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What are the 3 types of imagery?
- Electro-Optical (EO)
- Infra-Red (IR)
- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
What are the theater imagery assets?
- Global Hawk
- P-3 Orion
- U-2 Dragon Lady
- E-8 JSTARS
- Scan Eagle
What are the two most common residential structures for Iraq and Afghanistan?
- Iraq: Tri-Brick
- Afghanistan: Adobe
What are the key features for identifying a mosque?
- Orientation to Mecca
- The Halla
- The dome
- Covered arcade
- Washing station
- Courtyard opposite the Halla
- Its proximity to other structures
- Upkeep of the building
- Noon-time activity on Friday
What impact does light have on target marker placement?
Too much light (washout) can inhibit image resolution.
What impact do shadows have on target marker placement?
Shadows can help identify what you are looking at.
What impact does image angle and obliqueness have on target marker placement?
- Obliquity and error can skew the coordinates of an image, increasing the search time in terrain recognition.
- In mountainous terrain, look angle adverse and oblique can be challenging.
What are CE and LE? How are they expressed?
- CE is Circular Error. It is horizontal accuracy and it is expressed in feet or meters.
- LE is Linear Error. It is vertical accuracy and it is expressed in feet or meters.
- Both are expressed at 90% for targeting.
What is TLE? How is it calculated?
- TLE is Target Location Error.
- It is the difference between the reported position and the actual position of the target, and it is due to sensor error.
- It is calculated by combining Circular Error (CE) and Linear Error (LE).
What is CEP? How is it expressed? What causes it?
- CEP is Circular Error Probable.
- It is horizontal accuracy expressed in feet or meteres at 50% probability.
- It is caused by weapon system or guidance system errors.
What is HAE? How is it calculated?
- HAE is Height Above Elipsoid.
- It is the distance a point is above or below a mathematically-defined regular elipsoid model of the Earth's surface.
- It was calculated by creating an elipse 3,930 miles from the center of the Earth out to the 45 degree latitude lines.
What is MSL? How is it calculated?
- MSL is Mean Sea Level.
- It averages out tidal highs and lows caused by gravitation of the Sun and Moon.
- It was calculated by using the arithmetic mean of hourly ocean heights over a 19-year cycle.
What is the standard for CE and LE for targeting?
6m or 20ft.
What is EGM 96?
- Earth Gravitational Model 96.
- It is native to DPPDB.
What is DPPDB?
Digital Point Positioning Data Base
What colors does FalconView display related to DPPDB coverage?
Red if it is not present for an area, green if it is.
What EGM model is used by ATACMS?
What are some of the key features used for terrain recognition?
- A/C units
Who is responsible for the Global Holdings List and DPPDB?
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
What do the first two numbers in the DPPDB 'D' number represent?
The year the imagery was developed.
Who maintains the No-Strike List?
The Combatant Commander (COCOM) for the AOR.
What are the Cat 1 'Most Sensitive' facilities?
- Religious/Cultural/Historic sites
- Medical faciliteis
- Publid education facilities
- Civilian refugee camps
- POW camps
- Facilities with environmental concerns
- Dams and dikes
How do you set your PSS-OFF to display north up?
- Select "Tools"
- Select "Program options"
- Select "Environment options"
- Select "Rotate imagery to North up"
- You must re-extract the point.
How do you import and display a No-strike list?
- Select "Graphics"
- Select "Import no strike list"
- After loading, select "Add no strike points"
What does GEOTRANS do?
Converts coordinates among a wide variety of coordinate systems, map projections and datums.
What are the parts of a PFI file?
- A 3D template from DPPDB stereo imagery
- A National Image Transmission Format (NITF or .NTF) file
Who validates PFI files? Are they approved for targeting?
What applications support PFI files?
- DPSS Scene Matching
- Handheld Sync (HHS)
- PFI Viewer-Handheld (PFIV-H)
- NITF Viewer
What instruction mandates certification to derive coordinates?
Who can certify individuals to derive coordinates?
- The NGA
- An NGA accredited service
- A Geographic Combatant Command/Functional Command
- An Allied program
What is TC 3-09.61?
It defines the training and certification standards for the Army Precision Fires Target Coordinate Mensuration Program.
What is a datum?
A base reference for a coordinate system.
What are the two categories of datum?
Horizontal and Vertical
What is mono imagery?
A 2D representation of a 3D world.
How does stereo imagery work?
It uses multiple image captures of the same area and allows us to look at the same thing from two different angles.
What does stereo imagery allow?
It allows us to accurately determine feature height.
What is image obliquity?
The difference between the reference elevation and the actual terrain elevation, creating a possible horizontal error.
What can cause image obliquity?
- Sensor location
- Look angle
- Platform/Sensor accuracy
- Ground track
What are features that can be used for terrain recognition?
- North arrow
- Look angle
- Lakes and rivers
- Roads and paths
- Structures and buildings
- Vegetation and soil patterns
- Light and shadow