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Believed in dualism - mind and body were separate.
Associated with empiricism. Children are born with a blank slate that experience writes on. Knowledge comes from experience through the senses; science should be observation and experimentation.
Associated with natural selection, evolution, and adaptive traits.
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (classical conditioning; unconditioned and conditioned stimuli & responses).
Behaviorist, thought that cognition isn't important. Did the Little Albert experiment with Rosalie Rayner -- used conditioning to make a toddler afraid of white rats.
Worked with operant conditioning (how to control self to elicit rewards or avoid punishment). Made the Skinner Box. Developed reinforcement schedules: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval. Studied the importance of operant conditioning on education, work, and parenting.
Believed that people are essentially good. Came up with unconditional positive regard (total acceptance towards another person)
Created the hierarchy of human needs. Believed that people generally strove to be self-actualized. (think Cobb!)
To be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a contact minimum percentage, as opposed to a constant amount. (just noticeable difference)
Believed that children learned through association
Identified 'critical age' before which language must be learned. Findings had a large effect on the wild child team.
James-Lange theory says that emotions follow bodily responses. A pounding heart (the arousal) may lead you to label yourself as feeling fear (the emotion).
Walter Cannon and Philip Bard
Cannon-Bard theory says that arousal and emotion occur simultaneously. One does not cause the other.
Stanley Schachter and J.E. Singer
Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory says that physiology and cognitions create emotion together. To experience emotion, there must be a physical arousal and a cognitive label. --Pounding heart (arousal) + "i'm afraid" (cognitive label) = fear (emotion).
Developmental theorist, associated with the term basic trust. Most known for his stages of development with psychosocial tasks: 1) Infancy - trust vs. mistrust; 2) Toddlerhood - autonomy vs. shame and doubt; 3) Preschooler - initiative vs. guilt; 4) Elementary school - competence vs. inferiority; 5) Adolescence - identity vs. role confusion; 6) Young adulthood - intimacy vs. isolation; 7) Middle adulthood - generativity vs. stagnation; 8) Late adulthood - integrity vs. despair.
Came up with the idea of schemas, accomodate and assimilate. Morality developed with cognition. (Four cognitive stages: sensorimotor stage - experience world with senses; preoperational stage - worked with language, not logic; concrete operational stage - worked with logic; 4formal operational - abstract reasoning.)
development of moral reasoning. (Preconventional morality: before age 9, children obey to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards. Conventional morality: by early adolescence, children obey laws because they are laws. Postconventional morality: those with abstract reasoning obey what they think is right, based on ethical principles.These three form a moral ladder.)
Psychoanalyst (analytical psychology), neo-Freudian. Believed that there is a collective unconscious. People are molded by ancestral and personal history.
personality theorist and neo-Freudian. People have a need to belong. Inferiority complex rather than Oedipus complex
Opposed Freud's penis envy theory with the womb envy theory of her own (men are jealous of woman's ability to give birth). Believed childhood anxiety triggered desire for love/security.
loci of controls--(perceptions of control) External = outside forces determine fate. Internal = they control their own destiny.
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