Blood Typing and Transfusion Medicine
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What is transfusion medicine?
- to increase red cell mass in anemic animals
- a temporary fix for regenerative anemia
What do RBCs carry that makes it important for us to type them and why?
- carry antigens
- can cause transfusion reactions if antigens are not compatible with the recipient
What is oxyglobin?
synthetic hemoglobin that does the job of RBCs (carries oxygen)
Can blood types be determined in house?
Are there blood banks available for animals?
What is oxyglobin made of?
purified bovine hemoglobin
Which animals is oxyglobin approved in?
Does oxyglobin have antigens?
Is oxyglobin expensive?
What are some post treatment effects of using oxyglobin? How long does it last?
- PCV decreases
- urine discolored (causes chemistry to not be accurate)
- yellow skin discoloration
- resolves itself in 3 - 5 days
How many canine blood groups are there?
Which canine blood groups are we concerned with and why?
- DEA 1.1 and 1.2 - most antigenic (more likely for animal will produce antibodies against it)
- DEA 7 - 50% of dogs are born with antibodies against DEA 7
Can dogs have more than 1 blood type?
What are some different signs of a transfusion reaction?
- respiratory distress
When do we usually see tranfusion reactions?
usually within 1 hour of the transfusion
What should we do if we see a transfusion reaction?
- stop the transfusion immediately
- get the doctor
What causes fading baby syndrome?
What are universal doggie donors?
negative for DEA 1.1, 1.2, and 7
What is cross matching?
- determines if antibodies are present in red cells
- shows DEA 7 isoantibodies
What are the two types of cross matching?
- major cross match (the main one we do)
- minor cross match
What is the major cross match?
tests donor RBCs and recipient plasma
How do we do a major cross match?
- mix 0.2 ml EDTA packed cells with 4.6ml 0.9% saline
- put 0.1 ml in each tube
- add 0.1 ml of recipent plasma
- incubate room temp for 15 minutes
- centrifuge all for 1 minute
- if we see hemolysis or agglutination then the RBCs are incompatible
What is minor cross match?
- testing donor plasma to recipient RBCs
- looking for antibodies in donor
- done the same way as major cross matching
What are the different feline blood types?
Which feline blood type is the most common?
Do cat's have more of a severe transfusion reaction than dogs?
yes, sometimes the first signs is death
What percent of cats with type A blood have anti B antibodies?
What percent of cats with type B blood have anti A antibodies?
Which cats typically have type B blood?
purebred and mixed
Are feline transfusion reactions common in the US?
no, because most cats have the same blood type
What are the in house blood typing tests? What do the tests determine?
- RapidVet - H Canine (determines DEA 1.1)
- RapidVet - H Feline (determines A, B, or AB)
How do in house blood typing tests work?
- rapid card agglutination tests
- if see clumping, then antigen (blood type) is present
Where can we get blood for transfusions?
from bank, fresh, or stored
What are the three different additives we can collect blood with?
- CPD-A1: good for 4 weeks in frig
- ACD: good for 3 weeks in frig
- Heparin: good for 24 hours
____ ml/lb BW will raise PCV 1%
How do we administer blood for a blood transfusion?
- use blood administration set or use microfiltration
- 10 drops/ml
What is volume overload?
- administering the blood too quickly
- no faster than 5 ml/min
What are the different routes we can administer blood for a blood transfusion?
- intra-osseous route
How fast does blood absorb into the body IP route?
60% absorbed over 48 hours
What is component therapy?
administering plasma (a component of blood)
What are the different forms of plasma we can administer?
- fresh plasma
- fresh frozen plasma
- stored plasma
How quickly do we need to administer plasma therapy after collecting from the donor?
use within 24 hours or freeze within 6 hours
When would we use fresh plasma?
for clotting deficits
When do we need to separate fresh plasma to be frozen?
separate with in 6 hours after collection
When would we use fresh frozen plasma?
used in clotting deficits, DIC, septicemia, and neoplasia
What is stored plasma?
obtaining plasma from stored blood (CPD-A1)
How long is stored plasma good for?
- freeze and its good for 1 year
- good for 4 weeks not frozen
When would we use stored plasma?
- volume expansion
- severely ill patients
What is the dose for administering stored plasma?
What is cryoprecipiatate?
precipitate from frozen plasma
What is the plasma called once the cryoprecipitate has been removed?
What would we use cryoprecipitate for?
- clotting deficits
- parvo pups
What is the dose for administering cryoprecipitate?
12 - 20 ml/kg
What does cryopoor plasma contain?
- albumins and globulins
- factors II, VII, X
When would we use cryopoor plasma?
used to treat coumarin toxicosis
What is the dose for administering cryopoor plasma?
How long is cryopoor plasma good for when it is stored at -20 degrees celcius?
What is super plasma?
activates the vW factors
What do we need to pretreat the donor with for super plasma and why?
- pretreat with DDAVP one hour before collection
- activates the vW factor
Other than dogs with vW, what else can we use super plasma for?
- RapidVet - H Feline
- A positive, B negative
- RapidVet - H Canine
- DEA 1.1
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