Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles: Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction

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Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles: Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction
2012-12-03 16:44:24
Bio Final

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  1. a.      Asexual reproduction
    •                                                               i.      Offspring are genetic copies
    •                                                             ii.      Single parent who passes copies of all genes to offspring without fusion of gametes
  2. Do eukaryotic organisms carry out asexual reproduction? Explain.
    • 1.      Eukaryotic organisms do this by mitotic cell division, resulting in tow equally identical daughter cells
    • 2.      Multicellular organisms:
    • a.      Genetically identical= clone, a group of genetically identical individuals
    •                                                             ii.      Genetic differences occasional due to mutations
  3. Sexual reproducton
    •                                                               i.      Two parentsà offspring with combo of genes from both parents
    • 1.      Unlike clones, they vary genetically, not exact replicas
  4. a.      __= generation-to-generation sequence of stages in reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring 
    Life cycle
  5. Types of Cells and number
    • somatic (46/ 2 sets of 23)
    • gametes (23/ one set)
  6.                                                               i.      Somatic
    1.      Become condensed in __, distinguished from one another by __, __, and __ produced by certain stains
    • mitosis
    • size, positions of centromeres, pattern of colored bands
  7. 1.      __
    a.      Images of chromosomes arranged in pairs, starting with __chromosomes
                                                                                                                                          i.      Pairs have same __= homologous chromosomes
    1.      Both chromosomes of each pair carry genes controlling same inherited characters
    • Karyotype
    • longest
    • length, centromere position, and staining pattern
  8.                                                               i.      Sex chromosomes (autosomes)
    1.      Distinct __ and __
    a.      Human females have __
    b.      Human males have __
    Only small parts of __ and __ are __
    1.      Most genes carried on X are not present in Y, and vice versa
    • X and Y
    • homologous pair of X (XX
    • one X and one Y (XY)
    • X and Y
    • homologous
  9.                                                               i.      Number
    1.      Inheritance of one chromosome of each pair form each parent= __in human somatic cells
    a.      __sets of __—__and __
    2.      Number of chromosomes in a single set is designated __
    a.      Two sets= __(2n= 2(23)= 46 in humans)
    • 46
    • Two
    • 23
    • maternal
    • paternal
    • n
    • diploid
  10. 1.      __are the gametes= one n
    a.      Humans have __
                                                                                                                                          i.      22 __and a single __
    1.      Egg contains __; sperm may have __
    2.      Species have different haploid and diploid numbers 
    • Haploid
    • 23
    • autosomes
    • sex chromosome
    • X
    • X or Y
  11. a.      Behavior in Human Life Cycles
    •                                                               i.      Haploid sperm+ haploid egg (fertilization)= fertilized egg (diploid zygote)
    • 1.      Mitosis of zygote and descendents generates somatic cells of the body
  12.                                                               i.      Cells not produced by mitosis are __, which develop from __cells in the __
    1.      Use __
    a.      Reduces number of sets of chromosomes from two to one in gametes, counterbalancing the doubling that occurs at __
    • gametes
    • germ
    • gonads
    • meiosis
    • fertilization
  13.                                                               i.      In animals, meiosis only in __cells
    1.      Each human egg and sperm is __-->fertilization results in __-->mitosis
                                                                ii.      Fertilization and meiosis important in sexual reproduction in plants, fungi, and protists too
    1.      Alternate in sexual life cycles, maintaining a constant number of chromosomes in each species from one generation to the next
    • germ
    • haploidà
    • diploidà