CHEN Exam Two

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CHEN Exam Two
2012-12-03 00:48:54

CHEN exam 2
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  1. Order 
    Cell - Nucleus - Chromosome - DNA - Gene
  2. Purpose of Genes
    Provide the code for the instructions to produce proteins
  3. First Use 
  4. First modern biotechnology
  5. Genetic Code
    The set of rules by which genetic material is translated into proteins 
  6. RNA Types
    • mRNA (messenger)
    • tRNA (transfer)
    • rRNA (ribosomal) 
  7. Bacteriophage
    Virus that reproduces inside of a bacteria 
  8. Genetic Engineering Def:
    modification of an organism by manipulation its genetic material 
  9. Recombinant DNA
    DNA made in the lab
  10. Restriction Endonuclease
    Enzymes that cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences 
  11. DNA amplification
    production of multiple copies of a DNA sequence 
  12. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    produce millions of copies of DNA sequence to bypass need to use bacteria
  13. Kary Mullis
    Won Nobel Prize for improving PCR technique
  14. Taq Polymerase
    Bacterium that lives in hot springs - an enzyme able to withstand protein killing conditions at high temperatures.
  15. Autoradiograph
    Used to identify children or heredity DNA fingerprinting
  16. Pathogen
    microorganism that causes disease 
  17. Antigen
    Antibody Generator - triggers immune system response to create antibodies specific to the antigen
  18. Antibody
    Immune systems way to identify and neutralize any bad stuff
  19. Pluripotent 
    Embryonic - all cell types
  20. Embryonic Stem Cells
    Get from embryos that are a week old or from blood in umbillical cord
  21. Adult Stem cells
    Undifferentiated cells - specialized for certain organs
  22. Blastocyst
    Very early pre-embreo
  23. Gene Therapy
    Using an adenovirus vector, DNA is injected and used to fight a disease
  24. nonsense mutation
    Premature STOP codon in the DNA
  25. missense mutation
    incorrect subtitution nucleotide where incorrect amino acid is produced in the DNA
  26. Adenovirus
    double stranded - common cold virus
  27. Retrovirus
    double stranded - HIV
  28. monoclonal antibodies
    clone antibodies that bond to the same epitope
  29. hybridoma
     a somatic cell hybrid formed by fusion of normal lymphocytes and tumor cells
  30. ELSI
    Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues
  31. BGH
    Bovine Growth Hormone
  32. Gene Gun
    Inserts genes for transformation into plant cells using gold particles 
  33. Transgenic Animals
    Currently, the three most widely used procedures for creating transgenic animals are microinjection of the cloned gene(s) into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, injection of recombinant embryonic stem cells into embryos, and the use of retroviruses.
  34. Transgenics application
  35. genome 
    entirety of organisms hereditary information
  36. Chromosome
    Single piece of DNA
  37. Replication
    DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA; it is the basis for biological inheritance
  38. Transcription
    DNA transcription is a process that involves the transcribing of genetic information from DNA to RNA.
  39. Translation
    Translation is the process through which cellular ribosomes manufacture proteins, in which messenger RNA (mRNA) is sequentially decoded bytransfer RNA
  40. Nucleotide
    Nucleotides are biological molecules that form the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and serve to carry packets of energy within the cell (ATP)
  41. codon
    a series of three adjacent bases in one polynucleotide chain of a DNA or RNA molecule, which codes for a specific amino acid.
  42. prokaryotic
    no nucleus
  43. eukaryotic
    has nucleus
  44. plasmid
    A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell
  45. ribosome
    The ribosome is a large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the primary site of biological protein synthesis.
  46. totipotent
    capable of developing into a complete organism or differentiating into any of its cells or tissues
  47. pluripotent
    not fixed as to developmental potentialities; especially :capable of differentiating into one of many cell types
  48. multipotent
    unspecialized cells that have the ability to: Self-renew for long periods of time and differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions
  49. insulin
    Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.
  50. down syndrome
    is a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
  51. restriction enzyme
    A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known asrestriction sites
  52. GMO
    Genetically Modified Organism
  53. Pharming
    Pharming is a portmanteau of farming and "pharmaceutical" and refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO)