ANT Exam 3

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SkyRockIt93
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ANT Exam 3
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2012-12-07 23:34:07
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Rise Humans Early Civilization Making States Modern Human Diversity Cultural Environmental Effects Medical Anthropology
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  1. Anatomically Modern Humans
    • one of the most adaptable species
    • inhabit over 32 different environments or habitats
    • temp. 100 degrees F to -50 degrees F
    • below see level and up to 12,000 feet above
  2. Overkill Theory
    • human populations increase
    • more efficient hunters
    • hunt species to extinction
    • 75% of mega fauna became extinct
    • Problems: some extinction occur before humans arrive; too few humans; don't eat/need to kill so many animals
  3. Climatic Change Theory
    • End of Ice Age = glaciers receding
    • Species could not adopt especially cold weather animals
    • cold and wet -> warm and dry climate
    • Shrinking habitats -> mass starvation
    • Problems: animals survived previous glacial sequences without extinction; diverse animals became extinct; different food sources and ecozones; a large # of animals
  4. Human Prehistoric Periods
    • Paleolithic Period: 2.5mya-10,000ya; based on big game hunting and gathering
    • Mesolithic Period: 10,000ya-7,000ya; transition from big game hunting to small game hunting and extensive gathering (more of a transition; mega fauna go extinct)
    • Neolithic Period: 7,000ya-3,000ya; from the beginnings of agriculture to the use of metal tools
  5. Mesolithic
    • From big game hunting to new food sources (deer, smaller mammals, and fish)
    • Start exploiting fish and shell fish and river plants
    • Use nuts roots and berries
    • Extensive knowledge of plants -> ag. (experiment with plants)
    • Shift in Living Sites: from cave and rock shelters to open air sites; more sites found = more ppl; small specialized sites = seasonal, food availability ex) salmon fishing
    • Exploit different food sources: trade with other groups; food sharing/migration; trade cultural items (moving goods and acculumating)
    • New tool complex: microlithes(chips put on sticks); small sharpened stones fitted on stick/spear; made tools that make tools; sickles(used to cut plants); mortar and pestle = grind grains, spices(expirement with cooking)
  6. Change in Lifestyle
    • 12,500 - 10,200ya
    • Hilly flanks: use foods on side of hills to bottom of hill
    • Jordan River valley: ex) Natufians; drying environment; burned ground(put nitrogen in soil; clear the land); stored food; begin to deliberately alter environment; became more sedentary; buried dead in cemeteries
  7. Neolithic Period
    • 7,000-3,000ya
    • transitional stage
    • collect and grow plants(use animals)
    • beginnings of ag.
    • use of metal tools (plow, smelt metal)
    • Domestication of plants and animals (humans modify)
    • Origins of Ag.: change in plant form (ex- corn); allow control of growth and harvesting
    • Increase in culture tech: ag. and herding; plow (scapula of an animal); food processing tools
    • Small migratory groups to large sedentary villages
    • Near fields and water (easy to farm)
    • production of storage vessels
    • Develop wheel(not in the Old World) and animal power(for transportation and ag.)
  8. Neolithic Revolution
    • Broad spectrum revolution
    • rely on manufactured food source
    • alter foods and animals
  9. Why Produce Food?
    • Desiccation or oasis theory: V. Gordon Childe
    • environmental shift
    • glaciers dry up
    • areas dry up
    • less rain
    • Need to cultivate few remaining areas
    • Also explains use of animals (goats, sheep, cattle)
    • Population increase = more food to support population
  10. Problems with food production
    • Farming more labor intensive than foraging (more free time as hunters and gatherers)
    • does not secure food availability
    • rely too much on one crop
  11. Plant Domestication
    • Middle East: 11,500ya; fertile crescent; wheat and barley
    • China: 10,000 ya; millet/rice
    • MesoAmerica: 9,000ya
    • Mexico City and Teuhacan Valley: 6,000ya; the three sisters = squash, beans, and corn- all together, provide all amino acids (found with Native Americans)
    • New Guinea: 7,000 ya; yam; banana
    • S. America and S. Central Andes: 6,000ya; potato, quinoa, beans, cotton(change in clothing), peanut
    • Eastern U.S.: 4,500ya; sunflower, goosefoot, squash
    • Sub-Saharan Africa: 4,500ya; sorghum, millet, rice
    • Europe: imported 5,000ya
  12. Domestication of Dogs
    • 35,000ya?
    • first domesticated animals = dogs (for herding)
    • select for docile one's (neotony)
    • mutual domestication (benefit both ways)
    • 15,000ya = definite use of dogs
  13. Domestication of Animals
    • 7,000ya
    • Old World (Europe, Asia, and Africa): Goats, sheep, cattle and pigs; 3,000BP = horses
    • New World: 6,000BP;guinea pigs; llamas/alpacas (not herd animals); turkey
  14. Population Increase
    • 10,000ya
    • Huge increase in population becasue of ag.
    • 1900's+ = huge spike due to modern medicine
  15. Consequences of a Sedentary Lifestyle
    • Erosion- taking protective top layer with ag.
    • deforestation
    • overcrowding
    • pollution
    • warfare = scarce resources
    • rely on one crop
    • rough on the body
  16. Agriculture and Nutritional Deficiency
    • staple foods
    • shorter stature
    • anemia = iron defficiency
    • pellagra = a vitamin defficiency = niocin; rash; sores; dimentia
  17. Dental Issues
    • lines on teeth caused by them stop growing due to illness/deficiency
    • cavities (not in hunters and gatherers) (caused by sugars in grains)
    • absess infection in bone
    • maouth is getting smaller
  18. Body Changes
    • Before: bones are thicker
    • After: bones become smaller
    • Evolution of Osteoarthritis: bone on bone -> start to break apart
    • A lot more effort to be a farmer
  19. Infectious Disease
    • many diseases from animals ex) poxes, measles, swine flu, bird flu)
    • Hunters and gatherers (intestinal parasites)
    • High density ag. population
    • Treponematoses- Syphilis (go crazy, start in the NW, 4 types)
    • TB- live in crowded unsanitary conditions, from cattle
    • Animal diseases (cows)
    • influenza (from birds and pigs)
    • Black Plague- carried by rats with fleas
  20. Infectious Disease: Osteomyelitis
    • infection of long bone (in marrow cavity)
    • puss draining out
    • entire bone infected
    • swollen, heavy, irregular
    • -> cloaca- site of injury on bone
  21. Skull Vault: Porotic Hyperostosis
    • porus skull due to anemia
    • try to produce red blood cells
    • main bones of skull (parietal, occipital, frontal)
    • thinning/destruction of outer cortical bone
  22. Vitamin D Deficiency
    • 90% from sunlight
    • 10% from diet (eggs)
    • Culture, job, pollution
  23. Rickets: Children
    • softening of the bones
    • depending on age, can be reversed
    • can't get calcium, bones become bowed
    • effects growth and development
    • adults: spine and pelvis can collapse
  24. Overbundance
    • -> diabetes
    • -> heart disease
    • -> cancer
  25. Early Civilizations
    • Jericho: 9,000ya
    • Jordan River Valley
    • walled settlement
    • 400-900 people
    • stone tower
    • cemetery
    • sedentary
  26. Neolithic Housing
    • use a lot of stone; wood; brick; poles with mud
    • a thatched roof
    • permanent (does not always go with domestication)
    • increased complexity (more specialized) (beginning of trade)
  27. Neolithic Clothing
    • an open rough weave
    • wool
    • cotton (in NW ex) South America)
    • flax/linen (use plants)
    • silk
    • loom
  28. Neolithic Social Structure
    • Stone Hedge (S.W. of London) (rock from Wales)
    • Egalitarian
    • Small villages
    • Little division of labor
    • Kinship groups
    • Work together
  29. Neolithic Around the World
    • Southwest Asia: 8,000 - 9,000ya
    • Mesoamerica: 4,500ya
    • based on when ag. is introduced
    • technology varied
  30. Transition to Food Production
    • increased population
    • increased sedentary lifestyle
    • created craft specialization
    • created more diverse societies
  31. Food Acquisition
    • Horticulture: a small plot; soil not good; "Hoe" gardening; swidden ag. = slash and burn; small scale ag.; moved
    • Agriculture: simple to complex methods; "plow" -> mechanization
    • Pastoralism: rely on animals = Transhumance activity on the seasonal migration of herds
    • Hunters and Gatherers: includes foraging, fishing, and big game hunting; vary depending on environment and food sources available
    • Fishing
  32. Civilization
    • Meaning: laws, religion, language
    • Anthropology: large # of ppl, cities, social stratification, central political system, stable
    • Cities: large size; large population; labor specialization; class stratification; surplus (store houses)
  33. Primary Civilizations
    • Villages -> Towns ---> Cities
    • 4,500 - 6,000ya: Mesopotamia; Egypt; Indus Valley
    • 5,000ya: China
    • 4,000ya: Peru
    • 2,000ya: MesoAmerica
    • Civilization developed independently
  34. Secondary Civilization
    • Brought into this area; idea brought
    • Mediterranean
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Southeast Asia
    • Polynesia (last few thousand years)
    • North America
  35. Catalhoyuk
    • 9,500ya
    • South Central Turkey
    • 5,000 ppl
    • No streets (walk on top of buildings)
    • No central authority
    • No intense ag. (hunting and gathering)
  36. Mohenjo - Daro
    • Indus River Valey (Western India)
    • 4,000ya
    • 20,000 ppl
    • Grid pattern
    • flood control (walls protect it)
  37. Teotihuacan
    • Modern day Mexico City
    • Mesoamerica: 2,200ya
    • pyramids(sun over cave- portal to underworld, moon)
    • apartments on the side of road(Street of the Dead) connecting pyramids for elite
    • special living for foreigners(trading)
    • 100,000ppl
    • had 6 levels of social classes
    • Artisans
    • Merchants
    • Farmers(irrigation)
    • layout based on astronomy
  38. Tikal
    • in Guatemala
    • Mayan civilization
    • 3,000 - 1,100ya
    • 120 sq. km (Disney World)
    • 45,000 ppl; 700 per sq. km
    • Great Plaza
    • houses
    • smaller plazas
    • temples
    • public buildings (libraries, poor houses)
    • Social classes (some what based around religion)
    • Trade center
    • woodworking, pottery, masons, textile wrkrs
    • Imported: jade, obsidian
    • Hereditary rulers
    • Defensive ditches/embankments
    • Religion: Priests = crops (empire falls during climate shift)
    • Fruit trees (orchards)
    • Raised fields to control water
    • Increasing warfare
    • Pressure from food/land
    • Nutrition problems in skeleton
    • --> Decline
  39. Shift from Village to City
    • Agricultural  innovations: irrigation- dikes, canals, resevoirs; increase yields; Sumaria (first place of irrigation)
    • Diversification of labor: increase in population; Artisans; Craft Specialists- Silversmith, sculptors, tanners, butchers, carpenters, barbers, potters, engravers, bakers; Bronze Age; produce tools of bronze(metal alloy- copper and tin); ornamental; armor(first time); plows; swords(more people = more conflict)
    • Central Government: Centralized; taxes- pay for common good; manage surplus; defense- army, fortifications
    • Social Stratification
  40. Monumental Architecture
    • Pyramids: elaborate tombs; found all over the world; oriented to points of compass; tallest buildings in world for 3,800yrs; largest = 775ft long, 481ft high, 2.3 million blocks, would take 10,000 men 20 yrs
    • Temples
    • Palaces
    • Sculptures
  41. Writing
    • provide info
    • Keep records: political, religious, some economic(track food surlpus and taxes)
    • Sumerian: Ur- first found in(5,000ya); reeds on clay tablets; stone tablets;  for record keeping; mark equals word- eventually stood for syllables(earliest that can be decoded)
    • China: wrote on tortoise shells and stones; 8,600ya; not sure of its use; can't be decoded; no syllables; possibly just art; lacking proto-writing; lack expectations
    • Mesoamerica: Maya; on pillars; celebrations; independent development
  42. Early Government
    • Babylonia: 3,700 - 3,950ya; keep records; Hammurabi- first to create laws(to write them), created the Hammurabi code, laws on property, loans, family rights, malpractice, penalties -"eye for an eye"
    • Inca: Spread out along western S. America; first invaders; Peru- peak at 1,525AD, had a system of roads(runners), 2,500 miles by 500 miles, multiple ethnic groups, emperor ruled in Couscous, administrative regions, runners carried messages(up to 250 miles a day)
  43. Social Stratification
    • Social classes
    • Family of birth
    • type of work
    • wealth of accumulation
    • Evidence: laws written, burial customs, dwelling size and location, skeletal remains
  44. Shift to State Society
    • Easier to share resources
    • Group ID
    • Provide a better defense
    • Easier to control groups
    • Ecological Approach: environment = changing environment led to agriculture and cities, ex) Mesopotamia
    • Hydraulic theory: irrigation- takes a lot of effort and ppl; first ag.; first cities; first writing; first laws; Near Mesopotamia
    • Trade-network theory: scarcity of resources -> need central auhority; found in Mesopotamia, Highlands(Chillies), coast(salt), intermediate areas(cotton, beans) (Teotihuacan)
    • Environmental barriers theory: seas, mountains, desserts; hemmed in by natural barriers; creates warfare and conflict = need for central government (ex) Inca)
  45. Problems With Theories
    Not all cultures fit: New Guinea(limited barriers and irrigation yet no central gov't); North America(extensive trade, no big cities); neighboring groups co-exist; Tikal- environment shaped?(not sustainable)
  46. Action Theory
    Self serving actions by forceful leaders: impose hereditary rule; ties into religion- Divine Rights
  47. Civilizations and its Problems
    • Waste Disposal: garbage, sewage
    • Disease: TB
    • Genetic Resistance
  48. Waste Disposal
    Rome 800BC: first sewer systems
  49. Genetic Resistances
    • Heterozygous Advantage: like sickle cell and malaria; connection btwn diarrheas(dehydration) and cystic fibrosis; TB and Tay-Sachs; Black plague and AIDS
    • Lethal in Homozygous form
  50. Colonialism and Disease
    • Old World Diseases: due to animals
    • New World lacked these animals
    • Up to 90% of Indian community wipes out due to disease
    • Exception: syphilis, chagas disease(Darwin had mild symptoms...20yrs later symptoms show up)
  51. Why Cities
    • Disease, crime, overcrowding, pollution
    • Bring goods to city, brings  minds together, solve problems, protection
  52. Problems
    • Lacck of Arable Land: overuse, paved over, salinization(salts in water accumulates)
    • Warfare/Disputes: usually over land
  53. Human Diversity
    • Human Variation: height, weight, skin color, eye color, hair color
    • On a contimuum
  54. Categorization
    • People categorize things: plants, animals, cars, music, etc.
    • Each culture different
    • Biological diversity categories vary
  55. Human Categorization
    • European exploration: geographic exploration
    • Linnaeus: tied to colors(first time skin color comes into play); white, black, red, yellow
    • Blumenbach: used to promote slavery; hierarchy; Caucasian(to include western Asians and N.ern Africans); Mongolian; Malay; Ethiopian; American Indian; Ethnocentric ideas
  56. 20th Century
    • Challenge concept of race
    • Franz Boas: critisized racial superiority claims; environment influences what is being seen; "Race and Progress" 1909 science; biological approach- effects of environment; looked at immigrant children and their head shape; immigrants and offspring
  57. Ashley Montagu
    • 1905 - 1999
    • Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race (1942)
    • United Nations Statement on race (1950)
    • Ethnic groups: use ethnicity not race; againt racism; no pure race
    • Continuum: no sharp breaks; every trait in every population
  58. What is Race?
    Subspecies?: gene flow btwn groups; population differing- geographic, morphological, genetic
  59. Traits
    Discordant: passed down independently- eye color, hair color, skin color; black-blue eyes; white-brown eyes; dark-green eyes; many polygenetic; don't come together as a bundle
  60. Genetic Variation
    • All traits found in all populations
    • More variation inside a population than between populations
  61. Gene Flow
    • Share same types of genes
    • more differences in a pop. than between
    • Abandon race for CLINE: a geographic distribution of traits; polytypic; polymorphic
  62. Skin Color Lines
    • darker around equator in Africa and Australia
    • not in NW long enough for adaptations
  63. Lactose Intolerance
    • Also a cline
    • Cultures that use milk, can break down lactose enzyme
  64. Blood Distribution
    • A blood: stomach cancer, anemia, small pox
    • O blood: ulcers, bubonic plague
  65. Brazilian Ethnic Groups
    • race cultural
    • 500 races: edu, money made, can change it
    • Changable
    • 38.5% consider themselves multi-racial
  66. U.S. Census
    • Categories: white, black, NA, Asian, Pacific Islander; 2,000 added more races
    • Mixed race individuals: 6.1 million in 2006; 2010- increase by 134%;can now check multiple boxes(self-identification)
    • Hypodescent: % of minority, had to ID themsleves as that
  67. Medical Research
    • Oversimplified categories
    • No genetic distinctions
    • Confuse social and biological factors: diet, religious restrictions; cultural norms
    • Most diseases are biocultural
  68. Minority Distrust
    • medical research conducted differently for minorities
    • Tukegee Syphilis Study: U.S. public health; Alabama(1932-1972); understand syphilis in Af. Amer. men; with held treatment; did not inform infected individuals of infection
  69. Racism
    • Doctine of superiority
    • Dehumanize one group (appearance/intelligence)
  70. Consequences
    • prejudice
    • cruelty
    • repression
    • slavery
    • mass murder
    • genocide
  71. "Racial" Differences
    Based on: culture, environment, IQ, cultural capabilities, physical abilities, growth and development
  72. Bio-Cultural Interplay
    • Affect growth and development
    • Disease: access to medical care, belief in treatment, diet
    • Lactose intolerance: biological change- due to cultural influence- retain thrifty gene
  73. Thrifty Gene
    Permits storage of fat: scarcity, foraging, based on glucose; diet of abundance causes problems- obesity, diabetes, heart disease
  74. Skin Color
    • Thickness of skin
    • Carotene- orange hands and feet
    • Blood vessel reflection
    • Melanin: produces coloration- controlled by multiple genes- sun exposure
  75. Skin Color Lines
    • Dark skin: ancestral form- proved natural spf
    • Light skin recent form
  76. Melanin
    • Between epidermis and dermis
    • having melanin, protects skin from sun
    • dark skin = up to 15spf, sunburn/overheating, infection
    • Sun exposure -> loss of iron -> anemia
    • Vitamin D production
    • Same # of cells, production varies
    • Females have lighter skin than males- in all populations
  77. Dark Skin Advantages
    • Active during day time
    • Protection from sun
    • Protect blood?
    • Protect sweat glands?
  78. Cultural and Environmental Effects
    • Environment: weather
    • Culture: clothing, food
    • Migration
  79. Bergmann's Rule
    • Increase volume of body for heat production
    • A stockier body
  80. Allen's Rule
    • Limbs, ears, nose
    • Longer in hot climate = cool down
    • Shorter in cold climate = contain heat
  81. Other Physical Changes
    • Thomson's nose rule: warm air
    • Skull shape: elongated in hot, compacted in cold
  82. Four Environments:
    • Hot 
    • Cold
    • High Altitude- harshest to body
    • Disease- most effective
    • Adopt to these either faculatative, genetic, or cultural
  83. Adaptability and Adoption
    • Genetic: least likely; a long time; Bergmann's and Allen's rule; parents of offspring; evolutionary forces- genetic drift, mutation, population changes
    • Facultative or Acclimatization: physical changes; Short Term- happens in a persons lifetime; how individuals change, can be temporary(tan); Long Term- not passed on; can alter growth and development(big chest, catch up growth); Developmental- don't have them from birth, affected by environment
    • Cultural: varies; change over time; day to day life; clothing; food; main form of adaptation; medicine
    • Biocultural Interactions: ex) cold environment -> clothes to keep body temperature
    • Secular Trends: differences in traits in different age groups
  84. Body Tissue Growth Curve
    Body, growth spurts(2) affected by the environment
  85. Hot Environment
    • Hot and Humid: ex) Amazon
    • Hot and Dry: ex) desert, Savannah
    • Equatorial  Areas: both above
    • Hyperthermia: overheating; heat stroke; need adaptations to regulate body temperature
  86. Hot and Dry vs. Hot and Humid
    • Hot and Dry: cover up from sun, dark skin, short hair, wear sandals
    • Hot and Humid: less clothing, lighter skin, longer hair, bare foot
  87. High Altitude
    • 17,000-20,000ft
    • A recent environment
    • Harshest: on the human body, changes development, body adapts
    • Lack of Oxygen: as much as 70% less than sea level, Peru, Himalaya Mountains
  88. Acclimatization
    • Short Term: can occur in days; no major visible changes; increase carrying capacity of red blood cells; high altitude are dangerous for those with sickle cell anemia
    • Long Term: increase size of chest cavity; "barrel chest"
  89. Cold Environment
    • Arctic
    • High Altitude- ex) Himalayas
    • Glacial areas
    • Hypothermia: body temp drops below 98.6 degrees
    • Facultatice and Genetic Adaptations: Bergmann's and Allen's rules; hunting response(Lewis Waves)(prevent frost bite); vaso constriction- blood vessels get smaller; keep core warm; not sicklicle; goosebumps- left over from fur; create a barrier against the cold; shivering- produce short term heat; increased metabolism
    • Cultural: diet- high in fat and protein(seals)(use every port); housing(igloo); fire/heating(seal oil); clothing(skins); times of activity(light hours)
  90. Disease
    • Exposure to disease elements
    • Death/infertitlity
    • Most influential of all environments (found in every environment)
    • Genetic: heterozygous advantage ex) sickle cell and malaria; cystic fibrosis and cholera/TB; black plague and HIV/AIDS
    • Facultative: symptoms when sick; fever, coughing, pain, vomitting, sneezing, inflammation, morning sickness, anxiety
    • Cultural
    • Fight Disease: medicine, wash hands, sterilize, breast feeding, immunizations, vitamins
    • Cause Disease: lack of hygiene, hand washing(not immune), overcrowding, malnutrition, living with animals, easily transmitted, use formula(no immune system), refuse immunizations
  91. Overcrowding
    • Minimum space requirements: NY subway, Concentration camps, Black Hole of Calcutta
    • Stress factors: problems getting food, lack of sanitation, privacy, anxiety issues, pollution, reduction of personal space, spread of infectious disease
    • Classic Overcrowding study in rats: by J.C. Calhoun in 1962; allowed rat population to reach very high levels and noted adaptations- cessation of estrous cycle(stop ovulating and no periods), reduced litter #, decreased body weights, increase in cannibalism, male homosexuality, and size of the adrenal gland (cortex)
    • Overall Adaptive Strategy: need to limit population size ex) China, Need to learn to live with conditions(develop a high stress tolerance), adapt to the stress
  92. Human Adaptations to Overcrowding
    • Genetic: not many- relatively recent; may be selection for- ppl who adopt to stress better(type "B" individuals, type "A" are uptight), ppl who metabolize less palatable, poisonous, or toxic food stuffs(manioc- a root used in S. America and Africa that contains toxic levels of arsenic)
    • Facultative: Short term acclimatizations- increase stress response, adrenaline and parathyroid hormones, increase sympathetic nervous sys. response- fight or flight, increase in heart rate and blood pressure; Long term acclimizations- increased miscarriages and still births, active immune system in response to disease, decreased fertility, decreased sperm, period abnormalties, increase infant mortality rate
    • Developmental acclimatizations: slow growth rates- stress, malnutrition, disease, highly activated immune system, enlarged endocrine glands
    • Cultural: approval of celibacy or gays, tolerance of crime, neuroses, psychoses, includes infantcide, abortion, birth control, selective breeding(polygyny), cultural taboos- limit pop. growth, prolonged breast feeding
  93. Additional Stressors
    • Pollution
    • Climate Change- sea level rising
    • Depletion of natural resources
    • Rapid change- in just past 100 yrs
  94. Medical Anthropology
    • Medical System Analysis: sickness and health- defining in each culture, look to doctors, nurses, patients, across cultures, medical practitioners, possible treatments, prevention, how transmitted
    • Across Cultures: different in every culture
    • Use Evolutionary Theory: understand and improve human health, include political/economic/global forces, examine global movement of disease
    • Epidemiology: understand rate of disease of population, occurrance, who it impacts
    • Began Early 20th Century: many early anthropologists had medical training
    • Brought Bias to Field: western medicine, field work changes this
    • Less Ethnocentric: study across culturally
    • Cultural Exchange: eastern medical practices examined- accupuncture, meditation, yoga, herbs
  95. Medical Anthropology Continued
    • Disease: specific pathology- "interruption, cessation, or disaster of a body, system, or organ, structure, or function"; physical or biological abnormalties
    • Illness: meanings given to particular physical states
    • May not overlap
    • Have Illmess without illness: ex) Munchhowsen disorder- make oneself sick on purpose
    • Have disease without illness: ex) high blood pressure
    • Don't Understand Biology of the Disease: alccoholism, create treatment, recognize it as illness, western medicine seeks biological explanation, non-western medicine may seek other explanations
  96. Epidemiology
    • Quantitative study: occurrance and cause of disease, population based
    • Broad-Scale Associations: look at the big picture
    • Ill Health and Factors Associated With it: ex) tv cropping up = high pverty? high crowding?; originally to combat disease ---> now to prevent
  97. Rates
    • Rates: event per population
    • Mortality: probability of dying in a particular group- look at all deaths related to disease(only part of a pic)
    • Incidence: new disease in a population in a particular time period
    • Prevalence: number of cases of disease in a total population
  98. Incidence vs. Mortality (breast cancer example)
    • More incidence whites, less mortality
    • Less incidence blacks, higher mortality
    • Occurs in older women (after menopause)
    • In Males: more incidence now, but mortality had decreased
  99. Epidemiological Transitions
    • Change in patterns of disease and mortality: hunters and gatherers = parasites
    • Less developed countries: infectious diseases- no access to vaccinations
    • Developed countries: chronic diseases- heart disease, cancer
    • Three proposed: intro to ag. -> infectious disease(decreases overtime) -> chronic diseases(increase overtime)
  100. Evolutionary Approaches to Disease
    • Biocultural approach: complex variables; evolutionary and cultural histories- anorexia nervosa = self starvation(cultural norms of thinness), non-western focused on not eating not on thinness
    • Evolutionary: use natural selection concepts- defect = disease, defense = body's attempt to fight disease; pneumonia- cough ejects infectious material, darkening skin because blood not carrying enough oxygen; defenses developed to fight disease
  101. Biocultural Factors of Disease
    • Affect life cycle
    • Mode of transmission
    • Environmental
    • Cultural- ex) washing hands
    • Catch up growth- due to lack of growth spurt
    • Extreme environments
    • Maintain homeostasis- balance, body function at normal level
    • Delay Growth Spurts- from insult, ex) disease
    • Pre and post-natal nutrition and care- basic vitamins and minerals; if lacking, biological stages prolonged or missed; premature birth, dental eruption time, pubertal onset
  102. Marasmus
    • Low birth weight baby
    • Chronically malnourished
    • Depleted fat and muscle
    • Hyper-alert and very hungry
    • Look like wrinkled old man
  103. Kwashiorkor
    • Apathy
    • Swelling(edemal) of extremities, torso, and face
    • Cracked, peeling, infection prone skin
    • Unnaturally blonde, sparse hair
    • Sudden food deprivation
    • Natural or man made emergencies
  104. Biocultural Factors of Disease
    Cross cultural variations: alter life cycle stages, nurse until 4 or 5(delay reproductive changes); marry and give birth early(8yr old child brides; require celibacy (a priest or nun)
  105. Ecology of Disease
    • Organism within its environment: ex) malaria
    • Learn transmission modes: prion disease- affects proteins of brain tissue; ex) mad cow disease; ex) Kuru- eat brain as death ritual; thought death was due to a sorceror
  106. Medical Pluralism
    Multiple medical systems: (medical pluralism); use western, eastern, and local practices; different treatments and practices; incorporate local when introducing western medicine
  107. Health and Globalization
    • Study Inequities
    • Access to health care
    • Exposure: malnutrition; overcrowding; violence, toxins
    • Structural Violence: imposed by the gov't or ruling org.; repression(Hawaiians); environmental destruction; poverty; hunger; illness; premature death; health disparities
    • Population Size: hunger, poverty, pollution, create health problems, 1 billion ppl malnourished; 6 million children 5 and under die of hunger
    • Obesity in Industrial nations
    • Working class most afffected: not active; healthy food is expensive
    • First time children not expected to live as long as parents: less healthy than other industrailized nations
    • Environmental toxins: affect the poor more -> interact with land; quality of drinking water
    • Climate Change: deforestation, human activity, increase in disease
  108. Malaria
    • not until ag. is introduced
    • over 2 million deaths a year
    • make stagnant pools of water
    • increase in temperature--->places not seen; 50-80 million new cases; increase range to new areas
    • S.E. Asia; S. America; Central Africa------> spread to surrounding countries

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