12.4 The Intellectual Renaissance in Italy: III

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12.4 The Intellectual Renaissance in Italy: III
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2012-12-03 15:42:35
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  1. Humanist movement 
    • a.      Humanist movement effected education
    •                                                               i.      Renaissance humanists believed humans could be changed by education
    • 1.      Wrote books on education and developed secondary schools based on ideas
    • a.      1423: school by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua, where the ruler of that small Italian state, Gian Francesco I Gonzaga, wished to provide a humanist education for his children
  2. Vittorino System of Education
    • a.      children
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Vittorino based educational system on ideas of Classical authors, like Cicero and Quintilian
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Core of academic training Vittorino offered were “liberal studies”
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Renaissance view of value of the liberal arts was influenced by treatise on education called Concerning Character by pietro Paolo Vergerio
    • 1.      Work that stressed importance of liberal studies as the key to true freedom, enabling individuals to reach their full potential
    • a.      Liberal studies included history, moral philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music
  3. Purpose of liberal education
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Purpose of liberal education: produce individuals who followed a path of virtue and wisdom and psosesed the rhetorical skills with which to persuade others to do the same
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Also stressed physical education, as pupils learned javelin throwing, archery, and dancing and encouraged to run, wrestle, hunt, and swim
  4. Lower class educaiton
    •                                                               i.      Small number of children from lower classes given free education, humanists schools like Vittorino’s were geared for elite; females were labsent
    • 1.      Vittorino only taught two daughters of Gonzaga ruler of mantua
    • a.      Learned arts, but excluded from math and rhetoric
    • b.      Still, some women in Italy educated in humanist fashion established own literary careers
  5. Isotta Nogarola 
                                                                  i.      mastered Latin and wrote numerous letters and treatises that brought her praise from male Italian intellectuals
  6. Cassandra Fedele 
                                                                  i.      of Venice learned both Latin and Greek from humanist tutors hired by her family, became prominent in Venice for her public recitations of orations
  7. Laura Cerat 
                                                                  i.      educated in Latin by dad, a physician; she defended women’s ability to pursue scholarly pursuits
  8. Humanist education= __
    Aim:
    • a.      Humanist education=practical prep for life
    •                                                               i.      Aim: not to create great scholars, but produce complete citizens who could participate in civic life of their communities
    •                                                             ii.      Humanists schools combined the classics and Christianity and provided model for basic education of European ruling class until 20th c. 
  9. Humanism and History
    • a.      Humanism impacted writing of history
    •                                                               i.      Influence of Roman and Greek historiasà humanists approached writing different from Middle Agers
    • 1.      Humanist belief that classical civilization followed by age of barbarism, which had been succeeded by own age, with its rebirth of the study of classics, enabled thinking if passage of time, of past as past
    • a.      Their division of the past into ancient world, dark ages, and their own age provided new sense of chronology or periodization in history
  10. Humanists also responsible for __
    • a.      Humanists also responsible for secularizing writing of history
    •                                                               i.      Humanist historians reduced or eliminated role of miracles in historical interpretation, not because they were anti Christistian, but because they looked ot new sources
    • 1.      Wanted to use documents and exercised their newly developed critical skills in examining them
    • a.      Greater attention to political events that affected city-states or larger territories
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Leonardo Brunià History of the Florentine People
  11. New emphasis o secularization
    • 1.      Medieval historical literature portrayed historical events as being caused by God’s active involvement in human
    • 2.      Deemphasized divine intervention in favor of human motives, stressing political forces or role of individuals in history
  12. a.      Guicciardini
    •                                                               i.      High point of Renaissance historiography achieved at beginning of 16th with him
    •                                                             ii.      Greatest historian between Tacitus and Voltair and Gibbon
    •                                                           iii.      History of Italy and History of Florence
    • 1.      Beginning of modern analytical historiography
    •                                                           iv.      Purpose of writing to teach lessons
    •                                                             v.      Impressed by complexity of history
    •                                                           vi.      Developed skills enabling him to analyze political situations precisely and critically
    •                                                         vii.      Works relied on personal examples and documentary sources
  13. I.                   The Impact of Printing
    • a.      Immediate impact on European intellectual life nad thought
    • b.      Printing from hand-carved wooden blocks in West and China early since before 12th
    • c.       New: multiple printing with movable metal type
    •                                                               i.      Johannes Guteberg completed it
    •                                                             ii.      Gutenberg’s Bible (1455-1456) first true book in West from movable type
  14. New printing 
    • a.      New printing spread rapidly
    •                                                               i.      Printing presses established throughout Holy Roman emprie and within 10 years had spread
    • 1.      Well known printing center in Venice, home by 1500 to almost one hundred printers
    • b.      1500: more than 1000 printers= 40,000 titles
    •                                                               i.      5-% religious
    •                                                             ii.      Latin and Greek classics, medieval grammars, legal handbooks, philosophical works, romances
  15. Printing industries
    • a.      Printing= one of largest industries
    • b.      Printing of books
    •                                                               i.       encouraged development of scholarly research and desire to attain knowledge
    •                                                             ii.      Facilitated cooperation among scholars and helped produce standardized and definitive texts
    •                                                           iii.      Stimulated development of lay reading public
    •                                                           iv.      Helped religious ideas of Reformaiton to diffuse rapidly

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