12.3: The Italian States in the Renaissance- I, II, III

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12.3: The Italian States in the Renaissance- I, II, III
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2012-12-02 21:49:37
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  1. I.                   Five Major States
    • a.      Milan, venice, Florence, the Papal States, and Naples
    • b.      Northern Italy divided between duchy of Milan and republic of Venice
  2. Milan
    •                                                               i.      After death of last Visconti ruler of Milan in 1447, Francesco Sforza, one of leading condottieri, turned on Milanese employers, conquered city, and became new duke
    • 1.      Both Visconti and Sforza rulers worked to create a highly centralized territorial state
    • a.      Successful in devising systems of taxationà enormous revenues for government
  3. a.      Maritime republic of Venice
    •          i.      Stable political entity government by small oligarchy of merchant-aristocrats
    • 1.      Commercial empire= enormous revenie and status of an international power
    •                                                             ii.      End of 14th: Venice embarked on conquest of territorial state in n. Italy to protect its food supply and its overland trade routes
  4. a.     
    Republic
    of Florence
    •                                                               i.      Dominated Tuscany
    •                                                             ii.      Governed by small merchant oligarchy that manipulated republican government
    • 1.      1434: Cosimo de Medici took control of it
    • a.      Maintained republican forms of government for appearances, but ran government behind the scenes
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Lavish patronage and careful courting of political allies= Cosimo and grandson, Lorenzo the Magnificent, dominated city at a time when Florence was center of cultural Renaissance
  5. a.      Papal States
    •                                                               i.      In central Italy
    •                                                             ii.      Under political control of the popes
    •                                                           iii.      Papal residence in Avignon and the Great Schism allowed individual territories and cities to become independent of papal authority
    • 1.      Urbino, Bologna, and Ferrara
    •                                                           iv.      Popes tried to reestablish control
  6. a.      Kingdom of Naples
    •                                                               i.      Fought over by French and Aragonese until Aragonese dominated
    •                                                             ii.      Backward monarchy with population of poverty-stricken peasants dominated by unruly nobles
    • 1.      Little in cultural Renaissance
  7. I.                   Independent City State
    • a.      Besides five major ones, there were others under control of powerful families
    •                                                               i.      Mantua under Gonzaga lords
    •                                                             ii.      Ferrara under d’Este family
    •                                                           iii.      Urbino, under Montefeltro
  8. Urbino
    •                                                               i.      Federigo da Montefeltro ruled Urbino from 1444 to 1482
    • 1.      Received Classical education from humanist school in Mantua run by Vittorino da Feltre
    • 2.      Learned fighting since Montefeltro compensated poverty of Urbino by hiring selves as condottieri
    • 3.      Good ruler and unusual condottiere
    • 4.      Not a brilliant general, but reliable and honest
    • a.      Did not break promises, even when urged by papal legate
    • 5.      One of greatest patrons of Renaissance culture
    • a.      Under him, Urbino cultural and intellectual center
    • 6.      Benevllent
  9. Independent City State: Role of Women
    Battista Sforza
    •                                                               i.      Battista Sforza: niece of ruler of Milan and wife of Frederigo
    • 1.      Intelligent and well versed in Greek and Latin
    • 2.      Fostered art and letters in Urbino
    • 3.      Respected for governing the state in husband’s absence
  10. Independent City States: Role of Women: 
    Isabella d'Este
    •                                                               i.      Isabella d’ Este: daughter of the duke of Ferrara who married Francesco Gonzaga
    • 1.      Their court was another important center of art and learning
    • 2.      Educated at brilliant court of Ferrar
    • 3.      Known for intelligence and political wisdom
    • 4.      Called the “first lady of the world”
    • a.      Attracted artists and intellectuals to Mantuan court/ responsible for amassing one of finest libraries in all of Italy
    • b.      Good sense of humor
    • c.       Before and after husband’s death, she ruled Mantua and won a reputation as a clever negotiator
  11. I.                   Warfare in Italy
    • a.      Fragmented Italian territorial statesà political practice of balancing power, designed to prevent the aggrandizement of any one state at the expense of the others
    •                                                               i.      Evident after 1454 when Italian states signed Peace of Lodi
  12. I.                   Warfare in Italy: Peace of Lodi
    • 1.      Ended almost a half-century of war and inaugurated a peaceful 40 year era in Italy
    • a.      Alliance system (Milan, Florence, and Naples versus Venice and the papacy) was created that led to a workable balance of power within Italy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Failed to establish lasting cooperation among major powers or a common foreign policy
  13. I.                   Warfare in Italy
    Growth of Powerful monarchical states
    • a.      à trouble for italians
    •                                                               i.      Italy battlefield for great power struggle between French and Spansih
    •                                                             ii.      Not so much attraction to wealth as it was breakdown of Italian balance of power that caused invasions and began Italian wars
    • 1.      Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, invited French to intervene in Italian politics
    • a.      French king Charles III advanced through Italy and occupied Napels in 1494 with 30000 men
    • 2.      Other Italian states turned to Spanish for help
    • a.      Ferdinand of Aragon intervenend
  14. I.                   Warfare in Italy
    Next Fifteen Years
    • 1.      Next fifteen years: French and Spanish fought to control Italy
    • a.      After 1510: war continued by new rulers: Francis I of France and Charles I of Spain
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Part of a long struggle for power between Valois and Habsburg dynasties
    • 1.      Italy only served as good arena for fighting
    • a.       Terrible sack of Rome in 1527 by Spanish king Charles I ended Italian wars temporarilyà Spanisards dominated

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