The Respiratory System
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What are the two main functions of the Respiratory System?
- 1) To get O2 into the blood (all cells need O2 for energy production).
- 2) To remove CO2 from the blood (CO2 is a waste product from energy production in cells).
What are the 3 stages of Respiration?
- Stage 1 - Breathing
- air in and out of lungs
- Stage 2 - Gaseous Exchange
- 02 from the air into the blood.CO2 from the blood to the air.
- Stage 3 - (Internal) Respiration
- energy production in cells (mitochondria) using O2 (CO2 produced as a waste product.
What is the pathway for air coming into the body?
- 1) Nose
- 2) Pharynx (throat)
- 3) Larynx (voice box)
- 4) Trachea (wind pipe)
- 5) Bronchi (1 = Bronchus)
- 6) Bronchioles
- 7) Alveoli
What are Alveoli?
- Tiny single cell thick sacs found at the end of the bronchioles where gaseous exchange takes place.
What is the average breathing rate per minute?
12-15 breaths per minute.
What is the approximate percentage of O2 and CO2 in the air we breathe in?
What is the approximate percentage of O2 and CO2 in the air we breathe out?
What is the name of the membrane that surrounds each lung?
What is the inner layer of the pleural lining attached to?
What is the outter layer of the pleural lining attached to?
Chest wall (ribs) and top of diaphragm.
What are the two functions of the plerual cavity which contains fluid?
- 1) Prevents friction between the two layers (lungs and chest wall) during respiration.
- 2) Shock absorber.
What is Diffusion?
Gases move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration until equal distribution is achieved.
What shape is the diaphragm when relaxed?
Where is intercostal muscle found?
Between the ribs.
What happens when intercostal muscle is contracted?
The distance between the ribs is reduced and the ribs are lifted upwards and outwards.
What happens to the diaphragm during inhalation?
Diaphragm flattens and lungs expand.
What happens to intercostal muscle during inhalation?
Intercostal muscle contracts and ribcage lifts.
What happens to the diaphragm during exhalation?
Diaphragm relaxes and lungs shorten.
What happens to the intercostal muscles during exhalation?
Intercostals relax and ribcage drops.
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