Special Topics :WWI Final Exam

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  1. Erich von Falkenhayn
    was the chef of staff for german army. He was convinced that 1915 would be a year of offense in the west and defense in the east becasue he believed france and great britain to be the bigger threats. He believed you could defend in the west and russia would implode on itself. Ludendorff and Hindenburg believe just the opposite and have the ear of the kaiser
  2. Neuve-Chapelle
    village in france just south of belgium border. the attack was set forward on 8,000 yards. GB planned to fire 200,00 shells before the attack infront of, behind, and at enemy lines. The bombardment started at 7am taking the germans by surprise and destroying their trenches. The allies wanted to bombard wait and then attack. The wait gave the Germans time to recover. The Germans rushed 9000 mento the front to patch holes in the defenses. The British lost communication which caused the advance to halt for 8hrs giving the Germans time to reinforce 20,000. At the end of the battle the allies suffered 11000 dead to 8000 total German casualties. the battle is important because it forshadows things to come
  3. Eleftherios Venizelos
    Greek prime minister who is pro British. He saidhe would enter war on behalf of the allies. The king of Greece, King Constantine I, was pro German and because they disagree Greece never enters thewar
  4. Treaty of London (1915)
    it committed italy to joining the war in a month. British, french, russians all sign it promising italy the southern Tyrol, the Dalmatian coast, and Istria. The Italians mainly fought the Austrians along the Italian Alps.
  5. Luigi Cadorna
    chief of staff for the italian army. he was either a capable general or a ruthless bastard. he fired 217 generals and executed 100 for retreating.
  6. Battles of the Isonzo River
    a series of 12 battles between the Austro-Hungarian and Italian armies.. They were fought along the Isonzo (Soča) River on the eastern sector of the Italian Front between June 1915 and November 1917 (2 years long). therivers that set Italy apart from A-H and opened up the roads to Hungary. They attacked in the places where the Austrians had the most defenses. The Italians had 2000 dead and 12000 wounded in one day
  7. Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive
    German- Austrian Plan of attack on the Eastern front. although it was well-defended, G and A picked a point of attack where they outnumbered Russians 3:2.The Germans dig trenches half way through no man's land without being seen. On May 1 the Germans began a 24 hour bombardment. . The Germans push through with little to noopposition catching 140000 prisoners in 12 days. the offensive resulted in the total collapse of the Russianlines and their retreat far into Russia.
  8. Salonika Campaign
    Greek port in which the allies landed to aid theSerbians, much to the dismay of the Greeks. The Greek PM promised if the Allies sent 150,000 troops are sent to Salonika then Greece would enter the war. The GreekPM was fired by the king. The allies were too late and not plentiful enough to aid the Serbs.
  9. Battle of Jutland
    only major naval battle of the war mostly becausew germans dont stand  up to britisah ship to ship. both sides claimed vicotry but in the end it was a tie. by rawnumber the germans win, but the british win overall because they can afford to lose multiple ships.
  10. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- U-Boat
    (unterseeboat): type of naval warfare inwhich submarines sink merchantmen withoutwarning. it is the shoot first ask questions later tactic used by german u boats.the waters around GB and Ireland are considered war zones, and all amerrican merchant ships were told they would be fired on
  11. Lusitania
    U.S. ship that was 13 miles off the coast of ireland before being sunck by german uboat u-20. the boat sunk in 18mins killing 1200 of 1900 people aboard of which 28 were americans. in a letter to germany, Wilson said germans would be held accountable for the loss of U.S. lives, called for germany to stop unrestricted sub warfar, condoned british blockcases of german coasts, and said any later sinkings would be deemed as unfriednly
  12. Otranto Barrage
    britsh and itlalian navy block the ortranto straits to prevent the austrian fleet from getting out. they block it with nets,mines, and surface ships. it was somewhat successful in bottling up the austrianb surface fleet but the uboats escape with ease wreaking havoc on the mediterranean sinking over 400 ships
  13. Douglas Haig
    He commanded the BritishExpeditionary Force (BEF) from 1915to the end of the War. He was commander during the Battle of theSomme, the battle with one of thehighest casualties in British military history, the Third Battleof Ypres, and the Hundred Days Offensive, which led to the armistice in 1918.
  14. Verdun
    aka operation judgement. one of the bloodiest battlefields of the war. was a fortress town built in roman times that had been modernized every 30-40 years. the last time it had been done was in 1885 when the forts had been reinforced with concrete and armour. germans amass 10 divisions and plan to attack france along an 8 mile front. the french have two options, fight and lose army or retreat and lose verdun and roads to paris. frnch learn of the attack in the two week delay bc of weather which buys them time to reinforce lines. in three days of fighting, only fort vaux and douamaunt remain standing. Fort Douaumont was taken feb 25 due to French being tricked by German sergeant; 
  15. Philippe Pétain
    new french commander at Verdun who had a reptuation for never giving up. he remained low in the ranks as a colonel bc of his belief in defensive war. when france learns defense is the way he shoots up the ranks. he completely revamped french operation in verdun. germany would eventually scrap their plan for a minimal attack for an all out offensive. by the end of may both sides had 100,00 casualties and when fort veaux fell peta was fired and replaced by nivelle
  16. Somme
    one of the most celebrated and saddest days in british history.  19 Briths divisons north of somme along with 3 french divisions south plan to cross no mans land after bombardment. british believed german trenches would be destroyed leaving the germans too stunned to fight. Haig was so sure they would destory trenches men were ordered to stay upright and go without cover. The field had been littered with 1.5 million shell prior to the chrge. the british accomplished nothing they wanted in barrage, and on the first day the british lost 19,000, 1/5 of their fighting force.
  17. Brusilov Offensive
    Aleksei Brusilov was given command of the Russian armybecause he said he would attack. he decided to attack the austrians in the south across and entire front. they took austrians by surprise and advance 40 miles. when offensive stops, they pushed austrains back 60-70 miles. the austrians sustained 600,00 casualties but 400,00 of those were captured. the victory cost russia 1 million causalties and falkehyn his job
  18. Kaiser Karl I
    great nephew of Franz Joseph; he was 29 years old,liberal, progressive, pushed for a federal government and a united states ofAustria
  19. Sixtus Affair
    centered around Empress Zita wife of Kaiser Karl I and her 2 brothers: Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma and Prince Xavier, they were bourbon princes: officers in the French army. the kasier met with his brother in laws secretly to seek a spearate peace with France . they presented the kasier with a four point proposal approved by the french government. Austria would have to recognize french claism to alsace and lorraine, austria recognizes belgium being restored to its prewar borders and restoration of belgium royal family, reestablishment of serbian monarchy(serbia gets outlet to adraiatic and parts of albania unde austrian control), and austria must disinterest itself to russian acquastion of constantinople. Karl gives brothers the agreement to 3 terms, point four was in the air bc russian czar was overthrown
  20. Ottokar von Czernin:
    Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Count Ottokar vonCzernin; secretly in communication with German govt. he is present at the secret meetings; Karl gave his bro-in-laws a signature on the 1st 3 points without Czernin knowledge; he persuades Karl to send a word of honor to Germanyto retract some points on the peace proposal and etc; utter disaster and Czernin ends up resigning when Karl would not abdicate the throne.
  21. Grigori Rasputin
    a drunk monk from siberia who came to st petersburg. he sexed his way to the inner circle of the government. its unknown whether he had a sexual relationship with Czarina but he def held a relgious hold over her. Czarina believed he was a miracle worker bc he could eliminate pain from their ill son. it was believed he controlled the czar and his wife. eventually he would be murdered by a bisexual prince
  22. February (March) Revolution
    after famine hits Russia people take to the streets. Troops are pulled from the front and made to put down the revolution. The troops become sympathetic to therevolutionaries, when that begins the Cossacks are called in. they kill a few protestorsand eventually decide to stop firing. The Czar, in response, closed the Duma.His train is stopped outside of Moscow and he abdicates the throne for himself and his son to his brother who declined. Thus causing the empire to collapse.
  23. Bolsheviks
    Socialists party in Russia; it is the majority party but the name of Bolshevik actually means ‘minority’. The Bolsheviks chose the name because of propaganda in the country and itworked. Those who were politically ill informed or illiterate were succumbed to the propaganda. Lenin was the head ofthe Bolshevik party.
  24. Caporetto
    . The Italians try 11 times to capture Isonzo River but fail. The armies are equal in size, but the Italian army was split acrossthe river allowing the Austrians to encircle them several times. Italians retreated 80 miles to Piave River. Italians suffer 10000 dead and 275000 surrendered batlle where germans and austrians almost knocked the italians out of the war for good.they do so much damage that the italian army still has not recovered till this day
  25. Hindenburg Line:
    end of 1916, Germans pull themselves back to build a final defensive position, it was called the Hindenburg Line. would be easier to defend, straight line and massively entrenched well enforced.
  26. Armando Diaz
    takes control of the italian army when cordona is fired. blamed italian loss on socialism entering amoung the ranks
  27. zimmerman telegram
    Zimmerman was the German foreign minister during WWI. The German government sent a telegram via western union to the German embassy in Mexico stating if the U.S.declared war on Germany then Mexico would attack the U.S. from the south on the promise of Mexico would receiving landsgiven up to the U.S. in the Mexican loss at Mexican American war. The telegramwas intercepted and translated by the British who had cracked the German code.The telegram is regarded widely as the last straw that brought America into thewar.
  28. American Expeditionary Force
    AEF; combined Army, Marines, and National Guard; ledby General John ‘Black Jack’ Pershing; Americans were slow to get to Europe, GB and France were upset because they wanted to incorporate American troops into holes in their divisions
  29. John Pershing
    General John “Black Jack”Pershing was commander of the AEF. he said American troops will wait to fight under own command and fight together. In October, America enters the front butit was not until March 1918 when America fought 1st real battle.
  30. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    : ends the fighting of Russians with the Central Powers. Russians and Austrians and Germans met at Brest-Litovsk with Russians asking for peace without annexations. Germans and Austrians refuse because they want annexations but they do a cease fire. Trotsky stood up and said “ no war and no peace” so for the next 2-3 weeks the Germans and Austrians take over hundreds of miles of Russian territory. Russia lost ⅓ of Russian population, ½ its industry, and 90% of coal mines, Poland, Ukraine and Baltic States were taken away from Russia. Treaty was signed between Russia, Germany and Austria.
  31. Kaiserschlacht
    series of offensives to bring France to her knees in the Western front. the offensives were planned by Ludendorff and are sometimes called the Spring Offensives. There were 4 offensives the mot important of which was operation michael. 
  32. Operation Michael
    plan to strike the BEF along the Somme River; divide the forces in half and make it to the English Channel; GB had an incomplete trench line, GB was aware of the attack from German POWs but they were not prepared for the scope and magnitude of the attack.
  33. Second Battle of Marne
    battle was close to Paris; Paris was saved after theSecond Battle of the Marne and the Battles of Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood; allies lost 137,000 to the Germans 130,000. However, the German men were harderto replace than the allies losses because US was fully involved in the war by this time and could offer reinforcements with fresh troops. also Ludendorffcalls off future attacks; Germans were in a worse position and the threat of the German offensive to Paris was over. in 6 months
  34. Ferdinand Foch
    Marshall of France and commander of French armies. He called for the allied offensive along the Somme River. He wanted to get the Germans away from the RR that went to Paris. Australians had been tearing up Germans along this area for months. 
  35. Hundred Days Offensive
    began on August 8, 1918 with the Battle of Amiens. The Canadians, Australians, British and French surprise theGermans. it was the first time in the war that the Germans cracked. 17,000 German POWs and 30,000 causalities. the POW count shows that the German war machine was breaking. Allies lost 6,000 men total, they pushed the Germans back a few miles, the Germans don’t stop retreating until they reach the HindenburgLine * they gave up all taken land in 6 months.
  36. Black Day of the German Army
    September 18, 1918: collapse in German morale: Ludendorffcalled it the end of German fighting and knew the war was over on this day when the Germans reached the Hindenburg line.
  37. Battle of Vittorio Veneto
    on the anniversary of the Italian embarrassment at Caporetto, the Italians attacked the Austrian forces at the Isonzo River. The Austrian showed staunch resistance at first which did not last for very long. The Italians crossed the river and set up bridge heads on the Austrian side. On October 28th, Czechoslovakia declared independence fromAustria Hungary. The Kaiser ordered Austrians to retreat. On the same day the Austrians offered and armistice which Italy denied. On October 31 Hungary withdrew fromthe union after the A-H army split bringing an end to the dual monarchy. On November 3, Kaiser Karl offered armistice and it was granted a day later. The Italians agreed to armistice but continued on through Austrian country tillthey reached Enbrook.
  38. Prince Maximilian of Baden
    took over the chancellorship of Germany on October 3 1918. He oversaw the transformation of the German government as it moved from monarchy to a parliamentary system. he was a liberal politician firstand member of the German Royal Family second.
  39. Kiel Mutiny
    after the German army had surrendered and were in the midst of peace talks the German navy ordered one last attack against the British without authorization. Crews of two ships tried to blow up their own ships. Many were arrested and 47 more jailed. Protests occurred under the red flag and it turned into a full scale revolt under the motto of peace and bread. During a protest the German army fired into a crowd killing seven people and wounding 29. The soldiers joined the protest and the largest cities revolted by November 8. On November 8th, the head of all German states had abdicated except Wilhelm. 
  40. Paris Peace Conference
    was the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties for the post-war world. These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. The defeated Central Powers' colonial empires in Africa, southwest Asia, and the Pacific, would be parceled between and mandated to the victorious colonial empires, At the center of the proceedings were the leaders of the four "Great Powers": President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, George Clemenceau of France, and, of least importance, Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando
  41. Treaty of Trianon
    ripped Hungary apart. They would lose 72% of their land and 67% of their population. They were restricted to a 35000 man army, they had to recognize the independence of minorities in their country, and they were not to ever reunite with Austria again. 
  42. Treaty of St. Germain
    - this treaty dealt with Austria. Austria-Hungarian power was forever dissolved. Austria would accept responsibility of the war alongside Germany, the would recognize independence of nation states in their borders and what would became Yugoslavia. They were restricted to a 30000 man army, and not allowed to have any offensive weapons. The treaty also stated that Austria could never unite with Germany. 
  43. Treaty of Versailles
    treaty that dealt with Germany. French foreign minister Clemenceau wanted to take a harsh stance with the Germans because of the French feeling of revengism. The British desired to be more lenient with Germany and keep them stable as a buffer state to communist Russia. Wilson focused primarily on the implementation of his 14 points. In the end Germany would have no say in their negotiations to only walk out and be forced to sign the terms later. The terms included: Germany army to be kept to 100,000, the Rhineland would be demilitarized, the French would regain Alsace and Lorraine, the Germans had no claim to Czechoslovakia or Poland, they would lose half of their iron and half of their industry, no air force, 24 ship navy, no manufacturing or trade of offensive weapons, no submarines, no unification with Austria. West Prussia, posen, and Silesia were given to Poland as the corridor to the sea. Danzig is made a free city.
  44. War Guilt Clause
    - also known as article 231, Germany and Austria accept responsibility for starting the war and are forced to pay reparations to countries affected. They pay 11 billion dollars in 1919 money. They paid with everything they had and still remained in debt to the United States from whom they had obtained loans to pay reparation debts.
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Special Topics :WWI Final Exam
2013-02-17 22:15:34
WWI Final Exam

a list of terms fro the special topics in WWI final exam for upper level college historians
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