12.3: The Italian States in the Renaissance- IV

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DesLee26
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12.3: The Italian States in the Renaissance- IV
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2012-12-02 21:53:34
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  1. I.                   The Birth of Modern Diplomacy
    • a.      Modern diplomatic system was a product of Italian renaissance
    •                                                               i.      Ambassadors in MiddleAges, but temporary and regarded as servant of all Christendom, not just of particular employer
    • b.      Concept of ambassador changed during Italian Renaissance because of political situation in Italy
    •                                                               i.      Lot of states, many so small that their security would not hol dup against neighbors
  2. I.                   The Birth of Modern Diplomacy
    Survival based on"
    • 1.      Survival based on sending of resident diplomatic agents to each other to ferret out useful information
    • a.      During Italian wars, the practice of resident diplomats spread to rest of Europe, and in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries, Euroopeans developed the diplomatic machinery still used today, such as the rights of anbassadors in host countries and proper procedures for conducting diplomatic business
  3. I.                   The Birth of Modern Diplomacy
    Conception of purpose of ambassador
    •                                                               i.      Conception of purpose of ambassador changed
    • 1.      Function: agent only of territorial state that sent him, not larger body of Christendom
    • a.      He could use any methods that were beneficial to the political interests of his own state
  4. I.                   Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
    • a.      Famous for expression to Renaissance preoccupation with political power
    •                                                               i.      Entered Florentine service republic in 1498, four years after Medici expulsion
    •                                                             ii.      Secretary to the Florentine Council of Ten
    • 1.      Made numerous diplomatic missions, including trips to France and Germany
    • 2.      Saw workings of statecraft
  5. I.                   Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
    Political Activity
    • a.      Political activity during period of tribulation for Italy after French invasion in 1494
    •                                                               i.      1512: French defeat and Spanish victory led to reestablishment of Medici power in Florence
  6. I.                   Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
    Sent to Exile
                                                                  i.      Forced to give up politicsàpolitical power and books, including The Prince
  7. I.                   Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
    The Prince
    •                                                               i.      Ideas on politics from knowledge of ancient Rome and preoccupation with Italy’s political problems
    •                                                             ii.      Realized that small Italian states no match for larger monarchical states outside Italy
    • 1.      Italy merely battleground for foreign states
  8. I.                   Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
    The Prince Major Concerns
    • 1.      Acquisition and expansion of political power as the means to restore and maintain order in his time
    • a.      Late medieval political theorists believed that a ruler was justified in exercising political power only if it contributed to the common good of the people he served
    • 2.      Ethical side of a prince’s activity based on Christian principles
    •                                                             ii.      View that a prince’s attitude toward power must be based on understanding of human nature, which was self-centered
    • 1.      Political activity not restricted by moral considerations
    • 2.      Prince acts on behalf of state and for state’s sake
  9. I.                   Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
    Example of The Prince
    •                                                               i.      New Italian ruler, Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI
    • 1.      Used ruthless measures to achieve goal of making new state in c. Italy
    • b.     Machiavell was the first to abandon morality as basis for analysis of political activity

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