Blood Typing and Transfusion Medicine

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kris10leejmu
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186961
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Blood Typing and Transfusion Medicine
Updated:
2012-12-03 22:54:04
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Lab Tech ll
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Lab Tech ll
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  1. What is transfusion medicine?
    • to increase red cell mass in anemic animals
    • a temporary fix for regenerative anemia
  2. What do RBCs carry that makes it important for us to type them and why?
    • carry antigens
    • can cause transfusion reactions if antigens are not compatible with the recipient
  3. What is oxyglobin?
    synthetic hemoglobin that does the job of RBCs (carries oxygen)
  4. Can blood types be determined in house?
    yes
  5. Are there blood banks available for animals?
    yes
  6. What is oxyglobin made of?
    purified bovine hemoglobin
  7. Which animals is oxyglobin approved in?
    dogs
  8. Does oxyglobin have antigens?
    no
  9. Is oxyglobin expensive?
    yes
  10. What are some post treatment effects of using oxyglobin?  How long does it last?
    • PCV decreases
    • urine discolored (causes chemistry to not be accurate)
    • yellow skin discoloration
    • resolves itself in 3 - 5 days
  11. How many canine blood groups are there?
    11
  12. Which canine blood groups are we concerned with and why?
    • DEA 1.1 and 1.2 - most antigenic (more likely for animal will produce antibodies against it)
    • DEA 7 - 50% of dogs are born with antibodies against DEA 7
  13. Can dogs have more than 1 blood type?
    yes
  14. What are some different signs of a transfusion reaction?
    • urticaria
    • tremors
    • fever
    • collapse
    • hemoglobinuria
    • vomiting
    • respiratory distress
    • shock
    • DIC
    • death
  15. When do we usually see tranfusion reactions?
    usually within 1 hour of the transfusion
  16. What should we do if we see a transfusion reaction?
    • stop the transfusion immediately
    • get the doctor
  17. What causes fading baby syndrome?
    neonatal isoerythrolysis
  18. What are universal doggie donors?
    negative for DEA 1.1, 1.2, and 7
  19. What is cross matching?
    • determines if antibodies are present in red cells
    • shows DEA 7 isoantibodies
  20. What are the two types of cross matching?
    • major cross match (the main one we do)
    • minor cross match
  21. What is the major cross match?
    tests donor RBCs and recipient plasma
  22. How do we do a major cross match?
    • mix 0.2 ml EDTA packed cells with 4.6ml 0.9% saline
    • put 0.1 ml in each tube
    • add 0.1 ml of recipent plasma
    • incubate room temp for 15 minutes
    • centrifuge all for 1 minute
    • if we see hemolysis or agglutination then the RBCs are incompatible
  23. What is minor cross match?
    • testing donor plasma to recipient RBCs
    • looking for antibodies in donor
    • done the same way as major cross matching
  24. What are the different feline blood types?
    • type A
    • type B
    • type AB
  25. Which feline blood type is the most common?
    type A
  26. Do cat's have more of a severe transfusion reaction than dogs?
    yes, sometimes the first signs is death
  27. What percent of cats with type A blood have anti B antibodies?
    35%
  28. What percent of cats with type B blood have anti A antibodies?
    70%
  29. Which cats typically have type B blood?
    purebred and mixed
  30. Are feline transfusion reactions common in the US?
    no, because most cats have the same blood type
  31. What are the in house blood typing tests?  What do the tests determine?
    • RapidVet - H Canine (determines DEA 1.1)
    • RapidVet - H Feline (determines A, B, or AB)
  32. How do in house blood typing tests work?
    • rapid card agglutination tests
    • if see clumping, then antigen (blood type) is present
  33. Where can we get blood for transfusions?
    from bank, fresh, or stored
  34. What are the three different additives we can collect blood with?
    • CPD-A1:  good for 4 weeks in frig
    • ACD:  good for 3 weeks in frig
    • Heparin:  good for 24 hours
  35. ____ ml/lb BW will raise PCV 1%
    1
  36. How do we administer blood for a blood transfusion?
    • use blood administration set or use microfiltration
    • 10 drops/ml
  37. What is volume overload?
    • administering the blood too quickly
    • no faster than 5 ml/min
  38. What are the different routes we can administer blood for a blood transfusion?
    • IV
    • intra-osseous route
    • intraperitoneal
  39. How fast does blood absorb into the body IP route?
    60% absorbed over 48 hours
  40. What is component therapy?
    administering plasma (a component of blood)
  41. What are the different forms of plasma we can administer?
    • fresh plasma
    • fresh frozen plasma
    • stored plasma
  42. How quickly do we need to administer plasma therapy after collecting from the donor?
    use within 24 hours or freeze within 6 hours
  43. When would we use fresh plasma?
    for clotting deficits
  44. When do we need to separate fresh plasma to be frozen?
    separate with in 6 hours after collection
  45. When would we use fresh frozen plasma?
    used in clotting deficits, DIC, septicemia, and neoplasia
  46. What is stored plasma?
    obtaining plasma from stored blood (CPD-A1)
  47. How long is stored plasma good for?
    • freeze and its good for 1 year
    • good for 4 weeks not frozen
  48. When would we use stored plasma?
    • hypoproteinemia
    • volume expansion
    • severely ill patients
  49. What is the dose for administering stored plasma?
    10 ml/kg
  50. What is cryoprecipiatate?
    precipitate from frozen plasma
  51. What is the plasma called once the cryoprecipitate has been removed?
    cryopoor plasma
  52. What would we use cryoprecipitate for?
    • clotting deficits
    • sepsis
    • parvo pups
    • DIC
  53. What is the dose for administering cryoprecipitate?
    12 - 20 ml/kg
  54. What does cryopoor plasma contain?
    • albumins and globulins
    • factors II, VII, X
  55. When would we use cryopoor plasma?
    used to treat coumarin toxicosis
  56. What is the dose for administering cryopoor plasma?
    10 ml/kg
  57. How long is cryopoor plasma good for when it is stored at -20 degrees celcius?
    1 year
  58. What is super plasma?
    activates the vW factors
  59. What do we need to pretreat the donor with for super plasma and why?
    • pretreat with DDAVP one hour before collection
    • activates the vW factor
  60. Other than dogs with vW, what else can we use super plasma for?
    fading puppies
    • RapidVet - H Feline
    • A positive, B negative
  61. compatible cross match
  62. incompatible cross match
    • RapidVet - H Canine
    • DEA 1.1

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