  76. what does Rh stands for
    Rhesus factor
  77. what are the classifications of WBC
    • granular
    • agranular
  78. name the granular leukocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  79. which classification of WBC usually have nuclei in 2 or more lobes or segments, and have distinctly colored ranules when stained
    granular leukocytes
  80. which granular leukocytes have lige blue granules
  81. which granular leukocyte have red granules
  82. which granular leukocytes have dark blue granules
  83. which classification of WBC are lymphocytes and monocytes, which have nuclei in one piece.
    agranular leukocytes
  84. What is the function of WBC
    to protect the body from infectious disease and to provide immunity to certain diseases.
  85. what is the function of neutrophils and monocytes
    • phagocytosis of pathogens
    • monocytes are more efficient phagocytes and differentiate into macrophages which also phagocytize dead or damaged tissue at the site of any injury and make tissue repair.
  86. function for neutrophils
    to form band cells during the infection stage.
  87. function of eosinophils
    to detoxify foreign proteins and will phagocytize anything labeled with antibodies especially during allergic reactions and parasite infections.
  88. function of basophils
    contain granules of heparin (anticoagulant to help prevent abnormal clotting withing blood vessels) and histamine (part of inflammation process tha makes capillaries more permeable, allowing tisse fluid, proteins, and white blood cells to accumulate in the damaged area .
  89. funtion of lymphocytes
    • T cells- recognize foreign antigens
    • B cells-produce antibodyies to foreign antigens
    • natural killer cells-destroy foreign cells by chemically rupturing their membranes
  90. what are the 3 mechanisms by which blood loss is prevented
    • vascular spasm
    • platelet plugs
    • chemical clotting
  91. is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart
    interatrial septum
  92. columns of myocardium
    muscles located in the ventricles of the heart. They attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (a.k.a. the mitral and tricuspid valves) via the chordae tendinae and contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves
    papillary muscles
  93. strands of fibrous connective tissue, extend from the papillary muschels to the flaps of the tricuspid valve.
    heart strings, are cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve in the heart.
    chordae tendineae
  94. deprived of its blood supply
  95. an area of necrotic (dead) tissue
  96. myocardial infarction
    heart attack
  97. diastole
  98. systole
  99. a modification of the cell membrane of cardiac muscle cells; the end membranes of adjacent cells are folded and fit inot one another; permits rapid transmission of the electrical impulses that bring about contraction.
    intercalated disc
  100. very rapid and uncoordinated heartbeats; ventricular fibrillation is a life-threatening emergency due to ineffective pumping and decreased cardiac output.
    fast contraction
  101. an abnormally slow heart rate; less than 60 beats per minute
  102. an abnormally rapid heart rate; more than 100 beats per minute
  103. what are the 3 layers of the pericardial membrane
    • fibrous pericardium-outermost layer
    • parietal pericardium-outer layer
    • visceral pericardium (epicardium)- inner layer
  104. what are the 3 layers of the heart
    • epicardium-outer most layer
    • myocardium-middle
    • endocardium-inner layer
  105. which hormone is produced by the heart
    • atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or aka
    • atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
    •  helps maintain blood pressure
  106. receives deoxygenated blood
  107. Right AV valve; prevents back flow of blood from the RV to the RA when the RV contracts
  108. pumps blood to lungs
  109. prevents back flow of blood from pulmonary arter to the RV
    pulmonary semilunar valve
  110. receives oxygenated blood
  111. left AV valve; prevents back flow of brood from the LV to the LA
    mitral valve
  112. pumps blood to the body
  113. prevents back flow of blood from the aorta to the LV
    aortic semilunar valve
  114. in both the RV and LV; prevent inversion of the AV valves
    papillary muscles and chordae tendineae
  115. fibrous connective tissue that anchors the four heart valves
    fibrous skeleton of the heart
  116. what part of the brain regulates the heart
    medulla oblongota
  117. which node initiates heart beat
    SA node
  118. what is the cardiac conduction pathway
    • SA node
    • AV node
    • Bundle of His
    • R & L bundle branches
    • Purkinje fibers
  119. A thin layer of flat epithelial cells that lines serous cavities, lymph vessels, and blood vessels.
    innermost layer. made of simple squamous epithelium
  120. is a connection or joining of vessels that is artery to artery or vein to vein.
    what dad had. when one vessel is blocked heart will make alternate pathways for the flow of blood.
  121. a circular muscle that regulates the size of an opening.
  122. a large, very permeable capillary; permits proteins or blood cells to enter or leave the blood
  123. the process in which there is movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration; occurs because of the free energy (natural movement) of molecules
  124. the force exerted by the presence of protein in a solution; water will move by osmosis to the area of greater protein concentration
    colloid osmotic pressure
  125. an abnormally high blood pressure, consistently above 130/85 mmHg
  126. an abnormally low blood pressure, consistenly below 90/60 mmHg
  127. the amount of blood returned by the veins to the heart; is directly related to cardiac output, which depends on adequate venous return
    venous return
  128. a mechanism that increases venous return; contractions of the skeletal muscles compress the deep veins expecially those of the legs
    skeletal muscle pump
  129. a mechanism that increases venous return; pressure changes during breathing compress the veins that pass thorugh the thoracic cavity
    respiratory pump
  130. the part of the medulla that regulates the diameter of arteries and veins; contributes to normal blood pressure
    vasomotor center
  131. a chemical produced by the paretal cells of the gastric mucosa; necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12
    intrinsic factor
  132. intrinsic means
  133. relating to the nerves and muscles that cause the blood vessels to constrict or dilate
  134. what are the 3 layers of blood vessels
    • tunica intima-innermost layer-simple squamous epithelium
    • tunica media-middle layer- smooth muscle
    • tunica externa-outer layer-fibrous connective tissue
  135. what are the types of blood vessels
    • artery: carry blood from heart
    • arteriole: smaller arteries
    • capillary network: carry blood from arterioles to venules
    • venule: smaller veins
    • vein: carry blood from capillaries back to heart
  136. what is the pulmonary circulation
    RV pumps to R and L pulmonary artery to arterioles then to capillaries (arteries)
  137. during the pulmonary circulation where does the gas exchange happen
    in the alveoli of the lungs is where the exchange of O2 and CO2  take lace (veins)
  138. what is systemic circulation
    LV pumps to aorta from aorta into arterioles and capillary networks thorught out body.
  139. arterioles are responsible for
  140. prehypertension blood pressure is
  141. hypertension blood pressure is above
  142. what are some factors that affect blood pressure
    • hormones
    • viscosity of blood
    • loss of blood
    • elasticity of large arteries
  143. baroreceptors monitors
    Blood pressure
  144. what is the main lymphatic duct and drains the lower body
    cysterna chyli
  145. tricuspid is on which side of the body
  146. bicuspid is on which side of body
  147. pulmonary arteries carry what type of blood
    deoxygenated blood
  148. pulmonary vein carry what type of blood
  149. what is the thin wall inbetweeen R & L atrium that separates the two atria
    interatrial septum
  150. muscle that is attach to chordae tinineae that opens the ticuspid and bicuspid valves
    papillary muscles
  151. hematocrit means
    RBC count
  152. is the ability to distinguish the cells that belong in the body from those that do not.
    recognizing its own cells
  153. is the aiblity not ot react to proteins and other organic molecules our cells produce.
    ability to not to attack its own cells
    self tolerance
  154. chemicals that help the body resist infections, innate immunity, non specific defense resistance
    • interferons
    • complement
    • cytokines
  155. these are porteins produced by cells infected with viruses and by T cells.
  156. is a group of more than 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood until activated. involved in the lysis of cellular antigens and labeling non cellular antigens.
  157. chemical signal that help limit inflammation to an extent that is useful
    chemical signal stimulate immune response
    cytokines and chemokines
  158. means antigen is now "labeled" for phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils.
    coating anitbodies
  159. means "chemical movement" and is actually another label that attracts macrophages to engulf and destroy the foreign antigen.
    directly related-chemical attraction
  160. lymph is kept moving by
    lymph vessels by vasoconstriction, skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump.
  161. lymph from the lowerbody and upper left quadrant enters the where
    thoracic duct and is returend to the blood in the left subclavian vein
  162. lymph from the upper right quadrant enters where
    the right lymphatcic duct and is returned to the blood in the right sublcavian vein
  163. what is the difference between lymph nodes and nodules
    • lymph node has capsules
    • nodules are a cluster of tissue
  164. what is t he function of the Thymus
    • immune system
    • mature T Lymphocytes
    • The stem cells of the Thymus produce T lymphocytes or T cells
  165. wht is called immunological competence
  166. what are the types of innate immunity
    • barriers-mucous, skin,
    • defensive cells-macrophages, neutrophils, Langerhans,                         Natural killer cells
    • chemical defense-inflammation,interferons,complement
  167. what are the types of Adaptive immunity
    • T lymphocytes or T cells
    • B lymphocytes or B cells
    • cell-mediated immunity
    • helper T cells
    • antibody-mediated immunity
  168. CD4
    Helper T cell
  169. CD8
    killer T cells
  170. cell mediated
    does not invovle antibodies: is effective against intracellular pathogens, malignant cells and grafts of foreign tissue. have cytotoxic (killer T cells) to chemically destroy froeign cells and produce cytokines to attract macrophages
  171. antibody- mediated
    involves antibody production; is effective against pathogens and foreign cells. B cells and helper T cells recognize foreign antigens and deals with antigens.
  172. does not invovle antibodies; is pgrammed in DNA
    doem pathogens affect cerain host species but not others
  173. does involve antibodies
  174. antibodies from another source, given antibodies,
    ex. given from mom to baby
    passive immunity
  175. production of one's own antibodies, develops antibodies
    active immunity
  176. placental transmission of antibodies from mother tofetus
    transmission of antibodies in breast milk
    natural immunity
  177. injection of preformed antibodies like a vaccine
    artificial immunity
  178. what is the difference between cell-mediated and antibody-mediated
    • cell-mediated (cellular)- involves T cells, immune system is attacking cells, foreign and infected cells
    • antibody-mediated - involves B cells, produce antibodies to attack pathogens.
  179. naris
  180. a wall that separates two cavities su as the asal septum between the nasal cavities or the interventricular septum between the two ventricles of the heart.
  181. turbinate) is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose.
  182. is a cavity within a bone or other tissue. Most commonly found in the bones of the face and connecting with the nasal cavities
  183. is defined as the combination of the vocal folds (vocal cords) and the space in between the folds
  184. is a flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane , attached to the entrance of the larynx
  185. part of an organ where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter
    hilus or hilum
  186. the air pressure within the bronchial tree and alveoli; fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during breathing
    pressure inside the lungs
    intrapulmonic pressure
  187. the pair of peripherial nerves tha are motor to the diaphtragm
    diaphragm- is what stimultes the diaphragm
    phrenic nerve
  188. helps keep lungs inflated to prevent collaps
    intraplural cavity
  189. is the ease in which your lungs expand
  190. prevents overflation, decrease inspiratory area
  191. prolongs inspiration, increases inspiratory area, increase in actual of aspiration area
  192. too much CO2 is known as
  193. body response to breathing
    respiratory compensation
  194. 3 branches
    primary (2)
    secondary(5)-3R, 2L
    tertiary bronchi (10),
    terminal bronchiales
    no gas exchanges here in the upper respiratory
  195. respiratory bronchioles-have alveoli on the surface
    air sacs- clusters of alveoli-gas exchange happens here
    gas exchange here in the upper respiratory in the alveoli
  196. trachae
    primary bronchi
    2ndry bronchi
    tertiary bronchi
    brochiles-is where asthma happens
    terminal bronchiles
    respiratory bronchioles-gas exchange here due to aveoli
    aveolar duct
    air sac
    lower respiratory track, starts at trachea
  197. layers of respiratory membrane
    • mucus & surfactant mix together
    • aveloar epithelium
    • alvelor basement membrane
    • fluid
    • capillary endothelium
    • capillary basement membrane
  198. Tidal volume
    minute respiratory volume
    inspiratory reserve
    expiratory reserve
    vital capcity
    residual air
    forced expiratory volume
    alveolar ventialtion
    pulmonary volumes
  199. the amount of air in one normal inhalation and exhalation
    tidal volume
  200. the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in 1 min.
    minute respiratory volume
  201. the amount of air beyond tidal in a maximal inhaltion
    inspiratory reserve
  202. the amount of air beyond tidal in the most forceful exhalation
    expiratory reserve
  203. the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory and expiratory reserves
    vital capacity
  204. the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhaation; provides for continuous exchange of gases
    residual air
  205. the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled in 1,2, or 3 seconds
    forced expiratory volume
  206. air that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange
    alveolar ventilation
  207. breathing
  208. exchange of gases
  209. quite breathing- normal breathing
    tidal volume
  210. medulla contains inspiration/expiration center
    inspiration regulates quiet breathing
    expiratory- forced breathing
    baroreceptors sends pulse to medulla to inhibit inspiration to prevent overinflation of the lungs
  211. blood is getting too acidic (below 7.35)
    not breathing enough
  212. blood is too alkaline (above 7.45)
    breathing too much