Chemistry Chapter 5

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daynanairn
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186602
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Chemistry Chapter 5
Updated:
2012-12-02 17:32:15
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Chemistry Chapter
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Chapter 5 Chemistry Key Terms
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  1. Atom
    • The smallest particle of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
    • Simple model of the atom
  2. Electron
    • A negatively charged particle within an atom
    • Electrons are NOT in the nucleus
  3. Subatomic Particle
    • A particle that is smaller than the atom
    • i.e.- Nuetrons, Electrons, and Protons
  4. Nucleus
    • In chemistry, the positively charged center of an atom
    • The nucleus contains neutrons and protons
  5. Proton
    • A positively changed particle that is part of every atomic nucleus
    • The blue dots in the diagram below are protons
  6. Neutron
    • An uncharged particle that is part of almost every atomic nucleus
    • The red dots in teh diagram below are neutrons
  7. Energy Levels
    • Areas of space surronding the nucleus of an atom that electrons occupy
    • The row the element is in tells you how many energy levels it has with electrons in it
    • The energy levels on the diagram below are the thin black lines around the nucleus
  8. Atomic Number
    • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
    • i.e.- Oxygen has an atomic number of 8
  9. Mass Number
    • The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    • i.e.-Oxygen has a mass number of 16
  10. Isotope
    • One of two or more forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    • i.e.- hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are different isotopes of hydrogen because they have different numbers of neutrons.
    • In the diagran below there is a hydrogen-1 atom, a hydrogen-2 isotope, and a hydrogen-3 isotope
  11. Bohr-Rutherford Diagram
    • Used to show the arragnement of subatomic particles for an element
    • Protons and neutrons- placed in a centre circle
    • Electrons- placed in surrounding cirlces
  12. Atomic Mass
    • The average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
    • i.e.- Oxygen has an atomic mass of 16
  13. Periodic Table
    A system for organizing the elements into columns and rows, so that elements with similar properties are in the same column
  14. Metal
    • Typically, an element that is hard, shiny, malleable, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity
    • Metals are found on the left side of the perodic table and areblue on the diagram below
  15. Non-metal
    • Typically, an element that is not shiny, malleable, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
    • Non-metals are found on the right side of the periodic table and are yellow on the diagram below
  16. Metalloids
    • An element that shares some properties with metals and some properties with non-metals
    • Metalloids are green on the diagram below and are found in a bold stair case on most periodic tables
  17. Period
    • A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
    • The periods are numbered from 1-7 from top to bottom as shown below
  18. Group
    • A vertical column of elements in the periodic table
    • The groups are labelled 1-18 from left to right as shown below
  19. Alkali Metal
    • A group of elements that all have low melting points, are highly reactive, and are soft enough to be cut with a knife. They have 1 valence electron (Group 1 in the periodic table)
  20. Alkaline Earth Metal
    • A group of elements that are all very reactive (but less that group 1 and 17), capable of burning in air, and produce bright coloured flames. They have 2 valence electrons (Group 2 in the periodic table)
  21. Halogens
    • A group of elements that are all highly reactive, extremely corrosive, and the bottom of the group has a high melting point. They have 7 valence electrons (Group 17 in the periodic table)
  22. Noble Gases
    • A group of elements that are all colourless, odorless, gases at room temperature which are non-reactive. They have a full set of valance electrons
  23. Valence Electrons
    • An electron in the outermost occupied energy level of an atom

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