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Which patients do you give a more detailed occlusal exam?
- Patients with orthodontic problems
- Adult patients preparing for comprehensive restorative plans
- *all others including pediatric have a basic exam
Who serves as the historian for the child's medical history?
The parent or guardian
What can we tell from vital signs?
- 1. Identify abnormalities
- 2. Establish baseline health data for emergencies
Which extraoral problem is not commonly observed in kids?
Which 4 facial analysis features do we use to determine orthodontic status
- 1. Profile
- 2. Facial pattern
- 3. Lip position
- 4. Facial symmetry
What are the three types of facial profiles that you can get?
- Convex (Class II), Straight, and Concave (Class III)
What are brachyfacial and dolichofacial?
- Brachyfacial- short, wide facial pattern
- Dolichofacial- long, narrow
How do you determine if someone has a mesofacial facial pattern?
Draw a line from the mandible to the lowest point in the occipital region. If they line up, it's mesofacial
Where does the line lie on a brachyfacial presentation?
The mandibular plane line goes under the occiput line
Where does the line lie on a dolichofacial patient?
The mandibular line intersects at a region above the occipital region
What are the three lip positions?
Retrusive, normal, protrusive
Which intraoral soft tissues is enlarged normally in children?
Do children have more or less plaque than adults? Calculus?
More plaque, less calculus
What type of bite occurs with overjet?
Class II Maloclussion
Molars are end to end
What is a flush terminal plane?
The distal surface of the mandibular molar is flush with the maxillary molar
What is a mesial step?
The distal surface of the mandibular molar is mesial to the distal surface of the maxillary molar
What is a distal step? What does this commonly translate to in the permanent dentition?
- A distal step has the distal surface of the mandibular molar distal to the distal surface of the maxillary molar.
- It will be a future class II
What is overjet?
- horizontal overlap of incisors from labial surface of lower incisor to incisal tip upper incisor
- Normal= 2-3mm
What class of molar relationship usually accompanies Overjet?
What are the two types of incisor divisions?
- Div 1: flared incisors
- Div 2: retroclined incisors
- trusive refers to positionclined refers to angulation
What is overbite?
- Vertical overlap of the incisors
- Normally 1-2mm or 20-30%
- Excessive: deep pite, possible palatal impingement
- No overbite= open bite
What are the two most important aspects of transverse dimension?
Midlines and posterior crossbites
which anatomical landmark gives us a good idea of the midline?
What is a brodie bite?
Brodie bites are buccal crossbites
How often should we take radiographs in children?
- Every 12-24 months if child is caries free and low risk
- Every 6 months if child is high risk
What is caries risk assessment?
- The determination of the likelihood of the incidence of caries (# of new cavitated or incipient lesions) during a certain time period
- The likelihood of a change in size/activity of present lesions
At which age is a child considered pre-cooperative?
3 years old
What factors can be involved with emotionally compromised children?
- From broken homes
- Unfortunate parenting circumstances
- Abused and neglected children
How do we define the shy, introverted child?
- Limpness, trembling
- Demonstrates avoidance behaior (crying, whimpering, rarely aggressive)
How do we defined the frightened child?
- Developmentally unable to arrest fear
- Emotional upset results in overreaction
- Acquired (from others) and learned (experienced) fears
How is a child who is adverse to authority?
- Undue attention (annoying, irritating, disrupting)
- Struggle for power (argue, contradict, tantrums)
- Retaliation and revenge (violent temper, seeks revenge)
- Inadequacy (gives up easily, rarely participates)