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What comes from a Greek word that means "to reflect on," "to consider," or "examine"?
What are the keys to knowledge?
Commonsense, Personal, Data, Truth Claims
Kant founded what?
A priori, a posteriori
A priori and a posteriori can be associated with who?
A Priori and A postertori
Innate (Priori); Only knowledge is memory based (A posteriori)
What are the kinds of skepticism?
Commonsense, Philosophical, & Absolute
It is corrective to gullibility, superstition, and prejudice.
The tendency of some philosophers to deny or doubt the more cherished philosophical claims.
What is denied or doubted here is the very possibility of knowledge itself.
Pyrrho, Cratylus, Academics, Sextus Empiricus
The classic skeptic
The last 15 years of his life, he only communicated by waging his finger; she knowledge is not possible, because communication is not possible.
Nothing is knowable
Pyrrho as an example of absolute skepticism
- Pyrrho’s skepticism was the Sophists with their
- view that all knowledge is subjective and relative, and therefore that there is
- no absolute or common knowledge at all.
Gorigias' Three Thesis
Nothing exists; if something did exist, we could never know it, and if we could know it, we could never express it
Impractical Argument against absolute skepticism
From the purely practical standpoint of getting along in the world, on one in his or her right mind can actually live on such a premise.
Impossible Argument against Absolute Skepticism
Must not even the staunchest skeptic admit that some things at least are certain; does not the very assertion that we cannot know anything actually necessitate that we do know some things?
The charge that the absolute skeptics' assertion that they know nothing is strictly self-contradictory or self-refuting; we cannot maintain anything.
Augustine's refutations of skepticism
He argues for the certitude of logical truths, mathematical truths, the reality of the world, and one's own immediate perceptions.
OUr truth and knowledge are based on where we are today.
"An eye for an eye"
There is no common ground.
To keep the conversation going is not merely to keep talking, of course, but to keep introducing new idioms, new metaphors, new readings of texts, and so on.
It's one of the main theories about the basis of knowledge; it's the position of sense experience (empeiria)
The theory that some knowledge about actual existing things is delivered by reason (our mind) rather than sense experience.
Claims of knowledge that we know from birth:
Every event must have a cause, it is morally wrong to kill people for the fun of it, and all individuals are endowed with basic rights.
Plato says real philosophers desire death
Real philosophers view their lives as lifelong preparations for death. Because as long as we are in this world we are held back from the attainment of real knowledge and therefore happiness.
The view that direct awareness of at least some
fundamental ideas of reality as universally and necessarily true is either the basis
of knowledge or one of its bases.
Decartes' Two Operations of the Mind
Intuition and Deduction
The faculty by which truths are grasped immediately, without the intervention of sense experience of other ideas.
The faculty by which subsequent truths are known with necessity from intuited
truths, or from intuited truths taken together with other deduced truths.
Mediated and Immediated Knowledge
Intuition = Immediate; Deduction = Mediated
Who is known for psycho-linguistics, or "language of the mind"?
Empiricism is related to
Repeated observation of an object or experience
and coming up with a conclusion.
_______ argued the forms are immanent; _______ argued that forms are transcendent.
He takes the teachings of Aristotle and builds upon them; refers the process of how we learn as abstraction
The concept of seeing various examples (encounter things), we abstract
it (developing an idea of what it is about)
- “To abstract” means to remove or separate
- something from something else.
What are Aristotle and ST. Thomas' Three Stages of Knowledge?
Particular things in the sensible world, unicersal concept in mind, knowledge of the world utilizing universal concept
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