psy381

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psy381
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2012-12-02 18:51:42
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Eating Disorders/Schizophrenia
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  1. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa 
    Two main diagnosis... Eating disorders caused by the brain or the mind.  
  2. Nervosa 
    Something is affecting the nervous system or the mind.
  3. 4 Main Symptoms of anorexia nervosa 
    • 1. person refusal to maintain more than 85% of normal body weight
    • 2. intense fear of becoming overweight
    • 3. distorted view of body weight and shape 
    • 4. amenorrhea=the absence of mentural cycle in women
  4. Two main subtypes of anorxia nervosa 
    restricting type and binge eating/purging type 
  5. Restricting type 
    individual restricts bad food, leads to restricting almost everything
  6. binge eating/purging type 
    lose weight by vomitting after meals, using laxatives or diaretics (like the water pill), or overexercising. 
  7. North America 
    has biggest increase in rates of anorexia 
  8. Key goal for people with anorexia nervosa
    becoming thin
  9. anorexia nervosa individuals driving motivation is 
    • fear of............
    • becoming obese
    • losing will power
    • giving in to desire to ear
    • losing control of body size, weight, or shape
  10. distorted ways of thinking anorexia nervosa 
    low opinion of body shape, overestimate actual proportions, hold maladaptive attitudes and misperceptions (ideas)
  11. people with anorexia nervosa may experience psychological problems like?
    • mild depression
    • anxiety
    • low self esteem
    • sleep disturbances
    • obsessive compulsive patterns 
    • substance abuse 
  12. Anorexia nervosa: medical problems caused by starvation?
    • amenorrhea
    • low body temp
    • low blood pressure 
    • low pulse rate 
    • body swell (stomach) 
    • brittle bones 
    • dry skin, brittle nails 
    • lanugo=fine white downey like hair that covers the body 
  13. Bulimia nervosa
    • uncontrollable overeating in a limited period of time
    • then will vomit or use laxative to flush out as soon as possible 

    tend to maintain normal body weight and can go years without being diagnosed. 

    enemas
  14. 2 Subtypes of bulimia nervosa
    • purging type- 
    • non purging type-go from binging to fasting, then burn up calories as much as possible, will exercise instead of sleeping 
  15. Anorexia cannot become bulimia 
    but bulimia can lead to having anorexia 
  16. binges 
    • preceded by feelings tension, followed by feelings of extreme self-blame, guilt, depression, and fear of weight gain and discover=people are going to find out 
    • 2-40 binges per wook 

    prefer soft foods 
  17. Bulimia: Compensatory behaviors 
    • vomiting-get rid of calories 
    • laxatives or diuretics- help remove calories as quick as possible

    Cycle- I eat cuz I feel good, throw up, then eat again.  
  18. Bulimia vs Anorexia: Similarities 
    • onset starts after period of dieting 
    • fear of becoming obese, desire to be thin
    • preoccupation with food, weight, and appearance 
    • elevated risk of self har or suicide
    • feelings of anxiety & depression
    • substance abuse
    • neg. attitudes toward eating 
  19. Bulimia vs. Anorexia: Differences 
    medical-half experience amenorrhea, suffer esophagul mouth teeth, 

    psychological- change alot of friendships (cuz they will know what I do), want to please others, be attractive to others, interested in intimate relationships, more sexually experienced, more likely to predisposed to personality disorders
  20. Cause of eating disorders 
    • sociocultural conditions (societal and family pressures 
    • psychological problems (ego, cognitive, mood distubances)
    • Biological factors- circulatory, respiratory, nervous system
  21. eating disorder treatments have two main goals 
    • 1. correct abnormal eating pattern
    • 2. address psychological and situational factors that have led to an are maintaining the eating problem 
  22. Treatments for anorexia 
    • 1. restore proper weight 
    • 2. recover from malnurishment
    • 3. restore proper eating 
  23. treatments for bulimia 
    • 1. eliminate binge eating/purge patterns
    • 2. establish good eating habits
    • 3. eliminate underlying cause of the behavior (bylimic pattern)
  24. Psychosis
    state of mind where person detatches from reality 
  25. Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia 
    • 1.delusion  
    • 2.disorganized thinking or speech
    • 3.heightened perceptions
    • 4.hallucinations
    • 5.inappropriate affect 
  26. Delusion
    bizarre interpretation of reality most common is persecutory=someones following me, running my life
  27. disorganized thinking or speech
    • loose association-mixed up sentences
    • neologisms-words get created (frustrationing)
    • clang-compulsive rhyming that has no meaning
  28. heightened perceptions
    sights sounds feeling are different, their feelings and experiences are much more powerful 
  29. hallucinations
    experiences of things that arent there, may be visual, auditory, or taste 
  30. Inappropriate affect 
    emotional response is not connected to actual experience. like social norms ex. open the door when someones hands are occupied 
  31. negative symptoms of schizophrenia 
    • alogia
    • flat affect
    • avolition
    • social withdrawl
    • psychomotor 
  32. alogia 
    • deficit or poverty in speech 
    • ex. takes long in answering a question or very slow speech
  33. flat affect 
    • facial expression of when you've spaced out,
    • ex. avoidance of eye contact, no emotion when disgussing something emotional 
  34. psychomotor 
    awkward movements, strange gestures/postures

    catatonia-forced grasping, waxy flexibility
  35. Symptoms of schizophrenia grouped in 3 categories 
    • positive symptoms 
    • neg. symptoms 
    • psychomotor symptoms 

    **some may experience 1 each or pos. w/ psychomotor or neg. w/ psychomotor symptoms 
  36. schizophrenia onset 
    • age late teens to mid 30's 
    • onset is earlier in men than woman 
  37. Sufferers of schizophrenia experience 3 stages 
    • prodromal-early stage, beginning of deterioration
    • active-symptoms more increasingly apparent
    • residual-subsiding stage, return to prodromal symptomology 
  38. dsm-iv-tr diagnosis 
    signs of disorder for six months or more, needs to be significant enough to impair daily life 
  39. 5 subtypes of schizophrenia 
    • 1. disorganized-confusion, incoherence, and flat or inappropriate affect. often accompanied by speech or laughter both pos. & neg. symptoms
    • 2. catatonic-extreme psychomotor disturbance. echolalia=repeat what someone says... echopraxia=repeat someones movements or gestures. predominantly neg. symptoms
    • 3. paranoid-delusions and hallucinations abound, superior or patronizing behavior to others positive symptoms
    • 4. undifferentiated-symptoms are clearly unidentified, experiences a combination of symptoms, eventually will become somthing more specific 
    • 5. residual-symptoms have lessoned in strength, has to be absent of postive symptoms, less severity of disorder
  40. 3 perspective theories of schizophrenia 
    pscyhodynamic-freud where blames mother, blames it on childhood experiences 

    behavioral-as a child was not reinforces to social cues leading them to focus on irrelevant cues ex. room lighting 

    cognitive view-faulty thinking or thought process from cognitive perspective 
  41. Sociocultural views of schizophrenia
    social labeling- see someone act abnormal, labeling occurs, live up to what label really means 

    family dysfunction- the double bind hypothesis=when parents send children mixed messages where you're damned if you do and damned if you don't 

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