Psychology 10th chapter

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Psychology 10th chapter
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2010-05-10 20:50:27
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  1. _________ refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information.


    A. Recall
    B. Priming
    C. Recognition
    D. Memory
    D. memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The comparison of memory to a video camera is:


    a. Accurate only for memory of facts, not for memory of experiences.
    b. Accurate only for memory of experiences, not for memory of facts.
    c. Accurate for memory of both facts and experiences.
    d. Inaccurate.
    D
  3. The inability to distinguish what you originally experienced from what you heard or were told about an event later is called:


    a. Semantic memory.
    b. Priming.
    c. Explicit memory.
    d. Source misattribution.
    D
  4. Which of the following has NOT been shown to affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony?


    a. The age and sex of the suspect
    b. The ethnicity of the suspect and witness
    c. The nature of questions asked by police and attorneys
    d. Misleading information presented after the event
    A
  5. Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information is called:


    a. Explicit memory.
    b. Implicit memory.
    c. Autobiographical memory.
    d. Procedural memory.
    A
  6. Unconscious retention of memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts and actions is called:


    a. Explicit memory.
    b. Implicit memory.
    c. Declarative memory.
    d. Procedural memory
    B
  7. Under most circumstances, when you are intentionally trying to remember an item of information, __________ is an easier task than __________.


    a. Recognition; recall
    b. Recall; recognition
    c. Priming; the savings method
    d. The savings method; priming
    A
  8. Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic memory processes?


    a. Retrieval
    b. Encoding
    c. Storage
    d. Conceptualization
    D
  9. Which memory system has a limited capacity and stores items for about 30 seconds?


    a. Short-term memory
    b. Long-term memory
    c. Sensory memory
    d. Implicit memory
    A
  10. Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades?


    a. Short-term memory
    b. Long-term memory
    c. Sensory memory
    d. Implicit memory
    B
  11. In the “three-box model of memory,” which memory system holds information for a very short period of time until it can be processed further?


    a. Short-term memory
    b. Long-term memory
    c. Sensory memory
    d. Implicit memory
    C
  12. Visual images remain in sensory memory for a maximum of:


    a. One-half second.
    b. Two seconds.
    c. Thirty seconds.
    d. One minute.
    A
  13. Auditory images remain in sensory memory for about:


    a. One-half second.
    b. Two seconds.
    c. Thirty seconds.
    d. One minute.
    B
  14. ___________ acts as a holding bin, retaining information in a highly accurate form until we can select items for attention.


    a. The sensory register
    b. Short-term memory
    c. Working memory
    d. Long-term memory
    A
  15. In the 1950s, George Miller estimated the capacity of short-term memory to be the:


    a. Magical number 5, plus or minus 4.
    b. Magical number 7, plus or minus 2.
    c. Magical number 9, plus or minus 3.
    d. Magical number 11, plus or minus 1.
    B
  16. Information in short-term memory is retained for about _______ if it is not rehearsed.


    a. 2 – 3 seconds or less
    b. 30 seconds
    c. 5 – 20 minutes
    d. 30 minutes
    D
  17. Which component of memory has been referred to as a “leaky bucket”?


    a. The sensory register
    b. Short-term memory
    c. Working memory
    d. Long-term memory
    B
  18. Which of the following is considered to be an implicit memory?


    a. Procedural memory
    b. Semantic memory
    c. Episodic memory
    d. Declarative memory
    A
  19. Memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred are called:


    a. Procedural memories.
    b. Semantic memories.
    c. Short-term memories.
    d. Episodic memories.
    D
  20. Memories for the performance of actions or skills are called:


    a. Procedural memories.
    b. Semantic memories.
    c. Short-term memories.
    d. Episodic memories.
    A
  21. Memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts and propositions, are called:


    a. Procedural memories.
    b. Semantic memories.
    c. Implicit memories.
    d. Episodic memories.
    B
  22. __________ could be called “knowing how to do something memories.”


    a. Procedural memories
    b. Semantic memories
    c. Declarative memories
    d. Episodic memories
    A
  23. Which of the following is NOT a procedural memory?


    a. Using a pencil to jot a note to your roommate
    b. Typing your term paper on the computer
    c. Combing your hair after taking a test
    d. Calling your brother-in-law to say, “Happy Birthday”
    D
  24. Which memory from Shannon’s fourth grade experience would be an episodic memory?


    a. The low-level clouds that look like sheets floating in the air are called stratus clouds.
    b. For the last two months of school she shared her NFL mechanical pencil with Nick.
    c. Four inches of snow contains the same amount of water as .4 inches of rain.
    d. To mark his territory, a wild boar scrapes a tree as high as he can with his tusk.
    B
  25. Which of the following would be among Patty’s semantic memories?


    a. Knowing that her wedding gown had a train
    b. Knowing that her four siblings were members of the wedding party
    c. Knowing that Joe proposed to her just after midnight on an April evening
    d. Knowing that it is appropriate to stand when the bride walks down the aisle
    D
  26. When you remember what happened on your first day of college, you are relying on your ___________ memory.


    a. Episodic
    b. Semantic
    c. Procedural
    d. Implicit
    A
  27. When you remember which keys to press when you’re typing your paper, you are relying on your ___________ memory.


    a. Episodic
    b. Semantic
    c. Procedural
    d. Declarative
    C
  28. When you remember how to push off with your feet in order to ride your bike and push the handle brakes to slow it down, you are relying on your ______________ memory.


    a. Episodic
    b. Semantic
    c. Procedural
    d. Declarative
    C
  29. When you remembered that Freud discovered psychoanalysis for your midterm, you were relying on your _________ memory.


    a. Episodic
    b. Semantic
    c. Procedural
    d. Implicit
    B
  30. When Todd recalled times when his mother was clinically depressed during his childhood, he was relying on his ____________ memory.


    a. Episodic
    b. Semantic
    c. Procedural
    d. Implicit
    A
  31. When you remember the definition for “classical conditioning” for your final in this class, you will be relying on your _____________ memory.


    a. Episodic
    b. Semantic
    c. Procedural
    d. Implicit
    B
  32. A long-lasting increase in the strength of synaptic responsiveness is called:


    a. Deep processing.
    b. Long-term potentiation.
    c. Parallel processing.
    d. State-dependent memory.
    B
  33. _________ is thought to be the biological mechanism underlying long-term memory.


    a. Deep processing
    b. Long-term potentiation
    c. Parallel processing
    d. State-dependent memory
    B
  34. The process by which long-term memory becomes durable and stable is called:


    a. Chunking.
    b. Consolidation.
    c. Confabulation.
    d. Priming.
    B
  35. . During short-term memory tasks, _________ is especially active.


    a. The frontal lobe
    b. The hippocampus
    c. The cerebellum
    d. The amygdala
    A
  36. __________ plays a critical role in the formation of long-term declarative memories.


    a. The frontal lobe
    b. The hippocampus
    c. The cerebellum
    d. The amygdala
    B
  37. Formation and retention of procedural memories may involve the:


    a. Frontal lobe.
    b. Hippocampus.
    c. Cerebellum.
    d. Amygdala.
    C
  38. Maintenance rehearsal is defined as:


    a. Processing the physical features of the stimulus to be remembered/
    b. Analyzing new materials in order to make it memorable.
    c. Associating new material to be learned with information maintained in long-term memory.
    d. The rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory.
    D
  39. ________ involves associating new items of information with material that has already been stored.


    a. Maintenance rehearsal
    b. Elaborative rehearsal
    c. Long-term potentiation
    d. Deep processing
    B
  40. 40. _________ occurs when instead of encoding just the physical or sensory features of the information, the meaning of information is analyzed.


    a. Deep processing
    b. Procedural memory
    c. Maintenance rehearsal
    d. Priming
    A
  41. As she studies her psychology textbook, Marilyn wants to make sure that she remembers that “sound intensity is measured in units called decibels and that each decibel is one-tenth of a bel, which is a unit named after Alexander Graham Bell.” Marilyn creates a visual image of 10 little elf-like Alexander Graham Bells trying to turn up the volume of a huge stereo. Her strategy is called:


    a. Confabulation.
    b. Priming.
    c. Maintenance rehearsal.
    d. A mnemonic.
    D
  42. In order to help her music students learn the lines of the “treble clef” in musical notation, the teacher has them learn the sentence “Every Good Boy Does Fine.” This is an example of:


    a. Reconstructive memory.
    b. Mnemonics.
    c. Serial-position effect.
    d. Pattern recognition.
    B
  43. According to the _________ theory of forgetting, information in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed.


    a. Replacement
    b. Interference
    c. Cue-dependent
    d. Decay
    D
  44. According to the _______ theory of forgetting, one’s original perception can be erased by new and misleading information.


    a. Replacement
    b. Interference
    c. Cue-dependent
    d. Decay
    A
  45. According to the __________ theory of forgetting, information may get into memory, but it becomes confused with other information.


    a. Replacement
    b. Interference
    c. Cue-dependent
    d. Decay
    B
  46. According to the _____ theory of forgetting, we may feel as if we are lost among the stacks in the mind’s library.


    a. Replacement
    b. Interference
    c. Cue-dependent
    d. Decay
    C
  47. Mood-congruent memory, state-dependent memory, and context-dependent memory are all examples of:


    a. Encoding strategies.
    b. Use of cues in retrieval.
    c. Interference effects.
    d. Elaborative encoding.
    B
  48. Which of the following is the most common cause of forgetting?


    a. Decay
    b. Replacement
    c. Interference
    d. Lack of retrieval cues
    D
  49. ________ is defined as forgetting the occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar materials stored previously.


    a. Cue-dependent
    b. Proactive interference
    c. Decay
    d. Retroactive interference
    D
  50. ________ is defined as forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently stored, material.


    a. Cue-dependent.
    b. Proactive interference
    c. Decay
    d. Retroactive interference
    B
  51. Research on retrieval cues shows that:


    a. Cues can help retrieval episodic memories of the early years, but procedural memories of the toddler years are rare.
    b. Cues in the environment that are present when you learn a new fact can be useful later as retrieval aides.
    c. Since preschoolers tend to focus on novelty, distinctive aspects provide retrieval cues to make the event more memorable.
    d. All of the above are correct.
    B
  52. After befriending a drunken millionaire, Charlie Chaplin is surprised when the man doesn’t recognize him the next day. In the evening, as the millionaire begins drinking again, Charlie is greeted as a pal. This episode from City Lights was used in the text to illustrate:


    a. Proactive interference.
    b. Psychogenic amnesia.
    c. Repression.
    d. State-dependent memory
    D
  53. If you are trying to retrieve a memory, you will be better able to do so if:


    a. You find a psychoanalyst with experience in retrieving unconscious memories.
    b. You wait until your emotional arousal is neither low now high.
    c. Your current mood matches the mood you were in when you stored the memory.
    d. You used maintenance rehearsal in order to encode the information.
    C
  54. Given the current research on recovered memories, we should be skeptical if a person says that:


    a. The judge in his court case wouldn’t consider his recovered memories as admissible evidence.
    b. She had psychogenic amnesia after an emotional shock and certain cues led the memory to return.
    c. He now has memories of his experiences as an infant, thanks to therapy.
    d. Her amnesia resulted from a blow to the head during a car accident
    C
  55. Research on autobiographical memory indicates that most adults cannot recall any events until about:


    a. 6 to 18 months of age.
    b. 18 to 24 months of age.
    c. 2 to 3 years of age.
    d. 3 to 4 years of age
    D

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