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Amount of oxygen flow for the patient average patient who is not breathing?
10-15 liters per minute
Amount of oxgen flow for a patient with chronic bronchitis or emphysema so they do not go into respiratory arrest?
2 or 3 liters per minute
Specific causes of shock?
- Sharp pain
- Sight/insertion of needle
- sight of blood
- uncomfortable environment
- severe infection
- inadequate fluid intake
Specific causes of stroke?
- Cerebral thrombosis- (blood clot in brain)
- Intracerebral embolism-(blood clot, air bubble, piece of atheroma[arteriole plaque] or other obstruction circulated from another portion of the body)
- Ischemia-decrease in blood flow to the brain
- Cerebral hemorrage
- Allergic reaction of the body to an overwhelming sensitization by a foreign protein
- Results due to the liberation of histamine in blood vessels producing unfavorable antigen-antibody reaction
Congenital heart disease?
abnormalities in the anatomic structure pf the heart pr major blood vessels due to faulty or arrested development during 1st 9 weeks in utero
Rheumatic heart disease?
a complication of rheumatic fever which frequently results in heart valve damage
Mitral Valve Prolapse?
The mitral valve between the left atrium and ventricle DOES NOT CLOSE COMPLETELY. Sometimes there is regurgitation of the blood and back flow into left atrium.
MICROBIAL INFECTION of the heart valves or endocardium that occurs in proximity to congenital or acquried defects
Hypertensive heart disease?
a result of increased load on the heart b/c of elevated arterial blood pressure
Ischemic heart disease (coronary heart disease)?
insufficient blood suply to the myocardium (heart muscle)
Inflammatory disease causing the formation of plaque (atheromas) in the inner lining of large or medium sized arteries (can be reversed if treated in time)
Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis (a.k.a. medial arteriosclerosis)?
extensive calcium deposits are found in the media of arterial wall w/ little obstruction of the lumen (Not reversible)
Symptoms of angina pectoris?
- SUDDEN, transient pain in the substernal area which may radiate to shoulder, neck, arms, or mandible
- Pain-squeezing or crushing in chest/ lasting 1-5 mins
- anxiety, fear
Treatment of angina pectoris?
- place patient in upright position, comfortable for breathing
- place nitroglycerin tablet sublingually or use nitrolingual spray on tongue
- administer oxygen by nasal cannula
- w/put prompt relief from 2nd tablet/ spray treat as myocardial infarction, ACTIVATE EMS
Symptoms of acute myocardial infarction?
SUDDEN PAIN, similar to angina pectoris which also may radiate, but LONGER DURATION
Treatment of acute myocardial infarction?
- Activte EMS
- if symptoms not relieved after 3 mins or 2nd tablet/spray keep patient seated w/head up, administer oxygen if needed, make comfortable, monitor vital signs
Symptoms of congestive heart failure?
Left heart failure- affects lungs, may be dyspnea (shortness of breath, cough and expectoration, nocturia (excessive urination, particularly at night), diastolic bp increase
Right heart failure- systemic venous congestion w/peripheral edema. Swelling of feet/ankles, prominent jugular veins, congestion w/ edema in various organs
Treatment of congestive heart failure?
- position patient upright
- activate EMS
- cover w/ blanket
- adm. oxygen
- record and monitor vital signs
- reassure patient
Symptoms of cardiac arrest?
- skin gray, cold, clammy
- no pulse
- no heartbeat
- no breathing
- dilated pupils/no constriction w/light
Treatment of cardiac arrest?
- place patient in supine post. on hard flat surface
- check body for responsiveness
- if unresponsive- Call 911, get AED
- check pulse within 10 sec
- if pulse is present, but NOT breathing- open airway(head tilt/chin lift) and ventilate one breath every 5-6 secs
- recheck pulse every 2 mins
- If no pulse-start cardiac compressions and breaths(CPR)
- check rhythm w/ AED and follow directions
- Definitive therapy- madical care
Effect of nitroglycerin on body?
vasodialator-cause bp to drop
Effect of epinephrine (aka adrenalin) on body?
peripheral vasoconstrictor (constricts blood in legs/arms), but a vasodialator to skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and lungs. it is a bronchial dialator.
Effect of ammonia on body?
increases respiration (treatment for syncope)
Causes of sudden coronary occclusion (coronary thrombosis) which can result in acute myocardial infarction?
Can be cause by either coronary thrombus (blood clot formed in the heart) or a coronary embolism (traveling blood clot)