DBB Exam 3 - Alcohol

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DBB Exam 3 - Alcohol
2012-12-03 21:59:37
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  1. Binge drinking (male vs. female)
    • Male: >4 drinks/day and/or >14 drinks/week
    • Female: >3 drinks/day and/or >7 drinks/week
  2. % low or no drinking (not at risk or dependent)
  3. In 12-17 year olds, males drink (more than/less than/the same as) females.
    The same as
  4. In adults, males drink (more than/less than/the same as) females.
    More than
  5. Alcohol dependence is (higher/lower) in college students than in older people. Binging is (higher/lower) in college students than in older people.
    • Lower
    • Higher
  6. Presence of food in stomach makes absorption of alcohol (faster/slower). 
    • Slower
    • Milk particularly effective in delaying absorption
  7. Carbonated alcoholic beverages are absorbed (faster/slower) than non-carbonated.
  8. Alcohol use and traffic accidents
    • Alcohol related accidents peak Friday night and Saturday night after midnight
    • Relative risk increases with increased BAC
    • Relative risk also age-dependent
  9. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    • Wernicke's encephalopathy: confusion, eye abnormalities, ataxia (loss of muscle coordination)
    • Korsakoff's psychosis: memory problems, confabulation
    • Combination of the two caused by vitamin B (thiamine) deficiency due to alcohol abuse
  10. Acute effects of alcohol
    • Hangover
    • Tremor
    • GI problems
    • Alcohol hallucinosis
    • Delirium tremens
  11. Alcohol hallucinosis
    • Hallucinations
    • Develops within 12-24 hours of drinking, goes away pretty quickly
  12. Delirium tremens
    • Occurs 3-4 days after stopping or decreasing of heavy alcohol drinking in dependent individual (alcohol withdrawal)
    • Confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, vital signs all over the place
    • Can be fatal
    • Treated with benzodiazepines
  13. Three-factor vulnerability model of alcohol abuse
    Biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to development of alcohol abuse
  14. Most common cause of mental retardation in the US
    Fetal alcohol exposure
  15. Symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Mental retardation
    • Low birthweight
    • Neurological problems
    • Distinctive facial malformations
    • Other physical abnormalities
  16. Metabolism of alcohol
    • Alcohol --(alcohol dehydrogenase)---> acetaldehyde --(acetaldehyde dehydrogenase)---> acetic acid --(oxidation)---> CO2 + H2O + energy
    • Accumulation of acetaldehyde: leads to flushing, nausea, headache, increased heart rate
  17. Why some Asians can't drink that much
    Low levels of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), so increased acetaldehyde, leading to side effects
  18. Aspirin effects on alcohol metabolism
    • Particularly for females
    • Aspirin inhibits gut alcohol dehydrogenase, so get drunk faster (increases BAC)
  19. Alcohol dehydrogenase levels are higher in (men/women).
  20. P450 metabolism of alcohol; acute vs. chronic
    • Acute: metabolized almost completely by alcohol dehydrogenase; acute levels of alcohol block this P450 system, leading to potentially dangerously high levels of other drugs
    • Chronic: induces this P450 system; lowers levels of certain medications except during drinking periods; the 1st order kinetics as opposed to 0 order is one possible reason for tolerance
  21. Women get a (higher/lower) BAC than males of the same weight drinking the same amount of alcohol
  22. 4 Neurotransmitter systems affected by alcohol: acute vs chronic effects
    • Glutamate: Acute- receptor antagonism; chronic- up-regulation of receptors
    • GABA: Acute- enhances GABA (more Cl influx to hyperpolarize); chronic- decrease in GABA function
    • Dopamine: acute- increase; chronic- decrease
    • Opioids: acute- increase; chronic- decrease
  23. Alcohol effects on GABA (acute vs. chronic)
    • Acute alcohol increases GABA
    • Chronic alcohol decreases GABA (and to get back to normal level, drink)
  24. First step in alcoholism treatment
  25. What can you give to an alcoholic trying to detox to help with withdrawal
  26. Two drugs for alcoholism treatments
    • Naltrexone
    • Acamprosate
  27. Naltrexone
    • Opiate receptor antagonist
    • Decreases "high" of alcohol by blocking the effects of alcohol-induced endorphin release
  28. Acamprosate
    • Partial antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptor
    • Significantly blocks glutamate increase that occurs during alcohol withdrawal