BIO CH 11
Card Set Information
BIO CH 11
BIO CH 11
What did Gregor MENDEL STUDY?
pEA PLANTS REPRODUCE HOW?
wHAT IS THE UNITING OF MALE AND FEMALE GAMETES?
What is pollination?
the transfer of pollen from the male part of a plant to the femal part of the plant
What are the two types of pollination?
self pollinat and cross pollinate
What is self pollinate?
male and female gametes come from same plant, offspring are identical to the parents
What is cross pollinate?
male and female gametes are from two different plants
What is heredity?
passing on of charactersitics from parents to offspring
What are genetics?
study of heredity
What are traits?
characteristics that are inherited
What are hybrid?
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
What are genes?
What are alleles?
forms of genes
What did Mendel do in his experiment?
crossed plants with contrasting traits
What were Mendels three conclusions?
1. Biological inheritance is determined by factors (genes)
2. Rule of dominance
: some alleles aredominant and others are recessive
3. law of segregation
: gametes randomly pair producing 4 combinations of alleles
What are some examples of multiple alleles?
eye color, rabbit fur color, blood type
What are polygenic traits?
traits controlled by more than two genes
What are some examples of polygenic traits?
human skin, wight, height
What are homologous chromosomes?
paired chromosomes with genes of smae traits in same order
When does meiosis occur?
in specialized cells that produce gametes
What occurs in interphase I
What occurs in prophase?
chromatin coils, spindle fibers form, homologous chromosomes pair up (matched gene by gene)
nonsister chromatids overlab and exchange material=crossing over
What occurs in Metaphase I
chromosomes attach to spindle fibers and homologous chromosomes line up side by side
What occurs in Anaphase?
homologous chromosomes separate by fibers and move to opposite ends of the cell
What occurs in telophase I and cytokinesis?
nuclear membranes form and cell separate
the two cells produced by meiosis I have chromosomes and alleles that aare different from each other and from the diploid cell that entered meiosis I
What occurs in prophase II?
spindle fibers form
What occurs in metaphase II
chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
What occurs in Anaphase II?
centromere splits sister chromatids and go to opposite ends of the cell
What occurs in Telophase II?
nuclei reform, spindle fibers break down, cytoplasm divides
What is the end result of Meiosis/
4 haploid cells
Meiosis has ____ the number of chromosomes as parent cells.
What are chromosomes?
groups of linked genes
In gene maps, the closer together 2 genes get, ____.
the more likely they are to be inherited together
What do gene maps show?
distance between genes on chromosomes
The farther apart 2 genes are, ______.
the less likely they are to be inherited