DBB Exam 3 - Nicotine/Caffeine

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DBB Exam 3 - Nicotine/Caffeine
2012-12-03 22:45:41
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  1. Positive effects of nicotine
    • Calming/decreased anxiety
    • Possibly increased memory
    • Decreased appetite
    • Note: Nicotine is addicting, but not associated with psychotic behaviors
  2. Principal metabolite of nicotine
  3. Nicotine acts on which receptor?
    nAChR (alpha-4/beta-2)
  4. Nicotine reinforcing behaviors
    • Increased DA in the nucleus accumbens with a single dose
    • Reinforces release of dopamine
    • Activates mesocortical reward system
  5. Acute vs. Chronic tolerance of nicotine and the morning fix
    • Acute tolerance: within a day; as the day goes on, you don't get the same level of satisfaction from a cigarette; however overnight start undergoing withdrawal and the first cigarette in the morning is often the most pleasurable (morning fix)
    • Chronic tolerance: what it sounds like
  6. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine: distribution half-life and elimination half-life
    • Rapid to brain (7 seconds)
    • Distribution half-life: 9 mins
    • Elimination half-life: 2 hours (reason for morning fix - after 8 hrs of sleep already passed 4 half lives)
  7. Half-life of cotinine
    19 hours
  8. Cigarettes (induce/inhibit) some P450 enzyme systems.
  9. Insula and quitting smoking
    • Damage to insula = easier to quit
    • Possible connection between insula and maintaining addiction
  10. Pharmacological treatments of nicotine addiction
    • Nicotine replacement
    • Bupropion
    • Varenicline (Chantex)
  11. Nicotine replacement therapies
    • Nicotine gum
    • Nicotine lozenge
    • Transdermal nicotine patch
    • Nicotine nasal spray (prescription)
    • Nicotine inhaler (prescription)
  12. Varenicline
    • Alpha4/beta2 partial agonist
    • Cleared in kidney
    • Half-life: 24 hours
    • Neuropsychiatric side effects
    • Works better than bupropion or patch, but not both combined
    • Can't combine with nicotine
  13. Comorbidity (nicotine)
    People with certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or affective disorders, are more likely to smoke
  14. Half-life of caffeine
    4 hours
  15. Caffeine and cigarettes
    • Cigarettes decrease caffeine levels
    • Quitting smoking increases caffeine levels
  16. Mechanism of caffeine
    Adenosine receptor antagonist