exam 4

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okid1985
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186729
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exam 4
Updated:
2012-12-02 22:49:41
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endocrine
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endocrine
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  1. 6 hormones released from the adenohypophysis
    anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

    • growth hormone
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • follicle-stimulating hormone
    • luteinizing hormone
    • prolactin
  2. 2 hormones released by the neurohypophysis
    posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

    • antidiuretic hormone
    • oxytocin
  3. 2 hormones released by the pancreas
    • insulin
    • glucagon
  4. hormone released by the parathyroid gland
    parathyroid hormone
  5. 3 hormones released by thethyroid gland
    • calcitonin
    • t3
    • t4
  6. 2 hormones released by the adrena cortex
    • aldosterone
    • cortisol
  7. 2 hormones released from the adrenal medulla
    • norepinephrine
    • epinephrine
  8. 2 hormones released by the hypothalamus
    • hypothalamic-releasing hormones
    • hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones
  9. hypothalamic-releasing hormones
    • source - hypothalamus
    • primary effect - stimuli to anterior pituitary to release specific hormones
  10. hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones
    • source - hypothalamus
    • primary effect - decrease release of specific hormone by anterior pituitary
  11. growth hormone
    • source - pituitary - anterior lobe - adenohypophysis
    • primary effect - stimulates protein synthesis
  12. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • source - pituitary - anterior lobe - adenohypophysis
    • primary effect - stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete primarily cortisol
  13. thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • source - pituitary - anterior lobe - adenohypophysis
    • primary effect -stimulates thyroid gland
  14. follicle-stimulating hormone
    • source - pituitary - anterior lobe - adenohypophysis
    • primary effect -
    •      women - stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and estrogen  secretion
    •      men - stimulates sperm production
  15. luteinizing hormone
    • source - pituitary - anterior lobe - adenohypophysis
    • primary effect -
    •     women - stimulates maturation of ovum and ovulation
    •     men - stimulates secretion of testosterone
  16. prolactin
    • source - pituitary - anterior lobe - adenohypophysis
    • primary effect -  stimulates breast milk production during lactation
  17. antidiuretic hormone
    • source - pituitary - posterior lobe - neurohypophysis
    • primary effect - increases reabsorption of water in the kidney
  18. oxytocin
    • source - pituitary - posterior lobe - neurohypophysis
    • primary effect - stimulates contraction of uterus after delivery, stimulates ejection of breast milk during lactation
  19. insulin
    • source - pancreas - beta cells of islets of Langerhans
    • primary effect - transport of glucose and other substances into cells, lowers blood glucose level
  20. glucagon
    • source - pancreas - alpha cells
    • primary effect - glycongenolysis in liver, increases blood glucose level
  21. parathyroid hormone
    • source - parathyroid gland
    • primary effect - increases blood calcium level by stimulating bone demineralization and increasing absorption of calcium in the digestive tract and kidneys
  22. calcitonin
    • source - thyroid gland
    • primary effect - decreases release of calcium from the bone to lower blood calcium level
  23. t4 and t3
    • source - thyroid gland
    • primary effect - increases metabolic rate in all cells
  24. aldosterone
    • source - adrenal cortex
    • primary effect -  increases sodium and water reabsorption in the kidney
  25. cortisol
    • source - adrenal cortex
    • primary effect -anti-nflammatory and decreases immune response
    • catabolic effect on tissues; stress response
  26. diabetes refers to
    increased urine production
  27. diabetes insipidus
    • water diabetes
    • large amounts of dilute urine
    • caused by a defect in antidiuretic hormone production by the posterior pituitary
  28. diabetes mellitus
    • sweet diabetes
    • type I or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    • type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
  29. how does isulin work
    • 1.  insulin binds to insuln receptors on target cells
    • 2.  signals transmitted from receptor to inside of the cell
    • 3. glucose transport proteins move from inside of cell to the cell membrane
    • 4.  glucose can now move into the cell by diffusion through transport proteins
  30. types of cells that do not need insulin
    • neurons
    • exercising skeletal muscle
  31. Type I diabetes
    • involves autoimmune destruction of beta cells in the pancreas
    • cannot make enough insulin
  32. type II dabetes
    characterized by insulin resistance - cells do not respond normally to insulin
  33. manifestations of diabetes
    • polydipsia
    • polyuria
    • polyphagia
    • weight loss (type I)
    • fatigue
  34. rationale of polydipsia in diabetes
    because of elevated blood sugar levels, water is osmotically attracted from body cells, resulting in intracellular dehydration and stimulation of thrist in the hypothalamus
  35. rationale of polyuria in diabetes
    hyperglycemia acts as an osmotic diuretic;  the amount of glucose filtered by the glomeruli of the kidneys exceeds that which can be reabsorped by te renal tubules;  glucosuria results, accompanied by large amounts of water lost in the urine
  36. rationale of polyphagia in diabetes
    depletion of cellular stores of carbohydrates, fats, and protein result in cellular starvation and a corresponding increase in hunger
  37. rationale of weight loss in diabetes
    because of fluid loss in osmotic diuresis and the loss of body tissue as fats and proteins are used for energy due to the effcts of inulin deficiency
  38. rationale of fatigue in diabetes
    metabolic changes result in poor use of food products, contributing to lethargy and fatigue sleep loss from severe nocturia

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