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  1. This begins at the foramen magnum and its solid end terminats at the L1 and L2
    spinal cord
  2. The function of this is to provide a two way communication to and from the brain and contains spinal reflexes
    spinal cord
  3. the CFS is located in the ventrical and where else.
    subarachnoid space
  4. The spinal cord terminates where?
    conus medullaris
  5. This is a fibrous extension of the conus covered with pia mater and it extends to the coccyx
    Filum terminale
  6. How many spinal nerves are there and where are they located at?
    31, PNS
  7. This is a collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal. Start above/end the spinal cord.
    Cauda equina
  8. This connects the masses of gray matter, and encloses the central canal.
    Gray commissure
  9. The part of the spinal cord that recieves interneurons that receive somatic and visceral sensory imput.
    Dorsal horns
  10. The part of the spinal cord that have some interneurons, somatic motro neurons, axons exit cord via the ventral roots.
    Ventral horns
  11. This part of the spinal cord is only in the thoracic and superior lumbar regions. It houses the sympathetic neurons
    lateral horns
  12. sensory imput area to the spinal cord
    dorsal roots
  13. the cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in this part of the spinal cord
    dorsal root ganglia
  14. what matter runs in three directions in the spinal cord. what are they?
    • ascending (up to higher centers - sensory imputs)
    • Descending (from brain to spinal cord - motor outputs)
    • transverse ( from one side to the other - commissural fibers)
  15. Ascending pathways consist of three types of neuron what are they?
    first, second and third order neurons
  16. this neuron conducts impulses from the cutaneous receptors and proprioceptors
    first order neuron
  17. this neuron synapses with a second order neuron
    first order
  18. this is also called an interneuron
    • second order neuron
    • third order neuron
  19. this neurons cell body is in forsal horn of spinal cord or medullary nuclei and the axonsextend to the thalamus or cerebellum
    second order neuron
  20. this neuron cell body is in the thalamus and the axon extends to the somatosensory cortex
    third order neuron
  21. is there a third order neuron in the cerebellum
  22. what are the three main accending pathways
    • dorsal column - medial lemniscal pathways
    • spinothalamic pathways
    • spinocerebellar tracts
  23. where does the spinal cerebellar tracts terminate?
  24. Transmit input to somatosensorty cortex for discriminative touch and vibrations. It is also composed of paired fasciculus cuneatus and fasciculus gracilis in spinal cord and medial lemniscus in brain (medulla to thalamus)
    dorsal column - medial lemniscal pathways
  25. transmit pain, temperatur, coarse touch, and pressure impulses with in lateral_____ tracts.
    spinothalamic pathways
  26. has ventral and dorsal tracts
    convey information about muscle or tendon stretch to cerevellum - used to coordinate muscle activity
    spinocerebellar tracts
  27. emotional or affectiv brain
    limbic system
  28. this recognizes angry or fearful facial expressions, assesses danger, and elicits fear response. The army spends million to train not to use this.
    amygdaloid body
  29. this role is in expressing emotions via gestures and resolves mental conflict.
    cingulate gyrus
  30. this puts emotional responses to odars - skunks smell bad
    limbic systems
  31. which limbic system plays a role in memory
    hippocampus and amygdaloid bodyq
  32. if this part of the brain is injured it severly/ this prevents unconcess
    reticular fomation
  33. EEG?
  34. this records electrical activity that accompanies brain function
  35. loss of consciousness is a signal that brain function is impaired.
    what are the forms of loss of consciousness?
    • Fainting or syncapy - brief
    • coma - extended period
  36. This is an abrupt laspse into sleep from awake state.
  37. narcolepsy can also have sudden loss of voluntary muscle control which is called
  38. This is the chronic inability to obtain amount or quality of sleep needed
  39. this is the temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. causes hypoxia which is
    sleep apnea, extended timeĀ  - somethin heart
  40. this may be treated by blocking orexin action
  41. these two areas are associated with language what are they and were are they
    broca's area and wernicke's area, association cortex on left side
  42. this working memory - temporary holding of information limited to seven or eight pieces of information
    short term memory STM
  43. this memory has limitless capacity
    long term memory or LTM
  44. What are the factors affecting the transfer of stm to ltm
    • emotional state - best if alert, motivated, surprised and aroused
    • reherarsal - repetition and practice
    • association - tying new information to old information
    • automatic memory - subconscious information stored in ltm
  45. This type of memory stores explicit information
    related to conscious thoughts and language ability
    stored in ltm with context in whic learned
    declarativ (fact) memorty
  46. this type of memory is from less conscious or unconscious
    aquired through experience and repetition
    best remembered by doing - hard to unlearn
    includes procedural skill memory, motor memory and emotional memory
    nondeclarative memory
  47. Procedural memory is located where?
  48. Motor memory is located where?
  49. Emotional memory is located where
  50. what are the four things that protect the brain
    • bone - skull
    • meninges - membranes
    • CSF - watery cushion
    • blood brain barrier
  51. This covers and protects CNS
    protects blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
    contains CSF
    form partitions in skull
  52. what are the three layers of meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  53. what is meningitis
    inflamation of meninges
  54. This is the strongest meninx. It has two layers of fibrous connective tissue aroung brain separate to fomr dural venous sinuses
    dura matter
  55. if a blood vessel breaks in the brain where is the most harmful place
    subarachnoid space
  56. the middle layer of meninges is
    arachnoid matter
  57. this layer of meninges is with weblike extensions
    arachnoid matter
  58. this is the space that contains csf and the largest blood vessels in the brain
    subarachnoid space
  59. this is a delicate vascularized connective tissue that clings tightly to the brain
    pia mater
  60. this is a water solution formed form blood plasma
  61. alway remember DAP when going inward on the meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  62. this gives buoyancy to cns structures and reduces the weight of the brain by 97% and protect the cns from blows and other trauma
  63. this hangs from the roof of each ventricle and produces csf at a constant rate
    choroid plexuses
  64. this obstucion block csf circulation or drainage. It is trated by daining the ventricular shunt to abdominal cavity
  65. this helps maintain stabe environment for brain and separates neurons form some blood borne substances
    blood brain barrier
  66. this is a selective barrier
    allows nutrients to move by facilitated diffusion
    metabolic wastes, proteins, toxins, most drugs, small nonessential amino acid, k denied
    allos any fat-salube substances to pass including alcohol, nicotine and anesthetic
    absent in some areas, eg vomiting center and hypothalamus where necessary to monitor chemical compositon of blood
    blood brain barrier functions
  67. brain injuries - themporary alteration in function
  68. this is permenet brain damage
  69. may force brain stem through foramen magnum, resulting in death
    subdural or subarachnoid hemorrage
  70. swelling of brain associated with traumatic head injury
    cerebral edma
  71. tissue is deprived of blood supply, brain tissue dies eg blockage of cerebral artery by blood clot
  72. paralysis on one side or sensory and speech deficits
  73. temporary episodes of reversible cerebral ichemia
    transient ischemic attacks TIAS
  74. TPA is only approved treatment for stroke
    tissue plasminogen activator
  75. a progressive degenerative disease of brain that results in dementia
    alzheimers disease AD
  76. This is symptom of this disease
    memory loss, short attention span, disorientation, eventual language loss, irritable, moody, confused hallucinations
    alzheimers disease AD
  77. this disease is the degeneration of dopamine - releasing neuron of substantia nigra
    basal nuclei deprived of dopamin and become overactive - tremors at rest
    cause is unknown - mitochondrial abnormalities or protein degradation pathways
    parkinsons disease
  78. this is a fatal hereditary disorder caused by the accumulation of protein huntingtin - leads to degeneration of basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
    symptoms are wild jerky and flapping
    later marked mental deterioration
    huntingtons disease
Card Set:
2012-12-03 23:40:53

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