Science Unit 3- Chapter 2

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Science Unit 3- Chapter 2
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2012-12-02 19:48:08
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Science Unit 3- Chapter 2
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  1. Atom
    The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
  2. Electron
    The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.
  3. Subatomic particle
    Subatomic particles are the particles smaller than an atom.
  4. Nucleus
    The very dense region at the center of an atom
  5. Proton
    The proton is a subatomic particle {symbol p+} and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge
  6. Neutron
    The neutron is a subatomic hadron particle{symbol n0} no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
  7. Energy levels
    The possible locations around an atom where electrons having specific energy values (quantum number) may be found.
  8. Atomic number
    The atomic number is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
  9. Mass number
    The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus
  10. Isotope
    Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element.
  11. Bohr-Rutherford diagram
    The purpose of a bohr-rutherford diagram is to show the nucleus with its correct number of protons and neutrons, but also, more importantly, to give a more detailed view of electrons, one that will help explain the chemical properties of elements.
  12. Atomic mass
     The atomic mass is the total mass of protons, neutrons and electrons in a single atom.
  13. Periodic table
    A periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.
  14. Metal
     A substance with high electrical conductivity, luster, and malleability, which readily loses electrons to form positive ions
  15. Non-metal
    Elements which do not exhibit metallic properties
  16. Metalloids
    A metalloid is a chemical element with properties that are in-between or a mixture of those of metals and nonmetals
  17. Period
    The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table
  18. Group
    A vertical column in the periodic table; also called a family.
  19. Alkali metal
    The alkali metals are a group in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).
  20. Alkaline earth metal
    The alkaline earth metals are a group of chemical elements in the periodic table with very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with charge +2.
  21. Halogens
    The halogens or halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements, fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
  22. Noble gases
    The noble gases make a group of chemical elements with similar properties: under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity
  23. Valence electron
    A valence electron is an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair

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