12. 2: The Making of Renaissance Society- I, II

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  1. I.                   Economic Recovery: 14th Century
    • a.      14th c: Italian merchants carrying on a flourishing commerce throughout Mediterranean; expanded lines of trade along Atlantic seaboard
    •                                                               i.      Venetian Flanders Fleet kept direct sea route from Venice to England and the Netherlands, where Italian merchants contacted Hanseatic League of Merchants
    • 1.      Plagueà Italians lost commercial preeminence/ Hanseatic League prospered 
  2. a.      Hanseatic League
    •                                                               i.      North German coastal towns (13th) formed commercial and military association called Hansa, or Hanseatic League
    •                                                             ii.      1500: more than 80 cities belonged to league
    • 1.      Established settlements and commercial bases in English and northern European cities
  3. For almost 200 years
    •                                                               i.      For almost 200 years: monopoly on northern European trade in timber, fish, etc.
    • 1.      Its southern outlet in Flanders, the port city of Bruges, was economic crossroads of Europe in the 14th century, serving as the meeting place between Hanseatic merchants nad the Flanders Fleet of Venice
    • 2.      15th century: Silting of the port caused Bruges to declineà decline in Hanseatic League due to inability to compete
  4. Trade Recovery
    • a.      Trade recovered dramatically from 14th century
    •                                                               i.      Italians and Venetians, despite pressure from Ottoman Turks, maintained wealthy commercial empire
    • 1.      They would suffer in 16th century
  5. Industries
    •                                                               i.      14th c. economic depression affected manufacturing
    • 1.      Woolen industries of Flanders and n. Italian cities
    •                                                             ii.      15th c: recovery of Florentine woolen industry and development and expansion of luxury Italian industries
  6. New Industries
    •                                                               i.      New industries: printing, mining, etc
    • 1.      Rival textile industry
    • 2.      New machinery and techniques for digging deeper miens and for separating metals from ore and purifying them were developed
    • 3.      When rulers began transferring their titles to underground minerals to financiers as collateral for loans, the entrepreneurs made mining operations for copper, iron, and silver
    • a.      Rich mineral deposits in c. Europe, Hungary, Tyrol, Bohemia, Saxony
    •                                                             ii.      Expaniding iron production and new skills in metalworkingà development of firearms
  7. Banking
    •                                                               i.      Florence regained preeminence due to Medici family
    • 1.      Expanded from cloth production into commerce, real estate, and banking
    • 2.      15th c: greatest bank in Europe, with branches all over
    • 3.      Family had controlling interests in industrial enterprises for wool, silk, and the mining of alum, used in textile dyeing 
  8. Banking and Papacy
    End of Century (15th)
    • 1.      Principal bankers for papacyà big profits and influence in papal court
    • 2.      End of century: sudden decline due to poor leadership and bad loans that were uncollected from rulersà French expelled them and took propertyà collapse
  9. I.                   Social Changes in the Renaissance

     a.      Social structure from Middle Ages
    •                                                               i.      First Estate: clergy
    •                                                             ii.      Second Estate: nobility
    •                                                           iii.      Third Estate: peasants and inhabitants
  10.                                                               i.      First Estate: clergy
    1.      Preeminence grounded in belief that people should be guided to spiritual ends
  11.                                                               i.      Second Estate: nobility
    • 1.      Privileges based on principle that nobles provide security and justice
    • 2.      Faced declining real incomes during 14th and 15th c/ expense of maintaining noble status was rising
    • 3.      Survival of old nobility + new bloodà reconstruction
  12.                                                               i.      Second Estate: nobility
    Old and New 
    • 1.      Old and new nobles: 2 and 3% dominated
    • a.      Military officers and important political posts/ advised king
    • b.      16th c: pursued education to maintain role in government
  13. Baldassare Castiglione
    • a.      Fundamental handbook for European aristocrats
    • b.      Three basic attributes:
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Nobles should have fundamental native endowments, like character, grace, talents, and noble birth
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Cultivate certain achievements
    • 1.      Participate in military and bodily exercises to bear arms (primary profession)
    • a.      Still, have a classical educaton and artistic ability
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Follow certain standard of conduct
    • 1.      Make good impression
    • c.       Aim of noble: serve prince in effective/ honest way
  14.                                                               i.      Third Estate: peasants and inhabitants
    • 1.      85-90%, except in urban Italy and Flanders
    • 2.      Decline of manorial system and elimination of serfdom in 14th c. actually began in 12th c. when introduction of a money economy made possible the conversion of servile labor dues into rents paid in money
    • a.      Contraction of peasantry after Black death accelerated process, since lords found it easier to grant freedom and accept rents
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Land tilled by hired workers or rented out
  15. Third Estate
    1.      Remainder of Third Estate centered around inhabitants of towns and cities, originally the merchants and artisans who formed the bourgeoisie
  16. Urban Society Hierarchy
    • a.       patricians (wealth from trade, industry, banking= dominate society)
    • b.      Burghers (shopkeepers, artisans, etc.)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Concerned with providing goods and services for local consumption
    • c.       Propertyless workers= pitiful wages and Unemployed= miserable lives (30-40%)
    • d.      Slaves
    • 2.      Urban poverty increased dramatically
  17. Slavery
    •                                                               i.      Present in early middle agesà declined and replaced by serfdom (9th) à disappeared in 11thàreappeared first in Spain, where both Christians and Muslims used captured prisoners as slaves during Reconquistaà 2nd half of 14th: shortage of workers after Black Death led Italians to introduce slavery largely
    • 1.     Ex: 1363: government of Florence authorized unlimited importation of foreign slaves
  18. Uses of Slaves
    • 1.      Skilled workers or household works
    • 2.      Girls as nursemaids/ boys as playmates
    • 3.      Slaves for Italian Market
    • a.      From e. Mediterranean and Black Sea region, as well as Africa (Moors/ Ethiopians/ Muslims)
    • b.      Lucrative nature of slave tradeà Italian merchants transported them
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1414-1423: 10,000 slaves sold on Venetian market
  19. Most slaves were (gender)
    •                                                               i.      Most slaves females (young girls)
    • 1.      Florence: wealthy merchants might have two or three
    • 2.      Men took slaves as concubinesà pregnant
    • a.      1392: Francesco Datini fathered illegitimate daughter by Lucia, his 20 year old slave
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Wife agreed to raise children because she couldn’t have any
    • 1.      Other illegitimate children not fortunate
  20. Slavery at end of 15th c. 
    •                                                               i.      End of 15th c: slavery declined in Italian cities          
    • 1.      Freed; source dried up as slave markets closed after Turks conquered Byzantine Empire; prices rose
    • 2.      Slaves= the domestic enemyà not worth the time
  21. 16th century Slaves
    •                                                               i.      16th: only in princely courts kept as curiosities
    •                                                             ii.      Portuguese
    • 1.      15th: imported increasing numbers of African slaves for southern European markets
    • a.      1444-1505: 140,000 shipped from Africa
    •                                                           iii.      Presence of blacks not new
    • 1.      St. Muarice portrayed by medieval artists as a black knight and became center of popular cult in 12th and 13th c.
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12. 2: The Making of Renaissance Society- I, II
2012-12-03 02:38:13
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