Adv. Normal language disorders definitions

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Adv. Normal language disorders definitions
2012-12-03 16:45:32
Adv Normal language disorders definitions

Adv. Normal language disorders definitions
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  1. Adjective
    A word that describes, identifies, or qualifies a noun, pronoun, or gerund by specifying size, color, mumber, or other attributes.
  2. Account
    A type of NARRATIVE; the narrator spontaneously relateds something he or she has experienced.
  3. Adverb
    A word that describes a verb, an adjective, or other adverbs by specifying time, manner, location, degree, number, or quality.
  4. Anaphoric pronoun
    A type of expression whose reference depends upon another referential element. Ex. Sally prefeered teh company of herself, herself is an anaphoric pronoun.
  5. Article
    Indefinite 'a' or 'an', or definite 'the'.
  6. Audible pauses
    Verbal hesitation phenomena such as um, oh, ah, hmm, or the like.
  7. Auxiliary verb
    A verb that has no independent existence in a sentence except to support the main verb. (e.g. "He IS going home.") Auxiliary verbs are typically called "helping verbs" because they help the main verb by adding mood, voice, or tense. Simple auxiliaries include be, can, do, have, may, must, shall, will, and sometimes get.
  8. Catenative verb
    An early semiauxiliary verb form (e.g. gonna, wanna, hafta) without an auxiliary that results from a syllabic reduction of the main verb and an infinitive verb form (e.g. "gonna go" = "going to go") children tend to be partial toward certain catenatives in the early stages of linguistic production and only later use a full range of semiauxiliaries.
  9. Centering of Events
    A strategy used by perschool childre nfor producing a story, where parts of a story cluster around a core idea.
  10. Chaining of Events
    A strategy for poducing a story such that events are presented in temporal or logical order.
  11. Clause
    A group of words containing both a subject or coordinated subjects and a finite verb or PREDICATE.
  12. Cohesion
    Linguistic features that connect units of a NARRATIVE and achieve coherence.
  13. Cohesive Markers
    Words that signal listeners to search outside the sentence to find or compoete their meaning; when meaning is completed, a COHESIVE TIE has been made. Include REFERENCE MARKERS, CONJUNCTIVE MARKERS, LEXICAL MARKERS, substitution, and ellipsis.
  14. Cohesive Tie
    Refers to binding sentences together to cohere into a unit to form a whole; the linguistic devices that tie the sentences together are COHESIVE MARKERS.
  15. Communication Unit (CU)
    Used to segment language samples; includes each INDEPENDENT CLAUSE with its modifiers, can be used for both oral and written samples.
  16. Complex sentence
    A sentence that contains more than one verb phrase; the additional verb phrase may be a full sentence proposition (compound sentence) or assumed within a clause.
  17. Conjunction
    A word used to join words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.(see also: coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions)
  18. Conjunctive Marker
    Connective words that specify relations between Cus semantically, not grammatically, including conjunctive adverbs that connect meaning across CUs (and, also, or, but, however)
  19. Contingent speech
    Speaking turns that are linked to preceding turns by topic (e.g. "I like dogs." Response: "Me too") and/ or other conversational conventions (How ya doing? Response: Pretty good, and you?)
  20. Contractible auxiliary
    The contractible form of the verb 'be' as an auxiliary (e.g. "She is riding a bike." "She's riding a bike.") Keep in mind that this grammatical morpheme deals with the contractible auxiliary, not the contracted auxiliary, and that the child does not have to contract the anxiliary to count this form.
  21. Contractible copula.
    The contractible form of the verb 'be' as a main verb. (e.g. She is hungry--->She's hungry) keep in mind that this grammatical morpheme deals with the contractile copula, not the contracted copula, and that the child does not have to contract the copula to count this form.
  22. Conversation map
    A technique for eliciting personal narratives from children; the adult models a personal narrative, then asks a leading question that, if answered, would result in a personal narrative from the child.
  23. Conversational discourse
    A type of DISCOURSE consisting of talk by two or more partners with short turn-taking exchanges.
  24. Copula
    A verb typically used as an auxiliary verb that is used as a main verb; the copula is also referred to as a "linking verb" since the copula links the subject of a sentence to the complement (e.g. She IS happy or He WAS hungry)
  25. Deixis
    The process of using the perspective of the speaker as the reference' the use of spatial, temporal, and.or interpersonal features to mark relationships; deictic pronouns include this, that, me, you, deictic verbs include come, go, bring, take.
  26. Demonstrative pronoun
    A pronoun that points out the person or object referred to, either as an adjective to the subject of the sentence (e.g. THAT ball is big) or as the subject of the sentence itself (e.g. THAT is a big ball); singular demonstrative pronouns include THIS and THAT, plural forms include THESE and THOSE, idiomatic forms include SO and SUCH
  27. Dependent clause
    A CLAUSE that is embedded into an utterance as a noun, adjective, or adverb clause. (see also subordinate clause)
  28. Discourse
    A stretch of language longer than a short sentence; genres include CONVERSATIONAL, NARRATIVE, AND EXPOSITORY DISCOURSE.
  29. Dynamic assessment
    Also called LEARNING POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT. Assessment that is not static; requires exploration and documentation of how easily a student can modify performance, given support of various kinds and degrees. Dynamic assessment procedures, rather than NORM-REFERENCED COMPAIRSONS, may be best suited for students from nonmainstream or nonliterate backgrounds.
  30. Elicited speech
    Speech that is drawn out either through imitation (by request) (e.g. This is a doggie. Say doggie. Response "Doggie") or through fill-in-the-blank. (e.g. This is a ____. (Response: Doggie)
  31. Eliciting
    A method for obtaining NARRATIVE samples that are not spontaneous occurrences; NARRATIVE samples may be elicited through use of verbal instructions sometimes accompanied by visual stimuli such as pictures or objects props.
  32. Ellipsis
    Using an utterance that is literally incomplete; its missing term(s) is understood from the context.
  33. Embedded clause
    A clause that is subordinated into a full sentence; see SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
  34. Episode
    A story or part of a story that typically consists of SETTING, initiating event, attempt, and consequence.
  35. Episodic analysis
  36. Error Unit
    The omission, inappropriate use, or overuse of a language variable.
  37. Event Cast
    NARRATIVE language that describes ongoing activities or plans for future activities; often heard as children play.
  38. Expository discourse
    A type of DISCOURSE, written or oral, whose purpose is to instruct; includes procedural DISCOURSE, description, persuasion, and others.
  39. False Start
    Described as one thype of VERBAL DISRUPTION; a child begins to speak, then revises the attempt and completes the utterance.
  40. Formal assessment procedure
    A test, format, or inventory that has been standardized on specific populations of individuals.
  41. Functional language
    The transmission and reception of messages containing fact, fiction, or feeling within a community, school, or family/personal setting.
  42. Gerund
    A verb form ending in ing that is used as a noun.
  43. Gerund clause (in book as Gerund phrase)
    A gerund and its modifiers' a gerund phrase can function as the subject of a verb (e.g. COUNTING SHEEP puts me to sleep) the object of a verb (e.g. I feel asleep COUNTING SHEEP), or the object of a preposition (e.g. The monotony of COUNTING SHEEP puts me to sleep)
  44. Grammatical morpheme
    A morpheme that adds to the grammatical structure of a word or phrase; including the 14 free and bound morphemes Brown studied primarily because of the obligatory context each possesses.
  45. Hesitation
    the action of pausing or hesitating before saying or doing something
  46. Nonlinguistic verbalization - see AUDIBLE PAUSEs, MAZES, or VERBAL DISRUPTIONS.
  47. high point analysis
    A procedure for analyzing PERSONAL NARRATIVES that includes a 'high point' where evaluative comments are made about what the event meant to the narrator.
  48. illocutionary force
    The intended interprtation of an utterance or speech act' the illocutionary force must be combined with a proposition for the speech act to be conveyed.
  49. imitative speech
    Speech that repeats all or part of previous utterances (e.g. This is a doggie. Response: Doggie.)
  50. independent clause
    A clause that can stand alone as grammatically complete
  51. infinitive
    A form of the verb that consists of 'to' plus a verb' infinitives typically are used as nouns and thus function as subjects or objects of verbs (e.g. TO KNOW him is TO LOVE him); infinitives can also be used as adjectives (e.g. He ran out of places TO HIDE) or adverbs (e.g. She was unable TO GO).
  52. infinitive clause (in book as infinitive phrase)
    An infinitive plus its modifiers and subject or object' it may be used as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun (e.g. I wanted TO EAT THE BIGGEST COOKIE)
  53. infinitive clause with subject different from the main
    An infinitive form of a verb that has a subject that is not the subject of the main verb (e.g. in the sentence "I wanted the train to go chug-chug", the subject of the sentences is I, but the subject of the infinitive is the train)
  54. informal assessment procedure
    A descriptive analysis procedure based on the techniques used in collecting and interpreting data from research designs.
  55. insertions
    Words or phrases within a T-unit or CU that are a comment on the language process itself, such as, "I can't remember that word"; may be a characteristic of the speech of children with language disorders.
  56. Introducer phrase
    Refers to the PHRASES and CLAUSES that introduce a quotation (he said," "; Answering briefly " "; She shouted, " ")
  57. Irregular past tense verb
    The form of an irregular verb indicating that an action has already taken place' there is no consistent device for marking the past tense of irregular verbs (e.g. She HIT the ball, She RAN to first base, or She STRUCK out)
  58. irregular third person singular present tense
    The irregular form of the third person singular form of the present tense of a verb (e.g. She HAS a cold" or "He DOES the dishes after dinner")
  59. joiner
    LINGUISTIC DEBRIS that consists of spacers or fillers including and, and then, or, then, well, so. They do not function as true conjunctions within the context of a compound or complex sentence.
  60. language comprehension
    The process of understanding language
  61. language production
    the process of expressing language
  62. lexical markers
    Words associated through vocabulary selection, such as repeated words, synonyms, antonyms, words having part-whole relationships, and words having superordinate-subordinate relationships.
  63. linguistic debris
    Constructs that do not directly fit into the meaningful context of the sentence: joiners, self-corrections, spontaneous comments/questions, and organizational repetitions.
  64. listener condition
    Refers to whether the person listening to a NARRATIVE has knowledge of its content; when eliciting fictional stories, the child may include more detail and explicit REFERENCES when the listener has not heard the model story or seen the movie.
  65. local norms
    Normative data that are collected and scored using a local population for reference; allows students to be compared with peers from the local environment.
  66. macrostructure
    The global, general properties and organization of a NARRATIVE.
  67. main clause
    A clause that can stand alone as grammatically complete.
  68. maze
    A series of words or unattached fragments that do not constitute a CU and are not necessary to the CU. Sometives used as a general term for verbal disruptions to the flow of speech; maze behavior may include FALSE STARTS, REPETITIONS, word parts, nonlinguistic vocalizations (uh, oh, hmm), and ABANDONED UTTERANCES.
  69. MDCCU
  70. Mean clauses per CU
  71. Mean clauses per T-unit
  72. Mean length of CU (MLCU)
    The number of words in the sample divided by the number of CUs; a measure used to quantify growth in the elaboration of language.
  73. Mean length of utterance (MLU)
    The average number of morphemes per utterance
  74. Mean number of dependent clauses (MDCCU)
    DEPENDENT CLAUSES only, counted and divided by the total number of Cus in the sample - used to qualify growth in the elaboration of language.
  75. Mental schema
  76. microstructure
    The local, more specific properties of a NARRATIVE, such as COHESIVE TIES and sentence-level grammar.
  77. minimal terminable unit
    see T-Unit
  78. modal auxiliary
    An auxiliary verb that arries its own meaning and influences the meaning of the main verb; modal auxiliaries include CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, OUGHT, SHALL, SHOULD, WILL and WOULD; typical meanings are ability (can), intent (will), obligation (must), permission (may), and possibility (might)
  79. morpheme
    The smallest unit of meaning in a language, typically root words, but also all prefixes and suffixes in a language.
  80. multiple embeddings
    Sentences that contain more than one type of embedding; may include sentences with relative clauses and infinitives or semiauxiliaries (e.g. I think WE NEED TO POUR SOME WATER IN IT) and infinitives plus relative clauses We looked all over TO FIND JELLIES WHATS MY SIZE)
  81. Multi-term utterance
    An utterance that contains more than one semantic role or grammatical category (e.g. Agent-Action-Object); there is not a one-to-one relationship between semantic roles or grammatical categories and words in an utterance (e.g. "The boy kicked the ball" has five words and three terms: Agent-Action-Object)
  82. Narrative
    Oral or written DISCOURSE that relates real or fictional events that are temporally sequenced and convey meaning.
  83. Narrative level
    Term from Appleby - analysis of stories generated by preschool children; refers to six levels based on the amount of CENTERING and CHAINING OF EVENTS and characters.
  84. NDW
    NUMBER OF DIFFERENT WORDS IN THE FIRST 50 Cus - A general quantitativ emeasure of vocabulary diversity in school-age children's NARRATIVE DISCOURSE samples; a variation of similar measures for CONVERSATIONAL DISCOURSE of preschool children.
  85. Negative sentence
    A sentence that contains 'no' or 'not' within the sentence proposition (He is NOT sleeping or She wants NO part of this)
  86. Noncontingent speech-FINISH
    Speaking turns that are not linked to preceding utterances.
  87. Noun
    The name of a person, place, or thing'' nouns can be common (e.g. girl, tree, house, rock) or proper (Bridget, Mama, Sara)
  88. Noun phrase
    A noun, or a phrase functioning as a noun, that fulfils the role of subject or object of a verb in a sentence' the only obligatory component of this sentence constituent is a noun or pronoun.
  89. Object noun phrase
    A phrase that functions as the object of the verb, or predicate, of a sentence; the form of object noun phrases changes developmentally (e.g. "eat COOKIE" or "I ate the CHOCOLATE-CHIP COOKIE")
  90. Object noun phrase complement
    A part of the predicate, or verb phrase, that serves to complement by stating in a different way the object of the verb or noun phrase. (e.g. She made his room a MESS)
  91. Obligatory context
    The grammatical obligation of a structure for meaning to be clear; in relation to Brown's 14 grammatical morphemes, use was judged to be obligatory, rather than optional, so that absence of the morpheme would indicate nonacquisition, not choice.
  92. Operational definition
    A definition that specifies the procedure to be followed in measuring a concept; designates some overt behavior that is directly observable and measurable.
  93. Organizational repetitions
    LINGUISTIC DEBRIS marked by words, phrases, or clauses expressed and then repeated exactly.
  94. Participle
    A verb form used as an adjective.
  95. Percentage of failed revisions
    Obtained by identifying all spontaneous REVISION attempts that occur, then identifying all attempts that failed; calculated by dividing the number of failed REVISION attempts by total REVISION attempts, multiplied by 100; a tentative measure of DISCOURSE disability.
  96. Percentage of grammatically correct CUs
    Specific quantiative measure obtained by counting the number of Cus with grammatical error/s; calculated by subtracting this number from the total number of Cus and multiplying by 100; described as an effective measure for distinguishing children who have language disorders.
  97. Perfect tenses
    Pairs of simple tenses (e.g. "I HAVE WRITTEN four letters to the president") and progressive tenses (e.g. I HAVE BEEN WRITING every week) orf verbs indicating that action was, is, or will be completed within a given time.
  98. Personal narrative
    A type of NARRATIVE that relates events experienced by (or observed by) the narrator.
  99. Phrases
    A group of related words that mayhave either a subject or a PREDICATE but not both.
  100. Pragmatics
    The study of language use independent of language structure, rules and principles that relate the structure of language to its use; a level of linguistic analysis.
  101. Predicate
    The part of asentence that contains a single verb, a compound verb, or a verb with auxiliaries and any complements or modifiers; a predicate is always a verb phrase.
  102. Predicate of a sentence
    The verb phrase of the sentence; the explanation of the action, condition, or effect of the subject of a sentence (e.g. The little puppies WAGGED THEIR TAILS)
  103. Preposition
    A word that shows how a noun or pronoun is related to another word in a sentence; most prepositions are simple (i.e. consist of one word: at, in, over, of, to, under, up, from, with) and introduce a phrase (e.g. at the store, in the box), a preposition may be considered a verb particle
  104. Present progressive
    The presente tense form of a verb with an -ing ending indicating ongoing action' the present tense, progressive aspect of a verb (e.g. going) that when used in a sentence requires the use of an auxiliary verb (e.g. "She IS KICKING the ball")
  105. Pronoun
    A word or from that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. (ex. you, they, we, them, it, I, me, he, she)
  106. Proposition or propositional force
    The conceptual information contained within an utterance or aspeech act; the proposition of a speech act is the speaker's meaning; the proposition must be combined with an intention for the speech act to be conveyed.
  107. Propositional content
    The meaning of a speech act expressed most simply as the noun-verb relationship.
  108. Proposition
    Units of language content rather than language form; idea units composed of a judgment or PREDICATE about one or more objects or arguments.
  109. Qualitative measures
    Measures that are descriptive in nature, not NORM-REFERENCED or CRITERION-REFERENCED comparisons; they indicate areas of strength or weakness. Assessment instruments include behavior rating scales and student/teacher interview protocols.
  110. Quantitative measures
    Assessment measures used to document a students' initial need or continued need for language intervention; scores often provide NORM-REFERENCED comparisons; stable measures of broad-based behavior (lengthmeasures, vocabulary diversity, or densit of complex grammatical forms).
  111. Recount
    One type of NARRATIVE that is prompted; the narrator relates events experienced by self or another using past tense verbs.
  112. Reference
    Use of an utterance to designate a particular relationship, object, person, or event; specific to an individual utterance and context.
  113. Reference markers
    Words that are interpreted by another source of information including personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and comparative references (same, different, another).
  114. Referent
    A word that stands for a concrete thing (e.g. the word BALL is the referent for a real ball; the word BOUNCES stands for the activity of bouncing.)
  115. Regular past tense of the verb
    The form of a regular verb indicating that an action has already taken place; the past tense form of a regular verb requires the addition of -ed to the verb (E.g. she KICKED the ball)
  116. Regular third person singular tense
    The regular form of the third personal singular form of the present tense of a verb; the regular third personal singular present tense requires the addition of -s to the verb (e.g. She HITS the ball)
  117. Relative clause
    A subordinate clause that is introduced by a relative pronoun (i.e. who, which, that, and sometimes the agrammatical what) (e.g. "My shoes have these holes WHAT YOUR TOES COME OUT") SEE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
  118. Remote retelling
    NARRATIVES such as telling about a movie or book experienced in the past; such NARRATIVES are not STORY GENERATIONS for which the narrator creastes the plot, but they require formulation of the movie or book plot without an immediate story model.
  119. Repetitions
    An error unit consisting of three or more single identical owrds in the same sentence or consecutive sentences (other than the and a) or two or more repetitions of a phrase or clause in the same sentence or consequtive sentences.
  120. Retelling
    One kind of elicited NARRATIVE sample; a model story is told or read, and the student is asked to retell it.
  121. Revision
    Also called REPAIR. In oral language, any word, phrase, or utterance that corrects an omission of necessary information from the preceding text or corrects erroneous or ambiguous information.
  122. Rote phrase
    A recurring, meaningless phrase observed during CONVERSATIONAL or NARRATIVE DISCOURSE sampling.
  123. Rubrics
    Coding systems with short descritions of dimensions or features against which to score a unit of spoken or written text.
  124. SALT
    SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE TRANSCRIPTS; a computerized language analysis program.
  125. scaffold
    A temporary linguistic support that makes language production easier for the child.
  126. Schema
    See STORY SCHEMA(A mental representation of the structure of a STORY; used for both comprehending and producing STORIES.)
  127. School language
    The language typically needed in academic, classroom tasks.
  128. Script
    Also called GENERAL EVENT REPRESENTATION. A type of NARRATIVE DISOCURSE; verbally relating what usually or routinely happens; told in present tense, often with universal you as the subject pronoun.
  129. Semantic relation
    A combination of two or more individual semantic roles and/or residual grammatical categories: typically, semantic relations express meanings in addition to the meanings expressed by individual words (e.g. the semantic relation AGENT-ACTION expresses the relationship between the noun and verb in addition to the meaning expressed by the noun and verb.)
  130. Semantics
    The study of language content; rules and principles for the expression and understanding of meaing; a level of linguistic analysis.
  131. Semi-auxiliary
    A word such as GONNa, GOTTA, WANNA, and HAFTA used with a verb that appears to be the main verb of a sentence (e.g. HeGONNA GO) including the catenatives' the term semiauxiliary is really incorrect in that semiauxiliaries are actually semi-infinitives because they are reduced forms of infinitives that appear to function as auxiliaries in sentences (e.g. gonna is a reduction of going to in relation to a verb)
  132. Semi-auxiliary complement
    A noun phrase that is the complement of the infinitive within the semiauxiliary verb phrase (e.g. I wanna POUR THE WATER)
  133. Sentence
    A subject, or noun phrase (NP), and a predicate, or verb phrase (VP), that together express a complete thought; asentence can be either simple (i.e. contains only one verb phrase), or complex (i.e. contains more than one verb phrase)
  134. Sequence gap error
    When a NARRATIVE contains gaps in the order a STORY is told.
  135. Setting
    The part of a NARRATIVE that indicates where and when a STORY takes place and who the characters are; may include description of characters.
  136. Simple infinitive
    the form of a verb consisting of TO plus the verb, see INFINITIVE
  137. Simple infinitive clause
    The form of a verb consisting of TO plus the verb used in a sentence without otehr sentence constituents (e.g. I wanted TO GO)
  138. Speech act
    A linguistic unit of communication consisting of a proposition (meaning) and illocutionary force (intention); also considered when analyzing speech acts is the listener's interpretation of the speaker's maening and intention.
  139. Spontaneous speech
    Speech that does not repeat part of preceding utterances.
  140. Standard deviation
    Represents the average difference of a set of test scores from the mean score.
  141. Story
    Usually fictional; fictionalized ACCOUNTS of animals, people, and/or created beings that relate past, present, or future events that are not real.
  142. Story generation
    One kind of elicited NARRATIVE sample; contrasted with RETELLING; the student is asked to generate or make up a STORY and may be provided with a picture or picture sequence; no model STORY is provided.
  143. Story grammar
    Provides the overall thematic organization of a STORY in terms of causal and temporal relationships; including SETTING and EPISODE structure (initiating event, internal response, plan, attempt, consequence, reaction).
  144. Story schema
    A mental representation of the structure of a STORY; used for both comprehending and producing STORIES.
  145. Story stem
    One sentence provided by the examiner that gives a bit of SETTING and character(s) to start a STORY, which the student must finish.
  146. Story structure level
    Used to describe the MACROSTRUCTURE of fictional stories and sometimes PERSONAL NARRATIVES; describes eight levels ranging from isolated description to complex and embedded EPISODES.
  147. Subject noun phrase
    A phrase that functions as the subject of the verb (or predicate) of a sentence; the form of a subject noun phrases changes developmentally (e.g. "boy go" and "THE LITTLE BOY is going to school")
  148. Subject of a sentence
    A person, thing or idea---expressed as a single noun, pronoun, or noun phrase---being described in a sentence.
  149. Subordinate clause
    A CLAUSE that is embedded into an utterance as a noun, adjective, or adverb clause. (see also dependent clause)
  150. Subordination index
    The number of independent and dependent clauses divided by the number of CUs or T-units in a sample; also referred to as MEAN CLAUSE PER CU or MEAN CLAUSE PER T-unit.
  151. Syntax
    The study of language forms; rules and principles for combining grammatical elements and words into utterances and sentences; a level of linguistic analysis.
  152. Text
    Oral and written units of langauge, larger than a sentence, that have a common theme and show cohesive patterns.
  153. Time-sampling
    Refers to using a specified length of time to determine length of DISCOURSE sampling rather than a specified number of utternaces.
  154. Topic
    An aspect of conversation that holds conversation together; a topic may be viewed as old or new in relation to previous utterances; may be manipulated using a variety of linguist devices (e.g. a comment, a question, or a repetition)
  155. T-unit
    A MINIMAL TERMINABLE UNIT consisting of one INDEPENDENT clause with all SUBORDINATE clauses attached to it; used for segmenting written samples by some (Hunt).
  156. Type-token Ratio (TTR)
    A measure of vocabulary diversity obtained by dividing the number of different words in a sample of 50 utterances by the total number of words.
  157. Uncontractible auxiliary
    The uncontractible form of the verb BE as an auxiliary verb; uncontractible forms are uncontractible because they cannot be pronounced as a contraction without dropping the syllable (e.g. "The mouse IS sleeping"), cannot be pronounced as a contraction without losing tense or number information (e.g. "Who is going to the picnic?" Response: "I am"
  158. Uncontractible copula
    The uncontractible copula form of the verb BE as a main verb; uncontractible forms are uncontractible because they cannot be pronounced as a contraction without dropping a syllable (e.g. The mouse IS dead) cannot be pronounced as a contraction without losing tense or number information e WAS sick) or cannot be reduced further because they are elliptical (e.g. Who is hungry? Response "I am"
  159. Unmarked infinitive clause
    An infinitive clause in which the TO is not stated but is implied from the sentence structure (e.g. Help me [TO] pick these up) usually introduced by let, help, watch, make, need, see, hear, or feel.
  160. Verb
    A word that depicts action or state of being' verbs typically function as the predicate of a sentence and explain the action, condition, or effect of the subject of that sentence.
  161. Verb particle
    A relational word (e.g. slow DOWn, wake UP, turn OFF) that is associated with a verb; verb particles can be differentiated from prepositions by transposing the word in question to the right of the object noun and judging grammatically (e.g. She PUT ON the hat ---> She PUT the hat ON=verb particle She danced ON the table ----> She danced the table ON = preposition
  162. Verb phrase
    The verb plus any additional words or phrases that are needed to complete the verbs, the only obligatory component of this sentence constituent is a verb; object noun phrases are considered to be part of the verb phrase.
  163. Verbal disruptions
    (see also MAZE.) An interruption of fluent speech including fillers, MAZES, SELF-CORRECTIONS, personal qualifieers, unrelated questions or comments, and ABANDONED UTTERANCES.
  164. Wh-clause
    A subordinate clause that is introduced by a wh-word and provides adjectival information (e.g. I know WHERE HE IS ; typical wh-words that introduce wh-clauses and not relative clauses include who, where, when, why, how, and sometimes what.
  165. Wh-infinitive clause
    An infinitive that is introduced by a wh-word, therefore subordinatd to the main verb (e.g. You know HOW TO MAKE THIS" or Show me WHAT TO DO)
  166. Wh-question
    A question form that requests specific information characterized by one of the following wh-words: who, what, what-doing, where, why, when, and how.
  167. Yes/No Question
    A question form that requires a yes or no response. (e.g. More? or Do you want a cookie?)