Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles: Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis

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Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles: Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
2012-12-03 17:20:25
Bio Final

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  1. In terms of chromosome numer
    Meiosis reduces number from diploid to haploid; mitosis conserves the number
  2. In terms of cell types
    a.      Meiosis produces different cells from parent cell; mitosis produces identical copies
  3. Events unique to meiosis
    •                                                               i.      Synapsis and crossing over
    •                                                             ii.      Homologous pairs at metaphase plate
    • Separation of homologs
  4.                                                               i.      Synapsis and crossing over
    1.      Prophase I
    a.      Duplicated homologs pair up, and the formation of the __ between them holds them in __
    b.      __ in this phase too
    • synaptonemal complex
    • synapsis
    • Crossing over
  5.                                                               i.      Homologous pairs at metaphase plate
    1.      __= chromosomes positioned as pairs rather than individuals
    Metaphase I
  6.                                                               i.      Separation of homologs
    1.      __
    a.      Duplicated chromosomes of homologous pair separate, but sister chromatids still attached
    Anaphase I
  7. a.      How do sister chromatids stay together through meiosis I, but separate in II?
                                                                  i.      Attached along lengths by __(protein complexes)
    1.      In mitosis: lasts until end of __, where they are cleaved, freeing htem
    • cohesins
    • metaphase
  8. 1.      In meiosis: sister chromatids released in two steps
    a.      One at start of __ and one at __
    b.      Metaphase I: homologs held together by __between sister chromatid arms in regions beyond points of __, where stretches of sister chromatids now belong to different chromosomes
    c.       Combo of __ and __ along arms results in formation of __
                                                                                                                                          i.      __hold homologs together as spindle forms for first meiotic division
                                                                                                                                        ii.      Onset of anaphase I: __separate with release of cohesion along __ of sister chromatids
                                                                                                                                      iii.      Anaphase II: release of sister chromatid cohesion at __
    • anaphase I
    • II
    • cohesion
    • crossing over
    • crossing over and sister chromatid cohesion
    • chiasma
    • Chiasmata
    • homologs
    • arms
    • centromeres
  9. a.      Meiosis I: __division
                                                                  i.      Halves number of chromosome sets per cell
    b.      Meiosis II: __divison
                                                                  i.      Sister chromatids separate, producing haploid cells
    • reductional
    • equational