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- describe the size & shape of objects. 2 DCL: the index & thumb forming a small round circle with remaining fingers extended (F) to represent small, round, flat objects such as coins, buttons, & tokens; and, L handshapes on both hands tracing a rectangular shape to represent flat, rectangular-shaped objects such as checks, coupons, & receipts.
- Referents for the objects represented musy be clear. Signers either fingerspell or sign specific referents or the contexts sometimes make referents clear.
horizontal & vertical sweep for showing number arrangement
used to show the arrangement of numbers in vertical & horizontal lists to be added. (total)
relative clause structure
relative clause structure:using a relative clause provides more info about the subject in a sentence. An example is "my brother Tom, who is a lawyer, lives in Washington DC." The relative clause in this sentence is 'who is a lawyer,' because it refers to the subject & provides more info about the subject Tom. The pronoun that signals relative clauses in ASL is himself/herself signed against the index finger of the non-dominant hand in third person location.
number incorporation with money signs
number incorporation with money can be incorporated when communicating about both cents & dollars. Used when communicating about dollars up through 9. When communicating about dollars for amounts above 9, 2 signs are used, the number sign plus the sign dollar.
sign movement repetition for repeated action
repeating the movements of verb signs indicates that actions are repeated. For example, the movement repetition for the verb sign to pay indicates that the signer has many bills to pay.
- Deaf people are visual communicators & ASL is a lang entirely adapted to visual comm. Another way that visual comm manifests itself within Deaf people's lives is thru the importance of lighting in the home. the kitchen is often the fav room in a Deaf-friendly home b/c it is often the best lit room & comm can flow easily in this well-lit environment. Deaf homes also are equipped with flashing light signals to alert occupants to the phone ringing, someone at the door, baby crying, fire/smoke alarm.
- visual comm is becoming more noticeable in society in general. a visually friendly environment is important to comm for both deaf & hearing ppl. airports are often noisy & announcements are difficult to hear. some of the major airports are installing large message boards in passenger gate areas & thruout the airport to report gate changes, flight cancellations, & other announcements. electronic cash registers often have a display screen showing the total charges as they are being entered & the total due to the cashier. many banks have lighted signal sighs that indicate when a teller becomes available.
- these visual forms of comm help everyone, & Deaf people especially appreciate efforts to establish visually friendly environments that facilitate visual comm.
more about Deaf community networking
sharing info in the Deaf community is critical to creating networking among Deaf ppl. the value of asking personal questions is also seen in the area of personal finances. Deaf ppl are generally more willing than hearing ppl to share info about certain aspects of their personal financial dealings. this is espically true when this info may be helpful to other members of the deaf community.
- the notion of creating opportunities & resources wihin the deaff community that will sustain its members is a strong element of deaf culture.
- the NAD was instrumental in fighting for the rights of deaf drivers to be issued licenses. the National Fraternal Society of the Deaf (NSFD) was founded in 1901 by a group of young deaf adults at Michigan School for the Deaf. the immediate purpose was to provide low-cost insurance protection for deaf ppl. the NSFD was also founded to provide social opportunities.
- creating opportunity & resources can also be seen in organizations like the National Deaf Business Institute (NDBI), whose mission is to advance entrepreneurship by the deaf thru education, research, & outreach. NDBI aims to help empower the deaf community by increasing the number of deaf-owned businesses & deaf professionals.
more on topic/comment structure
- used extensively when explaining steps in procedures. this is consistent with the prevalence of the topic/comment structure in ASL discourse. signers signal the topic with raised eyebrows, head tilt, & pauseing slightly at the end of the topic portion of the sentence. the comment is marked with the non-manual signals appropriate to the type of comment being communicated (statement, question, command)
- when explaining procedures, signers use topic non-manual signals to accompany the signing of first, second, thrid, etc, & they use appropriate non-manual signals during the comment or explanation for each procedural step.
meaning & placement of modal verbs in ASL sentences
- modal verbs such as can & must may be placed either prior to the main verb or at the end of the sentence. pplacement at the end of the sentence communicates more emphasis.
- the modal verb must is used to communicate that a speaker or a listener is required to do something or that there is some necessity.
a use of fingerspelling is the process by which short english words are spelled with movement & palm orientation changes that reflect how signs are made. takes on properties of how signs are produced. these signs frequently assimilate medial letters of the words being spelled (#job)
the handshapes for both cardinal (counting #) & ordinal numbers (first) are the same. the movements & palm orientations for some ordinal numbers change. for the ordinal numbers from 1st - 9th, the movement of the hand twists from the palm facng forward to inward toward the body. for the remaining numbers, these have the same production as cardinal numbers.
face to face comm
- deaf ppl highly value face to face comm. before the advent of the modern telecomm technology that allows instantaneous access to ppl all over the world, Deaf people relied extensively on local deaf clubs as sources of socialization & info sharing. even today, wth instantaneous comm thru email, deaf ppl prefer face to face interaction with others in the comfortable medium of ASL whenever possible. there is no sub for face to face discourse when important matters need discussion & resolution.
- altho attendance & reliance on local deaf clubs are somewhat diminished in light of the advances in technology that allow instantaneous comm, many deaf ppl still participate in local deaf clubs & make a point to attend other social functions where they will have the opportunity for face to face comm.