Psych A-L

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Psych A-L
2010-05-10 19:55:05

Various Psych terms to know A-L
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  1. Absolute Threshold
    minimum stimuli needed to be detectable about half the time
  2. Achievement vs. Aptitude
    Achievement is what you already know, while aptitude is what you're capable of learning
  3. Algorithm
    long, tedious method of finding a solution. (go through all possibilities)
  4. Heuristic
    strategic method of finding a solution, more prone to error. (only considering answers that would make sense)
  5. Altruism
    unselfish regard for the welfare of others
  6. Androgyny
    having both masculine and feminine dispositions of the mind (coined by Sandra Bem)
  7. Attribution theory
    applying your own beliefs and motives to those around you
  8. Blind spot
    Where the optic nerve leaves the eye; since there are no receptors there, one cannot see.
  9. Broca's area
    (left frontal lobe) controls language and muscle movements involved with speaking. Aphysia leaves one unable to speak.
  10. Chunking
    grouping large lists into smaller, easy-to-remember chunks of information.
  11. Cognitive dissonance
    having differing beliefs.
  12. Cross sectional studies
    comparing people of different ages
  13. Dendrites
    retrieves signals from axons
  14. Axons
    sends signals to dendrites
  15. Myelin Sheath
    conducts signals from axons to dendrites
  16. BATD
    stages of sleep waves; Beta, Alpha, Theta, Delta (REM)
  17. REM
    Rapid Eye Movement sleep. A deep stage which usually involves dreaming.
  18. Difference threshold
    minimum difference needed between two stimuli to detect the difference about half the time
  19. Divergent and Convergent thinking
    divergent thinking involves looking for more than one answer (finish the word: S_____). convergent thinking involves only finding one answer (multiple choice questions).
  20. Ebbinghaus
    found that it was easy to remember important things rather than nonsense ideas. Practice made perfect
  21. Spontaneous Recovery
    After not associating one stimuli with another for some time, it comes back easier later on
  22. Echoic memory
    being able to repeat information within a 4 second delay
  23. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
    in charge of attention
  24. Endorphins
    pain killing neurotransmitter
  25. Serotonin
    involving in appetite and sleep. also involved with memory
  26. foot-in-door phenomenon
    tendency for people to agree to a large request after agreeing to a small one
  27. Formal Operations
    people think logically about concept ideas
  28. Fovea
    central focal point in the retina
  29. free association
    an unconscious revealer: after hearing one word, you verbalize the first word that comes to mind. (cat: dog, milk: cow, house: mom)
  30. functional fixedness
    the inability to see new functions for objects. (screwdriver can't be used as a weight)
  31. Fundamental attribution error
    tendency for observers of another person to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition. Ex: if someone is acting grouchy, you might assume that she's a grouchy person, even though she might just be having a bad day.
  32. Habituation
    When repeating something causes the results to be less accurate (ie, tests)
  33. Harry Harlow
    Surrogate mothers. Nature vs. Nurture. Nurture is more important for infants psyche
  34. Hawthorne Effect
    settings influence productivity. (working at an office produces better results than working in a lounge)
  35. Hypothalamus
    maintains homeostasis (balancing parts of the body), located below the thalamus in the brain. Directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) and helps govern the endocrine & pituitary gland. Is also linked to emotion.
  36. Amygdala
    Emotion center of the brain
  37. Illusory correlation
    seeing a relationship when none is present
  38. Imprinting
    newborn animal sees first moving object as its mother
  39. Interference
    (retroactive/proactive inhibition) Retroactive interference: new information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier. Proactive interference: old information makes it harder to recall newer information.
  40. Just-world phenomenon
    we live in a fair world, ha!