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a ductless gland that secretes its product (hormone) directly into the blood
the organ system that consists of the endocrine glands that secret homormones into the bood
a gland that secretes its product inot a duct to the taken to a cavity or surface
a control system in which a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus, thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again and there is a need for the response
negative feedback loop
the organ or tissue in which a hormone exerts its specific effects
this gland hangs by a short stalk (infundibulum) from the hypothalamus and is enclosed by the sella turica of the sphenoid bone.
pituatary gland or aka hypophysis
a high blood calcium level
the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production
the conversion of excess amino acids to simple carbohydrates or to glucose to be used for energy production
a low blood glucose level
the conversion of glucose to glycogen to be stored as potential energy
the converison of excess amino acids to simple carbohdrates or to glucose to be used for energy production
Hyposecretion of insulin by the pancreas of the inability of insulin to exert its effects; characterized by pherglycemia, increased urinary output with glycosuria and thirst.
the outer layer of an organ, such as the cerebrum, kidney, or adrenal gland.
the part of the brain superior to the spinal cord; regulates vital funcations such as heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.
2. The inner part of an organ, such as the renal medulla or the adrenal medulla
An inflammatory chemical released by damaged tissues as part of innate immunity; stimulates increased capillary permeability and vasodialtion
locally acting hormone-like substances producted by virtually all cells from the phospholipids of their cells membranes; the many types have many varied functions.
hangs by a short stak (infundibulum form the hypthalamus and is enclosed by the sella turcica of the spenoid bone
pituatary gland aka hypophysis
posterior pituitary gland
is an extension of the nerve tissue of the hypothalamus
posterior pituitary gland
anterior pituitary gland
is a separate glandular tissue
anteior pituitary gland
what are the two hormones of the posterior pituitary gland aka neurohypophysis
- antidiuretic hormone
increases the reabsorption of water by kidney tubules, which decreases the amount of urine formed
stimulates contraction of the uterus at the end of pregnancy and stimulates release of milk from the mammary glands when the baby is nursing
What are the six hormones of the anterior pituitary gland
- Growth Hormone (GH)
- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
- Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
GH targets which organs
Bones and Organs
ACTH targets which organs
TSH targets which organ
FSH targets which organ
testes and ovaries
LH targets which organ
testes and ovaries
Prolactin targets which organ
Oxytocin targets which organ
uterus and breasts
ADH targets which organ
Increase mitosis, amino acid transport into cells, protein synthesis, use of fats for energy
Growth Hormone (GH)
Increases secretion of thyroxine and T3 by thyroid gland
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
In women intiates growth of ova in ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen by follicle cells
In men intiates sperm production in the testes
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
In women causes ovulation and rutprued ovarian follicle to become the corpus luteum.
Increases secrtion of progesterone by the corpus luteum
In men increases secretion of testosterone by the interstitial cells of th testes
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
increases the use of excess amino acids and of fats for energy
Glucagon (alpha cells)
increases glucose transport into cells and the use of glucose for energy production
increases the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen in the liver and muscles
increases amino acid and fatty acid transport into cells, and their use in synthesis reactions
Insulin (beta cells)
decreases secretion of insulin and glucagon
slows absorption of nutrients
somatostatin (delta cells)
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
functions of norepinephrine
- vasoconstriction in skin, viscera, skeletal muscle and
- vasodilation in skeletal muscle
function of epinephrine
- increases rate and force of contraction (heart), coversion of glycogen to glucose (liver), use of fats for energy and cell respiration
- dilates bronchioles (lungs)
- also have the same effect on the skin, stomach, and skeletal muscle as norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex secrete 3 stypes of steroid hormones
Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids), (Cortisol) glucocorticoids, and sex hormones
target organ for aldosterone is
is the most abundant of the mineralocorticoids
aldosterone functions are
- increases the reabosrption of sodium and the excretion of K+ by the kidney tubules. Na+ is returned to blood and K+ is excreted to urine.
- Na+ is reabsorbed, H+ may be excreted in exchange.
- increases uses of fats, excess amino acids for energy use
- Conserves glucose
- increase conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver
- Limits inflammation
- anti-inflammatory effect: stabilizes lysosomes and blocks the effects of histamine
is the liquid part of blood and is approximately 91% water
A protein in the blood plasma that is essential for the coagulation of
blood and is converted to fibrin by thrombin and ionized calcium.
1. any protein that is soluble in water and also in moderately concentrated salt solutions. 2. the
major plasma protein, responsible for much of the plasma colloidal
osmotic pressure and serving as a transport protein for large organic
anions (e.g., fatty acids, bilirubin, some drugs) and for some hormones
when their specific binding globulins are saturated.albu´minous
A group of proteins in blood plasma whose levels can be measured by
electrophoresis in order to diagnose or monitor a variety of serious
red blood cells, are the most common type of blood cells.
give the characteristic red color to the blood. Their principle function
is to deliver oxygen to the different parts of the body.
white blood cells, form the main part of the immune system of the body.
not whole cells but rather fragments or pieces of cells
The formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
The ratio of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.An instrument for measuring this, by centrifugation.
measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells. It is useful when evaluating a person for anemia
hormone produced by kidney which stimulates the red bone marrow to increase the rate of RBC production (that is the rate of stem cell mitosis)
the act or process of uniting by glue or other
tenacious substance. 2. the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts. 3. that which is united; Clumping
A reduction in the number of white cells in the blood, typical of various diseases.
low WBC count
high WBC, count
is often an indication for infection
prevention of blood loss
a clot or other tissue transported from elsewhere that lodges in and obstructs a vessel.
what are the components of blood
- Plasma, Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
- White blood cells (leukocytes) -
- Neutrophils (granulocytes).
- Platelets (thrombocytes) - help in blood clotting.
- Fat globules.
- Chemical substances, including: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Hormones.
- Gases, including: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide,Nitrogen.
how are blood cells produced
produced from stem cells in hemopoietic tissue
where are blood cells produced
in the red bone marrow found in flat and irregular bones
what are the 3 blood types
what is the antigen and antibody of blood type A
- antigen A
- antibody - anti B
what is the antigen and antibody of blood type B
- Antigen B
- Antibody- Anti A
what is the antigen and antibody of blood type o
- antigen - neither A or B
- antibody - both Anti A and Anti B
what does Rh stands for
what are the classifications of WBC
name the granular leukocytes
which classification of WBC usually have nuclei in 2 or more lobes or segments, and have distinctly colored ranules when stained
which granular leukocytes have lige blue granules
which granular leukocyte have red granules
which granular leukocytes have dark blue granules
which classification of WBC are lymphocytes and monocytes, which have nuclei in one piece.
What is the function of WBC
to protect the body from infectious disease and to provide immunity to certain diseases.
what is the function of neutrophils and monocytes
- phagocytosis of pathogens
- monocytes are more efficient phagocytes and differentiate into macrophages which also phagocytize dead or damaged tissue at the site of any injury and make tissue repair.
function for neutrophils
to form band cells during the infection stage.
function of eosinophils
to detoxify foreign proteins and will phagocytize anything labeled with antibodies especially during allergic reactions and parasite infections.
function of basophils
contain granules of heparin (anticoagulant to help prevent abnormal clotting withing blood vessels) and histamine (part of inflammation process tha makes capillaries more permeable, allowing tisse fluid, proteins, and white blood cells to accumulate in the damaged area .
funtion of lymphocytes
- T cells- recognize foreign antigens
- B cells-produce antibodyies to foreign antigens
- natural killer cells-destroy foreign cells by chemically rupturing their membranes
what are the 3 mechanisms by which blood loss is prevented
- vascular spasm
- platelet plugs
- chemical clotting
is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart
columns of myocardium
muscles located in the ventricles of the heart. They attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (a.k.a. the mitral and tricuspid valves) via the chordae tendinae and contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves
strands of fibrous connective tissue, extend from the papillary muschels to the flaps of the tricuspid valve.
heart strings, are cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve in the heart.
deprived of its blood supply
an area of necrotic (dead) tissue
a modification of the cell membrane of cardiac muscle cells; the end membranes of adjacent cells are folded and fit inot one another; permits rapid transmission of the electrical impulses that bring about contraction.
very rapid and uncoordinated heartbeats; ventricular fibrillation is a life-threatening emergency due to ineffective pumping and decreased cardiac output.
an abnormally slow heart rate; less than 60 beats per minute
an abnormally rapid heart rate; more than 100 beats per minute
what are the 3 layers of the pericardial membrane
- fibrous pericardium-outermost layer
- parietal pericardium-outer layer
- visceral pericardium (epicardium)- inner layer
what are the 3 layers of the heart
- epicardium-outer most layer
- endocardium-inner layer
which hormone is produced by the heart
- atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or aka
- atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
- helps maintain blood pressure
receives deoxygenated blood
Right AV valve; prevents back flow of blood from the RV to the RA when the RV contracts
prevents back flow of blood from pulmonary arter to the RV
pulmonary semilunar valve
receives oxygenated blood
left AV valve; prevents back flow of brood from the LV to the LA
pumps blood to the body
prevents back flow of blood from the aorta to the LV
aortic semilunar valve
in both the RV and LV; prevent inversion of the AV valves
papillary muscles and chordae tendineae
fibrous connective tissue that anchors the four heart valves
fibrous skeleton of the heart
what part of the brain regulates the heart
which node initiates heart beat
what is the cardiac conduction pathway
- SA node
- AV node
- Bundle of His
- R & L bundle branches
- Purkinje fibers
A thin layer of flat epithelial cells that lines serous cavities, lymph vessels, and blood vessels.
innermost layer. made of simple squamous epithelium
is a connection or joining of vessels that is artery to artery or vein to vein.
what dad had. when one vessel is blocked heart will make alternate pathways for the flow of blood.
a circular muscle that regulates the size of an opening.
a large, very permeable capillary; permits proteins or blood cells to enter or leave the blood
the process in which there is movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration; occurs because of the free energy (natural movement) of molecules
the force exerted by the presence of protein in a solution; water will move by osmosis to the area of greater protein concentration
colloid osmotic pressure
an abnormally high blood pressure, consistently above 130/85 mmHg
an abnormally low blood pressure, consistenly below 90/60 mmHg
the amount of blood returned by the veins to the heart; is directly related to cardiac output, which depends on adequate venous return
a mechanism that increases venous return; contractions of the skeletal muscles compress the deep veins expecially those of the legs
skeletal muscle pump
a mechanism that increases venous return; pressure changes during breathing compress the veins that pass thorugh the thoracic cavity
the part of the medulla that regulates the diameter of arteries and veins; contributes to normal blood pressure
a chemical produced by the paretal cells of the gastric mucosa; necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12
relating to the nerves and muscles that cause the blood vessels to constrict or dilate
what are the 3 layers of blood vessels
- tunica intima-innermost layer-simple squamous epithelium
- tunica media-middle layer- smooth muscle
- tunica externa-outer layer-fibrous connective tissue
what are the types of blood vessels
- artery: carry blood from heart
- arteriole: smaller arteries
- capillary network: carry blood from arterioles to venules
- venule: smaller veins
- vein: carry blood from capillaries back to heart
what is the pulmonary circulation
RV pumps to R and L pulmonary artery to arterioles then to capillaries (arteries)
during the pulmonary circulation where does the gas exchange happen
in the alveoli of the lungs is where the exchange of O2 and CO2 take lace (veins)
what is systemic circulation
LV pumps to aorta from aorta into arterioles and capillary networks thorught out body.
arterioles are responsible for
prehypertension blood pressure is
hypertension blood pressure is above
what are some factors that affect blood pressure
- viscosity of blood
- loss of blood
- elasticity of large arteries
what is the main lymphatic duct and drains the lower body
tricuspid is on which side of the body
bicuspid is on which side of body
pulmonary arteries carry what type of blood
pulmonary vein carry what type of blood
what is the thin wall inbetweeen R & L atrium that separates the two atria
muscle that is attach to chordae tinineae that opens the ticuspid and bicuspid valves
is the ability to distinguish the cells that belong in the body from those that do not.
recognizing its own cells
is the aiblity not ot react to proteins and other organic molecules our cells produce.
ability to not to attack its own cells
chemicals that help the body resist infections, innate immunity, non specific defense resistance
these are porteins produced by cells infected with viruses and by T cells.
is a group of more than 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood until activated. involved in the lysis of cellular antigens and labeling non cellular antigens.
chemical signal that help limit inflammation to an extent that is useful
chemical signal stimulate immune response
cytokines and chemokines
means antigen is now "labeled" for phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils.
means "chemical movement" and is actually another label that attracts macrophages to engulf and destroy the foreign antigen.
directly related-chemical attraction
lymph is kept moving by
lymph vessels by vasoconstriction, skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump.
lymph from the lowerbody and upper left quadrant enters the where
thoracic duct and is returend to the blood in the left subclavian vein
lymph from the upper right quadrant enters where
the right lymphatcic duct and is returned to the blood in the right sublcavian vein
what is the difference between lymph nodes and nodules
- lymph node has capsules
- nodules are a cluster of tissue
what is t he function of the Thymus
- immune system
- mature T Lymphocytes
- The stem cells of the Thymus produce T lymphocytes or T cells
wht is called immunological competence
what are the types of innate immunity
- barriers-mucous, skin,
- defensive cells-macrophages, neutrophils, Langerhans, Natural killer cells
- chemical defense-inflammation,interferons,complement
what are the types of Adaptive immunity
- T lymphocytes or T cells
- B lymphocytes or B cells
- cell-mediated immunity
- helper T cells
- antibody-mediated immunity
does not invovle antibodies: is effective against intracellular pathogens, malignant cells and grafts of foreign tissue. have cytotoxic (killer T cells) to chemically destroy froeign cells and produce cytokines to attract macrophages
involves antibody production; is effective against pathogens and foreign cells. B cells and helper T cells recognize foreign antigens and deals with antigens.
does not invovle antibodies; is pgrammed in DNA
doem pathogens affect cerain host species but not others
does involve antibodies
antibodies from another source, given antibodies,
ex. given from mom to baby
production of one's own antibodies, develops antibodies
placental transmission of antibodies from mother tofetus
transmission of antibodies in breast milk
injection of preformed antibodies like a vaccine
what is the difference between cell-mediated and antibody-mediated
- cell-mediated (cellular)- involves T cells, immune system is attacking cells, foreign and infected cells
- antibody-mediated - involves B cells, produce antibodies to attack pathogens.
a wall that separates two cavities su as the asal septum between the nasal cavities or the interventricular septum between the two ventricles of the heart.
turbinate) is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose.
is a cavity within a bone or other tissue. Most commonly found in the bones of the face and connecting with the nasal cavities
is defined as the combination of the vocal folds (vocal cords) and the space in between the folds
is a flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane , attached to the entrance of the larynx
part of an organ where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter
hilus or hilum
the air pressure within the bronchial tree and alveoli; fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during breathing
pressure inside the lungs
the pair of peripherial nerves tha are motor to the diaphtragm
diaphragm- is what stimultes the diaphragm
helps keep lungs inflated to prevent collaps
is the ease in which your lungs expand
prevents overflation, decrease inspiratory area
prolongs inspiration, increases inspiratory area, increase in actual of aspiration area
too much CO2 is known as
body response to breathing
tertiary bronchi (10),
no gas exchanges here in the upper respiratory
respiratory bronchioles-have alveoli on the surface
air sacs- clusters of alveoli-gas exchange happens here
gas exchange here in the upper respiratory in the alveoli
brochiles-is where asthma happens
respiratory bronchioles-gas exchange here due to aveoli
lower respiratory track, starts at trachea
layers of respiratory membrane
- mucus & surfactant mix together
- aveloar epithelium
- alvelor basement membrane
- capillary endothelium
- capillary basement membrane
minute respiratory volume
forced expiratory volume
the amount of air in one normal inhalation and exhalation
the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in 1 min.
minute respiratory volume
the amount of air beyond tidal in a maximal inhaltion
the amount of air beyond tidal in the most forceful exhalation
the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory and expiratory reserves
the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhaation; provides for continuous exchange of gases
the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled in 1,2, or 3 seconds
forced expiratory volume
air that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange
exchange of gases
quite breathing- normal breathing
medulla contains inspiration/expiration center
inspiration regulates quiet breathing
expiratory- forced breathing
baroreceptors sends pulse to medulla to inhibit inspiration to prevent overinflation of the lungs
blood is getting too acidic (below 7.35)
not breathing enough
blood is too alkaline (above 7.45)
breathing too much