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What is a hormone?
A chemical signal secreted by an endocrine cell and carried by the circ. system.
What is the difference between Endocrine, Autocrine, and Paracrine communication.
- endocrine: hormone secreted which moves to the blood stream
- autocrine: chemical secreted by cell, which stimulates itself
- paracrine: chemical secreted by a cell which stimulates another cell
Copmare and contrast steroid, amine, and protein/peptide hormones.
- Steroid: made from cholesterol, are lipid-soluble, therefore can diffuse across cell membrane, e.g. estrogen
- Non-steroid: This includes both amine and protien/peptide hormones. Interact with receptors on the surface.
What are the classic seven enodcrine glands?
- Thyroid gland
- Parathyroid gland
- Adrenal gland
- Testes and Ovaries
- Neurohypophysis - (Neurocrine)
What are the three responses a cell can have to more than one hormone acting on it at once?
- Synergism: hormones act to enhance eachother's influence
- Permissiveness: small amount of one hormone may allow a suboptimal concentration of a second hormone to have its full effect
- Antagonism: One hormone may oppose the effect of another hormone
What are the general principles of hormone action?
- 1. Each hormone binds to a specific receptor (either on
- or in the target cell).
- 2. Hormones are amplitude-modulated chemical signals (i.e. increases or decreases in concentration).
- 3. Each target cell can respond to many different hormones (many different receptors).
- 4.Each hormone-receptor interaction gives rise to different cellular responses.
- 5. Cellular responses are usually slow to appear but are often long-lasting
List three common cellular responses to hormones
- Insulin: glucose uptake
- Epinephrine: smooth muscle contraction
- Aldosterone: Na++ ion reabsorption
What are the three types of hormone regulation?
- Chronic regulation: Relatively constant concentration over a long period of time (e.g. thyroid hormone)
- Acute regulation: Rapid, short increases in concentration in response to a stimulus (e.g. epinephrine)
- Cyclic regulation: cyclic increases and decreases in concentration (e.g. melatonin)
List 4 ways that you can modulate hormone levels
- Regulation of secretion rate of hormones
- Transporting hormones in plasma
- Diffusion of hormones into target tissues
- Metabolism and excretion of hormones
How does the body dispose of hormones?
- 1) excretion in kidneys and liver
- 2) Enzymatically degraded, then excreted or reused
- 3) Conjugate with water-soluble molecules, which decreases their half life.
List the cranial nerves (II-XII) in the following diagram.
What is the name and function of CN II?
What is the name and function of CN III?
Oculomotor nerve: most of the extrinsic eye muscles, eyelid lifter, smooth muscles in the eyeball
What is the name and function of CN IV?
Trochlear: moves eye in and down
What is the name and function of CN V?
Trigeminal: Sensory for most of face, chewing muscles
What is the name and function of CN VI?
Abducens: abducs the eye
What is the name and function of CN VII?
Facial: motor to face muscles, parasymp for lacrimation (crying), salivation, taste
What is the name and function of CN VIII?
Vestibulocochlear: hearing and balance
What is the name and function of CN IX?
Glossopharyngeal: motor innervation to one pharyngeal muscle, salivation, taste, visceral sensation from carotid bifurcation.
What is the name and function of CN X?
Vagus: innervation of larynx and pharynx, parasym innervation of thoracic and abdominal viscera, taste and sensation from tongue, visceral sensation from aortic arch and thoracic and abdominal viscera
What is the name and function of CN XI?
Spinal accessory: traps and sternocleidomastoid muscles
What is the name and function of CN XII?
Hypoglossal: motor muscles to tongue
Label the following: corpus callosum, central sulcus, lateral fissure, calcarine fissure, and sagittal fissure
Name 4 types of glial cells
- astrocytes: CNS, feet are on the BBB in CNS, other functions
- oligodendrocytes: myelination in CNS
- microglia: phagocytic cells in CNS
- Schwann Cells: myelination in PNS