NASM CPT Review.txt

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NASM CPT Review.txt
2012-12-02 11:44:24
NASM Final

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  1. Progression for the youth population should be based on what?
    • Postural control
    • Not the amount of weight being used
  2. As adults age what functions decrease:
    • Maximum attainable heart rate
    • Cardiac output
    • Muscle mass
    • Balance
    • Coordination (neuromuscular efficiency)
    • Connective tissue elasticity
    • Bone mineral density
  3. Special consideration guidelines for basic exercises for Seniors:
    • Progression should be slow, monitored, based on postural control
    • Progressed toward free sitting or standing (no support)
    • Breathing normal; avoid holding breath
    • If no SMR; slow rhythmic active & dynamic stretches
  4. Basic exercise guidelines for individuals who are overweight or obese (special considerations):
    • Ensure client is comfortable
    • Standing or seated exercises
    • Medical release if ind. has any chronic diseases
  5. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with diabetes:
    • Proper footwear (chk for abnormal wear); check for blisters
    • Keep snack available
    • Special care & advice from physician for SMR
    • Excessive reactive & high intensity trng not recommended 
  6. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with hypertension:
    • Avoid heavy lifting
    • Ensure proper breathing
    • No over gripping weights or clenching fist
    • No extended isometric & concentric muscle action
    • Exercises in standing or sitting position
    • Stand up slowly to avoid dizziness
  7. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with Coronary Heart Disease:
    • Consider other diseases: diabetes, hypertension, obesity, peripheral vascular disease
    • Avoid extended isometric & concentric muscle action
    • Avoid heavy lifting
    • Breath normal
    • No overgripping weights or clenching fists
    • Exercise standing or sitting
  8. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with Osteoporosis:
    • Slow, well monitored, based on postural control
    • Progressed toward free sitting or standing
    • Focus on hips, thighs, back, & arms
    • Avoid spinal loading on squats and leg press
    • Maintin normal breathing
  9. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with Arthritis:
    • Avoid heavy lifting & high repetitions
    • Start out with 5 mins of exercise & progressively increase
    • Stay in pain-free ranges of motion
  10. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with Cancer:
    • Avoid heavy lifting initially
    • Allow for adequate rest intervals & progress 
    • Start out with 5 mins of exercise & progressively increase
  11. Basic exercise guidelines for Women and Pregnancy:
    • Avoid exercises in a prone position after week 12
    • Avoid SMR on varicose veins & swelling inside the lower leg (may link to premature uterine contraction)
  12. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with Lung Disease:
    • Peripheral Heart Action (PHA) training is advised
    • Upper body exercises can cause increased dyspnea
    • Allow for sufficient rest 
  13. Basic exercise guidelines for individuas with Intermittent Claudication/PAD:
    • Allow for sufficient 
    • Start out with 5 mins of exercise & progressively increase
  14. A condition that narrows the major arteries that are responsible for suppling blood to the lower extremities
    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
  15. The process by which an animal or plant takes in and uses food substances
  16. Used to build and repair body tissues and structures. 
    Can be used for energy if calories or carbohydrates are insufficient in the diet
    Made up of amino acids limked together by peptide bonds
  17. Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), and fibers which make up a large portion of animal foods
  18. A group of compounds that include triglycerides (fats & oils), phospholipids, and sterols
  19. Cannot be manufactured by the body (or are manufactured in insufficient amounts); therefore they must be obtained from the food supply or some other exogenous source
    Essential amino acids
  20. Isoleucine
    Methionine Phenylalanine
    Essential Amino Acids
  21. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protien for, General population, Body builders, and Endurance athletes:
    • General population: 0.8 g/kg per day or 15 to 30% of total caloric intake
    • Body builders: 1.0
    • Endurance athletes: 1.4
  22. Types of carbohydrates:
    • Simple
    • Complex
  23. Simple Carbohydrates
    Monosaccharaides (single sugars): blood, fruit sugar, glucose

    Disaccharides (2 sugars): Sucrose (common sugar), Lactose (mik sugar), maltose
  24. Complex Carbohydrates
    • Starches
    • Glycogen
  25. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for fiber
    • Men: 38 grams per day
    • Women: 25 grams per day
  26. Types of fatty acids:
    • Saturated
    • Unsaturated
  27. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for water:
    • 96 ounces (3 quarts)
    • Fat-loss program add 8 ounces for every 25Ibs overweight
  28. Importance of water
    • 60% of body weight
    • Can only survive for a few days without
    • Fluid retention alleviated
    • Improved liver function
    • Appetite decreases
    • Improved metabolic function
    • Nutrient distribution
    • Improved body temp regulation
    • Maintains blood volume
  29. Effects of dehydration:
    • Decreases: Blood volume, Performance, Blood pressure, Sweat rate, Cardiac output, Blood flow to skin
    • Increases: Core temperature, Heart rate, Perceived exertion, use of muscle glycogen 

    • Water retention
    • Sodium retention
  30. Nutrients with the greatest potential for excess dosage in dietary supplements:
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Iron
    • Zinc
  31. The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
  32. The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98%) healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group
    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
  33. A recommended average daily nutrient intake level, based on observed approximations, or estimates of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group of healthy people. This is used when an RDA connot be determined.
    Adequate intake (AI)
  34. The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. As intake increases the potential risk of adverse health effects increases
    Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
  35. For those who are certain about what they want to accomplish are up to__________more likely to successfully make life changes than those who are less certain
    Six times
  36. A method of asking questions on a step-by-step basis to discover the initial cause of a fault
    Root cause analysis
  37. Vision questions
    • What would you try to accomplish if you knew you couln't fail?
    • What would you do if you won the lottery?
    • Who are your role models?
    • What kinds of experiences do you find so engrossing that, when you engage in them, you forget about everything around you?
  38. Individuals who engage in higher-level visionary thinking
    Lower-level strategic thinking are know as:
    Flexible thinkers
  39. The acronym SCAMPI
    • Specific 
    • Challenging
    • Approach
    • Measurable
    • Proximal
    • Inspirational
  40. What is the purpose of a business?
    To create and keep a customer
  41. What are all buying decisions based on:
    • Emotions
    • Level of customer service received
    • Perception of value offered
  42. Guildelines for Uncompromising Customer Service (1-3):
    • Take opportunities to meet and greet all club members to create a professional relationship and make a sale
    • Represent a positive image and high level professionalism
    • Never give the impression that a question is inconvenient, unnecessary, or unintelligent
  43. Guildelines for Uncompromising Customer Service (4-6):
    Convey messages with good verbal commo, vocal tonality, & body language

    Obsessing on opportunities to create moments that strengthen professional relationships

    Take ownership of received complaints
  44. READ acronym:
    • Rapport
    • Empathy
    • Assessment
    • Development
  45. Factors that affect communication (%'s):
    • Physiology 55%
    • Tone of voice 38%
    • Words 7%
  46. A process of determining the importance, size, or value of something
  47. Characteristics of Type I muscle fibers
    • Slow twitch
    • More capillaries
    • Increased oxygen delivery
    • Smaller size
    • Less force produced
    • Slow to fatigue
    • Long-term contractions (stabilization)
  48. Characteristics of Type II muscle fibers
    • Fast twitch
    • Larger is size
    • Decreased oxygen
    • Fewer capillaries
    • More force produced
    • Quick to fatigue
    • Short term contractions (force & power)
  49. Muscles as Movers
    Prime Mover
  50. Muscles as Movers
    Assists prime mover
  51. Muscles as Movers
    Stabilize while prime mover and synergist work
  52. Muscles as Movers
    Oppose prime mover
  53. The smallest blood vessels, which connect venules with arterioles
  54. Heart functions:
    Left ventricle
    Pumps oxygenated blood to the entire body
  55. Heart functions:
    Right ventricle
    Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to become oxygenated
  56. Heart functions:
    Left Atrium
    Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
  57. Heart functions:
    Right Atrium
    Receives deoxygenated blood from the body
  58. The amount of blood that is pumped out with each contraction of a ventricle
    Approx. 75-80mL/beat
    Stroke Volume
  59. The rate with which the heart pumps
    Approx. 70-80 bpm
    Heart rate
  60. The combination of how many times the heart beats per minute and how much blood is being pumped out with each beat
    Cardiac output
  61. Inspiration muscles of the respiratory pump
    • Diaphram
    • External intercostals
    • Scalenes
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • Pectoralis minor
  62. Expiration muscles of the respiratory pump
    • Internal intercostals
    • Abdominals
  63. Normal breathing requires the use of what primary respiratory muscles:
    • Diaphram
    • External intercostals
  64. Heavy breathing requires additional use of what secondary respiratory muscles 
    • Scalenes
    • Pectoralls Minor
  65. System: Anaerobic

    Use: Provides energy for primarily high-intensity (heavy weights), short-duration bouts of exercise (sprints) or activity

    Time: up to 10 seconds
  66. System: Anaerobic

    Use: Moderate to high-intensity, moderate-duration activities    
    (sets of 8-12 reps)
    uses breakdown of carbs (glucose) to produce ATP

    Time: 30-50 seconds
  67. System: Aerobic

    Use: Lower intensity, longer duration activities (walking)

    Time: more than 2 minutes
  68. A study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body
  69. The length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force
    Length-tension relationship
  70. Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
  71. Uses information from the mechanoreceptors to provide info about body position, movement, and sensation as it pertains to muscle and joint force; to produce the most efficient movement
  72. Mechanoreceptors:
    • Muscle spindles
    • Golgi tendon organ
    • Joint receptors
  73. A systematic problem-solving method that provides the health and fitness professional with a basis for making educated decisions about exercise and acute variable selection
    Fitness assessment
  74. The alignment and fucntion of all components of thekenetic chain at any given moment
  75. The alignment of the musculoskeletal system that allows our center of gravity to be maintained over our base of support
    Structural efficiency
  76. The ability of the neuromuscular system to monitor and manipulate movement during functional tasks using the least amount of energy, creating the least amount of stress on the kenetic chain
    Functional efficiency
  77. The ability of the nervous system to communicate effectively with the muscular system
    Neuromuscular efficiency
  78. Basic functions of Beta-blockers
    • Used for high blood pressure and irregular heart rate
    • Decreases heart rate & blood pressure
  79. Heart rate training
    Zone one:
    Builds aerobic base & aids in recovery
  80. Heart rate training
    Zone two:
    Increases endurance & trains the anaerobic threshold
  81. Heart rate training
    Zone three:
    Builds high-end work capacity
  82. 4 ways to determine body fat percentage:
    • Skin-fold caliper
    • Bioelectric impedance
    • Underwater weighing
    • Circumference measurements
  83. Test that assesses upper extremity stability
  84. Test that assesses overall athletic ability
    Shark skill
  85. Advanced assessment that estimates one-rep maximum and upper extremity strength
    Upper extremity strength
  86. Advanced assessment that estimates one-rep maximum and lower extremity strength
    Lower extremity strength
  87. On upper extremity strength assessment how much weight is added
    10 to 20 Ibs (5-10%) for 3 to 5 reps
  88. Assesses dynamic flexibility and integrated total body strength
    Overhead squat
  89. Assesses ankle proprioception, core strength, and hip joint stability
    Single-leg squat
  90. Assesses upper extremity neuromuscular  efficiency
    Pushing and pulling assessment
  91. Stretching summary
    Autogenic inhibition
    1-3 sets
    20-30 second holds
    Static stretching
  92. Stretching summary
    Reciprocal inhibition
    1-2 sets
    1-2 second hold
    5-10 repetitions
    Active-Isolated stretching
  93. Stretching summary
    Reciprocal inhibition
    1 set
    10 repetitions
    3-10 exercises
    Dynamic stretching
  94. Low-intensity exercises consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow
    General warm-up
  95. Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow
    Specific warm-up
  96. Benefits of a cool-down
    • Improve flexibility
    • Removes waste by-products
    • Minimizes muscle soreness
    • Allows cardio sys. to respond to lower demand
    • Avoids dizziness or fainting
    • Provides an emotional balance after exercise
  97. Stage I (stabilization)
    • For beginners
    • Work up tp 30 to 60 minutes
    • Aerobic
    • Heart rate 65-75%
    • Maintain heart rate for 30 mins 2-3 times before Stage II
  98. Stage II (strength)
    Focus is increasing the workload
  99. Stage III (power)
    • Advanced clients w/ good cardio
    • Uses all 3 heart rate zones
  100. Benefits of Curcuit Training:
    • Just as beneficial as traditional Cardio trng
    • Produces greater levels of EPOC & strength
    • Near identical caloric expenditure for the same time span as walking fast
  101. Importance of balance training:
    • Component of all movements
    • Force reduction & stabilization are required for optimum force production
    • Stresses limits of stability
    • Focuses on functional movement patterns in mutisensory, unstable environments
  102. The ability of the kinetic chain to stabilize a joint during movement
    Dynamic joint stabilization
  103. Examples of Dynamic joint stabilization movements
    • Rotator cuff stabilizing the head of the humerous on the glenoid fossa while performing a push-up
    • The gluteus medius & adductor complex stabilizing the hip when performing a squat
  104. Training environment that provides heightened stimulation to proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors

    Example: balance on one footon a half foam roll, while squatting down & reaching across body
    Mutisensory condition
  105. Body position progression for balance training
    • Two-leg/stable
    • Single-leg/stable
    • Two-leg/unstable
    • Single-leg/unstable
  106. Balance Stabilization exercises
    • Single-leg
    • Balance
    • Balance reach
    • Hip internal & external rotation
    • Lift and chop
  107. Balance Strength exercises
    • Single-leg
    • Squat
    • Squat touchdown
    • Romain deadlift
    • Step-up to balance
    • Lunge to balance
  108. Balance Power level exercises
    • Mutiplanar hop w/ stabilization
    • Box hop-up w/ stabilization
    • Box hop-down w/ stabilization
  109. Exercises that uses quick, powerful movements involving an eccentric contraction immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction
    Reactive Training
  110. The ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
    Rate of force production
  111. Reactive stabilization exercises designed to establish landing mechanics, postural alignment, and reactive neuromuscular efficiency (examples):
    • Squat jump with stabilization
    • Box jump-up with stabilization
    • Box jump-down with stablization
    • Mutiplanar jump with stabilization
  112. Reactive strength exercises, more dynamic eccentric and concentric movement through a full range of motion (examples)
    • Squat jump
    • Tuck jump
    • Butt kick 
    • Power step-up
  113. Reactive Power exercises, develop high levels of eccentric strength, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and reactive joint stabilization
    • Ice skater
    • Single-leg power step-up
    • Proprioceptive plyometrics: cones & hurdles
  114. The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible
  115. The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly, while maintaining proper posture
  116. The ability to react and change body position with maximum rate of force production, in all planes of motion, from all body positions, during functional activities
  117. Initial reaction to stressor such as increased oxygen and blood supply to the necessary areas of the body
    Alarm reaction
  118. Increased functional capacity to adapt to stressors such as increasing motor unit recruitment
    Resistance development
  119. A prolonged intolerable stressor produces fatigue and leads to a breakdown in the system or injury
  120. Generally used as antihypertensive (high BP), may also be prescribed for arrhythmias (irregular heart rate)
  121. Diastolic blood pressure is determined when...
    the pulse fades away
  122. The Durnin formula's four sites of skin-fold measurements for body fat
    • Biceps
    • Triceps
    • Subscapular
    • Iliac crest (side of belly)
  123. For program design what is the repetition & set continuum
    Power:          reps 1-10      sets 3-6

    Strength:       reps 1-12      sets 2-6

    Stabilization: reps 12-25     sets 1-3 
  124. Repetition Tempo Spectrum
    Power: Explosive (x/x/x)

    Strength: Moderate (2/0/2)

    Stabilization: Slow (4/2/1)
  125. A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual acheive a specific goal
    Program design
  126. Important  components that specify how each exercise is to be performed
    They determine the amount of stress placed on the body
    Acute variables
  127. An individuals level of effort, compared with their maximal effort (usually expressed as a percentage)
    Training intensity
  128. Amount of physical training performed within a specified period
    Based on:
    Training phase     Recoverability
    Goals                 Nutritional status
    Age                    Injury history
    Work capacity
    Training Volume
  129. Stabilization endurance acute variables for Resistance training:Reps:
    • Reps: 12-20    
    • Sets: 1-3
    • Tempo: 4/2/1
    • Intensity: 50-70%
    • Rest: 0-90s
    • 2-4 times/week
    • 4-6 weeks
  130. Strength endurance acute variables for Resistancetraining:Reps:                           
    • Reps: 8-12
    • Sets: 2-4
    • Tempo: (str)2/0/2 (stab) 4/2/1
    • Intensity: 70-80%
    • Rest: 0-60s
    • 2-4 times/week
    • 4-6 weeks
  131. Hypertrophy acute variables for Resistance training:Reps: 
    • Reps: 6-12    
    • Sets: 3-5
    • Tempo: 2/0/2
    • Intensity: 75-85%
    • Rest: 0-60s
    • 3-6 times/week
    • 4 weeks
  132. Maximal Strength training acute variables for Resistance training:Reps:             
    • Reps: 1-5
    • Sets: 4-6
    • Tempo: x/x/x
    • Intensity: 85-100%
    • Rest: 3-5 min
    • 2-4 times/week
    • 4 weeks
  133. Power training acute variables for Resistance training:Reps:   
    • Reps: 1-5 (S) 8-10 (P)
    • Sets: 3-5
    • Tempo: x/x/x
    • Intensity: 85-100%(S) 30-45%(P)
    • Rest: 1-2mins
    • 2-4 times/week
    • 4 weeks