State & local govt Final

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State & local govt Final
2012-12-04 15:19:16
State local govt final

State & local govt. final
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  1. Leviathans
    the model of government as an entity that seeks to increase revenues beyond even what the public might demand.
  2. tax equity
    Who bears the burden of paying taxes
  3. Progressive tax
    the wealthier people pay a larger proportion of their total income to cover the tax than the less affluent pay of theirs
  4. Regressive tax
    has the poor pay a larger proportion of their income than the wealthy do to cover the tax
  5. Exportable taxes
    those paid by people from other places (such as hotel taxes and taxes on natural resources like oil)
  6. Elasticity
    How stable or volatile revenues from the tax are in times of economic boom and bust
  7. Flat rate tax
    applies the same tax rate to everyone , regardless of their income levels
  8. Cost of living allowances
    A pay increase that matches the rate of inflation. COLA's maintain a fixed level of purchasing power, not an increase in purchasing power
  9. Sin Taxes
    A tax on an item or behavior that is unpopular, or a tax on a product that the state seeks to reduce the consumption of.
  10. inelastic demand
    Demand for something is said to be (blank) if it does not respond to changes in prices. If a tax raises the price of something that that has (blank) demand, such as basic foods, medical care, or things that people are addicted to, the tax may not reduce the consumption of the good.
  11. user fees
    a direct charge for use of a service, charged to the user of the service. examples are tuition and hospital charges
  12. Tax and expenditure limits (TEL's)
    Rules that limit how much a state legislature may increase revenues or spending in an annual budget
  13. Supermajority Vote Requirement
    A rule that requires more than a simple majority vote to approve a budget, for example, 60 percent or 2/3's majority
  14. Categorical Grants
    Grants from the federal government to states and cities that are for specific purposes defined by congress
  15. block grants
    fixed sum federal grants allocated by formula giving state and local governments broad leeway in designing and implementing designated programs
  16. Medicaid
    Created by congress in 1965, a joint federal and state financed public assistance program administered by the states that provides payments directly to health care providers for medical services rendered to means-tested-low-income individuals and families
  17. Balanced Budget Rules
    a requirement that a states budget has revenues equal to spending. rules may apply to projected revenues and spending or to actual levels
  18. operating budget
    The part of a states budget dedicated to paying for current operations, such as public services and public employee salaries.
  19. Capital budgets
    The portion of state spending on infrastructure such as buildings, bridges, and roads. capital budgets may be exempt from balanced budget rules
  20. Charter Review Commissions
    Commission appointed or elected by a city or county to propose changes to city institutions that voters might accept or reject
  21. Civil service
    Appointed administrators and public employees. civil service jobs are usually awarded based on merit exams and qualifications, rather than political connections
  22. clientele politics
    A style of politics where the people in control of government provide something of value in exchange for political support.
  23. Council-manager system
    Form of city government in which an elected council acts as a legislature, with no mayor. an appointed, professional city manager, is hired to oversee executive functions. 
  24. Dillon's rule
    Concept about the nature of local government powers (or municipal corporations). States may be seen as having powers beyond those listed in the U.S. constitution, local government have only those powers explicitly granted to them by a state. cities, counties, school districts, and special districts are thus legal entities create by their states.
  25. Home rule charters
    define the boundaries of local government autonomy, and result in less state control over local government affairs.
  26. Jacksonian democracy
    Emphasized executive power, broad suffrage for white males, the election of many public officials, laissez-faire economics, and patronage appointments for government employment
  27. Machines
    A term for local political party organizations that used patronage and clientele politics to control elections in many U.S. cities. 
  28. Model city charter
    Recommendations for how city political institutions should be arranged.
  29. Patronage
    Favors and benefits that elected officials provide supporters.
  30. Pendleton act
    The civil services reform act of 1883 which created a modern civil service for the federal government. this made it more difficult for politicians to place their supporters in federal government jobs
  31. populist era
    The 1890's during which time the (blank) political movement was influential, particularly in the west. (blanks) advocated greater popular democracy, government control of key industries, and a national income tax.
  32. Precinct captains
    a party machine operative who worked to organize a city neighborhood on behalf of the party machine
  33. precincts
    one of the smallest geographic units in a town, city, or county. comprise several city blocks.
  34. Progressive era
    a period of political change and reform during the early decades of the 20th century. some (blank) hoped to reform politics by limiting the power of corporations and political parties.
  35. Straight ticket ballots
    a type of ballot that allows or requires voters to cast their votes for candidates of a single political party
  36. Strong mayor- council systems
    Form of city government where an elected mayor holds many executive functions, including influence over budgeting, appointment of department heads, and veto powers. 
  37. Tammany hall
    A machine that controlled new york city politics during the late 1800's
  38. urbanization
    the sociologist Louis Wirth defined (blank) as a process where a city grows in size, density, and heterogeneity.
  39. wards
    also known as district. elect their own representatitves to a city council
  40. Weak-mayor council systems
    form of city government where a mayor has limited formal power.
  41. contracting for services
    A Community or Political jurisdiction entering a contract with another to provide services. Cities or unincorporated areas may contract with counties, other cities, or special districts for services such as fire, police, sanitation, and libraries
  42. Economies of Scales
    Savings that may be achieved in  the cost of production or service delivery by larger enterprises. Savings may be due to lower cost per unit of providing some services, or due to investment in expensive equipment that might be underutilized in a smaller setting.
  43. efficiency gains
    Providing services or goods at a lower cost per unit of service or per unit of the good supplied
  44. Eminent Domain
    The power of the state and local governments to apporpriate private property, typical for a public purpose. Some states also delegate this power to private entities such as utility companies
  45. General purpose local governments
    Cities and Counties are (blank), as they typically provide a range of services and functions some provide much more than others
  46. Growth Machines
    A coalition of people active in local politics, united by a preference for policies that encourage population growth in their community
  47. Impact Fees
    Housing growth control fees set to be roughly proportional to the impact that new development creates
  48. Incorporation
    State laws define the process of municipal incorporation. this is required for a city or town to have greater autonomy from its county and state governments
  49. Intermunicipal inequality
    Differences between communities in the social status and wealth of community residents
  50. Metropolitan area
    Regions of mostly contiguous population centers, as defined by the U.S. census bureau. a large area such as New York can include several metropolitan areas (northern new Jersey, Long Island and Connecticut) Consolidated into a larger metropolitan area. Smaller regions such as Pocatello Idaho may include cities and towns in a single county
  51. Police Powers
    Local government power to provide for the common health , safety, and welfare of the community. The broad exercise of such power can be seen in setting public health, building, and food safety codes, and preventing construction in flood zones
  52. Regional revenue sharing
    Several local jurisdictions can pool revenue from a tax source or from new development, and then distribute the revenue across all jurisdictions
  53. Regulatory takings
    Government actions that deny a property owner fair use of property without adequate compensation
  54. Special districts
    Local governments that are established for limited purposes such as providing a single public service
  55. Suburbs
    A community separate and distinct from an established central city. suburbs can be incorporated cities or towns as well as unincoporated places
  56. Urban Growth Areas
    Areas Adjacent to existing development that is slated for future growth. Some state land use plans attempt to increase housing density within designated urban growth area boundaries before allowing development in outlying areas
  57. Village of Euclid vs. Ambler Realth Company
    A U.S. Supreme court decision from 1926 that established that local government police powers include zoning powers.
  58. Zoning
    The power of local governments to regulate land use. A (blank) map divides a community into areas where specific types of land use are allowed (for example, residential, commercial, industrial, or agricultural). (Blank) ordinances provide detailed standards for allowable building designs, lot sizes, building heights, landscaping requirements, and yard size, and how far buildings must be set back from the road.
  59. Entitlement
    a government program guaranteeing a level of benefits to participating individuals or entities
  60. Feminization of Poverty
    The gap between wome and men who are caught in the cycle of poverty, which is caused by occupational segregation, poor wages, and lower pay than men, bearing the bulk of child care costs, and other structural conditions
  61. Living Wage
    An area-specific level of income and benefits needed for working individuals to subsist at a basic or decent level that takes into consideration cost of living factors
  62. Means tested
    The provision of need-based public assistance and financial aid by government that is available only to individuals falling below a predetermined level of income or assets
  63. Medicare
    Created by Congress in 1965, a federally financed social insurance healthcare program for people 65 or older and people of all ages with certain disabilities. 
  64. Policy Diffusion
    The transfer or emulation of an idea, institution, or policy of one political jurisdiction by another
  65. Public Assistance
    A means-tested program that provides aid-both cash and in kind services to the poor
  66. Single payer health Care
    a health system financed by one source-usually the federal government in which doctors and other private health care professionals  provide basic services to every person, with their fees paid by the government at a fixed rate
  67. Social Insurance
    Rather than means tested, a government created program such as social security  that socializes risk by forcing the compulsory contributions of participants.
  68. Social Security Act
    Technically known as the old age survivors and disability insurance program, a federal social insurance program created in 1935 providing economic assistance mainly to retired workers and their families
  69. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
    a social welfare program that provides monthly cash assistance to means tested poor families with children under the age of 18; it requires recipriants to participate in a work activity
  70. Underclass
    The least priveleged social stratum, characterized by joblessness, social isolation, and impoverished and unsafe neighborhoods
  71. Welfare
    a range of public assistance services provided by government to aid and protect the most vulnerable individuals in society; includes both social insurance and public assistance programs.
  72. Working Poor
    a social stratum comprised of individuals who are gainfully employed, but who earn too little to subsist, thereby relying on public assistance and charities to make ends meet
  73. Achievement Gap
    The gulf in performance and educational attainment between rich and poor and white and minority students
  74. Adequate yearly progress
    Mandated by the no child left behind act of 2002 it is a state wide accountability system requiring each state to ensure that every one of its schools and districts is meeting specified achievement goals
  75. Charter schools
    A public school that is operated by a school district but is freed from the administrative, staffing, and pedagogical constraints of traditional public schools and usually has a narrow mission
  76. Education management organizations
    For profit companies hired to run some public schools
  77. Homeschooling
    The education of children at home typically by parents but sometimes by tutors, rather than in a formal setting of public or private school
  78. No child left behind act
    Expanded the role of the federal government in K-12 Public education. the law requires annual assessments of student performance, requiring that children and schools attain adequate yearly progress
  79. School district
    A form of a special purpose local government that operates public schools, differing in autonomy, their geographic boundaries, taxing authority and policy recommendations are broadly set and limited by state officials
  80. School Vouchers
    The use of public funds to cover the costs of private education, whereby financial aid in the form of a voucher is provided to parents to transfer their children from public schools to private schools
  81. Virtual Schools
    Online, personalized course instruction