gross anatomy exam 5

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gross anatomy exam 5
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gross anatomy exam 5
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  1. Functions of the abdomen wall.
    1. Supports and protects the abdominal viscera

    2. Compress the abdomen viscera to increase intraabdominal pressure for: coughing, burping, yelling, & forced expiration

    3. Produces the force required for: defecation, urination, vomiting, & childbirth

    4. Movement of the trunk: flexing, twisting, lateral bending

    5. Maintain Posture
  2. Camper's Facia?
    outer layer fascia
  3. Scarpa's Fascia?
    inner membraneous fascia
  4. 3 flat muscles are?
    1. External Abdominal Oblique Muscle

    2. Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle

    3. Transverse Abdominal Muscle
  5. Describe Rectus Abdominis Muscle.
    is enclosed by the rectus sheath

    ** formed by the aponeuroses of the 3 flat abdominal muscles!
  6. All 3 flat abdominal muscles end...
    Anteriorly as an Aponeurosis.
  7. Thoracoabdominal Nerves?
    T7-T11
  8. Subcostal Nerve?
    T12
  9. Illiohypogastric Illioinguinal?
    terminal branches of L1
  10. Above umbilicus?
    T7-T9
  11. Around umbilicus?
    T10
  12. Below umbilicus?
    T11-L1
  13. Serratous anterior innervated by?

    why is it special
    long thoracic nerve

    runs OUTSIDE of the muscle
  14. What is the LINEA ALBA?
    tendinous median line found in between the rectus abdominis muscle
  15. Bloody supply to the muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
    1. musculophrenic artery

    2.anterior intercostal artery

    3. inferior epigastric artery
  16. Inguinal Region?
    -pasageway through the inferior abdominal wall

    -area between the anterior superior iliac spine and public tubercle

    -region where structues exit and enter the abdominal cavity

    -clinically significant: potential site for inguinal hernias
  17. Inguinal Canal?
    - oblique tunnel through aponeuroses

    -of abdominal muscles

    • -main occupant is SPERMATIC CORD IN MALES
    • & ROUND LIGAMENT IN FEMALES
  18. Inguinal Hernia?
    proturison of PERITONEUM & VISCERA through a normal or abnormal opening in the abdominal cavity
  19. Layers of the Abdominal Wall (superficial to deep)
    • 1. Skin
    • 2. Superficial Fascia
    •      - Camper's fascia= fatty later
    •      - Scarpa's fascia= membranous layer
    • 3.External Oblique
    • 4. Internal Oblique
    • 5. Transversus
    • 6. Fascia Transversalis
    • 7. Extraperitoneal Fatty Tissue
    • 8. Peritoneum 
  20. Periotoneum= serous layer (same set up as the pleural & pericardial cavity)

    -Visceral Periotoneum?
    -Parietal peritoneum?
    -peritoneal cavity?
    = lines or covers the viscera

    =lines the cavity

    =potential space between the viscera and parietal peritoneum
  21. Double layers of the Peritoeum are?
    • -Omentum
    • -Mesentery
    • -Ligaments
  22. What is Peritonitis?
    -inflammation of the peritoneum, cause adhesions
  23. Whati is Ascites?
    fluid accumulation in peritoneal cavity
  24. What is Paracentesis?
    -surgical puncture of peritoneal cavity drainage of fluid
  25. Omentum?
    connects stomach to adjacent viscera
  26. Mesentary?
    comvey blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves
  27. Ligaments?
    connects abdominal wall to organ or organ to organ
  28. periotoneal cavity?
    potential spae between parietal and visceral perioteum
  29. male?

    female?
    male= CLOSED CAVITY

    • female= OPEN CAVITY by uterine tubes, uterine cavity and vagina
    • **potential area for infection
  30. Intraperitoneal organs are?
    almost completely covered by peritoneum (stomach)
  31. Retroperitoneal organs are?
    covered by periotoneum on the anterior surface (kidney)
  32. Greater omentum is?
    -double layer of peritoneum that connects THE GREATER CURVUTURE OF THE STOMACH to the TRANSVERSE COLON
  33. Lesser omentum is?
    double layer of perioteum that CONNECTS THE LESSSER CURVUTURE OF THE STOMACH and DUODENUM to the LIVER
  34. Mesentery is?
    double layer of perioteum that conveys vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
  35. Barium Swallow of the Upper GI:
    -fill the esophagus, stomach, & small intestines with barium to visualize the anatomy

    **reveals ulcers, tumors, hiatal hernia, scarring, blockage, and abnormalities in the muscular wall
  36. Barrium in Lower GI
    -fill the large intestine (colon) and rectum using a barium enema to visualize the anatomy

    **Reveal= Diverticuli
  37. Divirticulitis?
    inflammation or rupturing of the outpouches
  38. Blood Supply of the GI tract
    • -3 unpaired vesslels
    • -branch off the aorta

    • 1. Celiac artery
    • 2. Superior mesenteric artery
    • 3.Inferior mesenteric artery
  39. Blood supply of the foregut?
    celiac artery
  40. Blood supply of the midgut?
    superior mesenteric artery
  41. Bloody supply of the hindgut?
    inferior mesenteric artery
  42. Structures in the foregut?
    • -stomach
    • -duodenum (primal)
    • -liver
    • -gallbladder
    • -spleen
    • -part of pancreas
  43. Structures in the midgut?
    • -remainder of duodenu and pancreas
    • -jejunum
    • -ileum
    • -cecum
    • -appendix
    • -ascending colon
    • -2/3 transverse colon
  44. Structures in the hindgut?
    • -1/3 of transverse colon
    • -descending and sigmoid colons
    • -rectim
    • -upper 1/2 anal canal
  45. Branches off the Celiac Trunk?
    • 1. Left Gastric
    • 2. Splenic
    • 3. Common hepatic
    • 4. Hepatic proper
    • 5. Right gastric
    • 6. Gastroduodenal
  46. Branches off Superior Mesenteric Artery?
    • 1. Intestinal
    • 2. Illeocoloic
    • 3.Right colic
    • 4. Middle colic 
  47. Branches off Inferior Mesenteric Artery?
    • 1. Left colic
    • 2. Sigmoid
    • 3. Superior rectal
  48. Duodenal ulcers are?
    -most common in the posteiror wall of the 1st part of the duodenum

    -preforate the duodenal wall permitting contents to enter periotoneal cavity and cause PERIONITIS
  49. What vessel would most likely cause bleeding into cavity because of duodenal ulcer type and why?
    Gastroduodenal Artery

    **because damge to grastroduodenal artery puts blood into this cavity
  50. Portal Venous System does what?
    drains GI tract into the liver
  51. Portal Vein?
    • -main channel of the portal venous system
    • -collects poorly O2 & nutrient rich blood 
  52. Portal-Systemic drains specifically?
    GI
  53. Portal-Systemic Anastomes is?
    -where portal venous system communicated with systemic venous system
  54. Portal-----Systemic?

    example
    Gastric----Esophageal
  55. Normal Blood flow through the liver?
    Portal Vein (drains GI tract) to Hepatic Vein (drains into systemic circulation)
  56. Obstructed blood flow through the liver?
    -makes blood flow in opposite direction beacause NO VALVES!!
  57. Fibrosis of the liver blockage leads to..?
    Portal Hypertension

    **blood flow from portal to systemic sites of Anastomoses become ENGORGED
  58. Esophageal varices are?
    VERY VERY DANGEROUS IF THEY RUPTURE
  59. How are nodes named?
    named according to vessels or locations
  60. where are nodes located?
    along the artieries or organs
  61. If cancer is in that one specific spot in stomach the blood supply would go?
    • 1. celiac artery
    • 2.common hepatic artery
    • 3. gastroduodenal artery
  62. If cancer was in that one specific spot, LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE would occur how?
    IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION

    • -gastrodeunal nodes
    • -common hepatic nodes
    • -celiac nodes
    • -preaortic nodes
    • -thorasic duct
  63. HINT HINT: where does everything else drain?
    THORACIC DUCT
  64. Name the structures contained in the pelvis.
    • 1. urinary bladder
    • 2. ureters
    • 3. rectum
    • 4. reproductive organs
    • 5. nerves, blood, and lymph vessels
  65. What helps to elevate the rectal/anus muscles so you can defocate?
    "Levatorani"

    (pubococcygeus muscle & illiococcugeus muscle)
  66. When the external anal sphincter RELAXES you?
    defocate
  67. What does the Bulbospongiosus Muscle do for males?

    In females?
    can contract to release last couple drops of semen/urine

    -in females it acts as a SUPPORTING MUSCLE
  68. Perineal Body is relevant during childbirth how?
    if it tears it can cause long term fecal content (something happens)
  69. What help provide nourishment PH balance to sperm?
    accessory glands
  70. what stores sperm?
    epididymis
  71. what are the 3 parts of the penis?
    • 1. shaft
    • 2. glans penis
    • 3. prepuce (aka foreskin)
  72. Scrotum is?
    sac that contains testes
  73. External genitalia of the male is?
    • -Scrotum
    • -Penis (and its 3 parts)
  74. What are the accessory glands of a male? (3)
    • -seminal vesicles
    • -prostate gland
    • -bulborethral gland (aka Cowper's gland)
  75. Some other parts of male reproductive tract?
    • -testis
    • -epidydimis
    • -ductus defrens (aka vas deferens)
    • -urethra
  76. In LAB, where it isn't curly anymore and is straight it is...
    the Ductus Deferens

    when its curly its the: epididymis
  77. What produce and store the sperm?
    -seminferous tubules
  78. The pathway of Ductus Deferens.
    • -starts at proximal end of epididymis
    • -passes through the inguinal canal
    • -enters the pelvic cavity
    • -arches over urinary bladder
    • -ends in ejaculatory duct
  79. Ductus Deferens:

    travels in SPERMATIC CORD with (3)?
    • -blood vessels
    • -nerves
    • -cremaster muscle
  80. Sperm propelled by?
    Peristalis
  81. In the male embryo the Wolffian Duct turns into?
    testes
  82. At 4 months , in the male embryo what occurs?
    testis moves closer toward deep inguinal ring
  83. At 8 months, the male embryo ...what occurs?
    -this the last month of gestation, the testis descend through the inguinal canal
  84. What are the 3 parts of the male urethra?
    • 1. prostatic
    • 2. membranous
    • 3. spongy/penile
  85. During ejaculation, the INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER CLOSES in order to... (2)?
    • 1. prevent urine from entering urethra
    • 2. prevent sperm from entering bladder
  86. Describe SEMINAL VESICLES.
    • -paired
    • -duct join ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct
  87. Describe Prostate Gland.
    • -surrounds prostatic urethra
    • -several ducts into urethra
    • -located anterior to rectum
  88. Describe the Bulbourethral glands.
    • - pea sized
    • -inferior to prostate gland
  89. It is unlikely you will see _____ in cadaver.
    Bulbourethral glands
  90. What are the 2 erectile tissue found i the shaft of the penis?
    1. corpus cavernosum (paired)

    2. corupus spongiosum (surrounds urethra)
  91. What occurs at a slightly lower temperature than our body temperature (male process)?
    spermatogenesis
  92. The scrotum (divided sac) mainatains?
    temperature regulation of tests for sperm production assisted by CREMASTER MUSCLE
  93. Vasectomy?
    method of birth control in males, prevents sperm from traveling out
  94. In undescended testes where is the sperm?
    it is still inside the inguinal canal & body wall because they don't descend
  95. Ovary Structure:

    Describe medulla & cortex.
    Medulla= contains blood supply

    • cortex= where everything occurs!!
    • -Follicles
  96. Which follicle is destined for ovulation?
    vesicular aka Graafian or ovulatory 
  97. Corpus hemorrhagicum?
    -bleeding from cells that are left behind
  98. Corpus luteum?
    -progesterone secreting structure that lasts until pregnanacy occurs
  99. If pregnancy does not occure, Corpus Luteum regresses & what is formed?
    Corpus albicans
  100. The ovary is covered with?
    tunica albuginea (just like the testes)
  101. What you should NOT HAVE is ovatory follicles present at the same times as ____.
    Corpus Luteum
  102. Describe the Fimbriae.
    • -partially surround the ovary
    • -"wave like" currents
  103. Usual site of fertilization ?
    ampulla
  104. Describe the Uterine Tubes.
    • -not attached to ovary
    • -Fimbriae
    • _infundibulum
    • -ampulla: usual site of fertilization
  105. Fundus is located where? (uterus)
    near entrance of uterine tubes
  106. Uterus is located?
    between urinary bladder & rectum
  107. Cervix is?
    outlet protruding into vagina
  108. the 3 layers of uterine walls are?
    1. perimetrium (outermost layer)

    2. myometrium (middle muscular layer, most of uterus is this)

    3. endometrium (proliferated layer)
  109. Which layer is the site of implantation of an embryo?
    Endometrium
  110. Review:

    site of impantation=?
    site of fertilization=?
    site of implantation= endometrium

    site of fertilization= ampulla
  111. Describe vagina.
    • - 8-10 cm long
    • -musculomembranous tube
    • -extends from cervix to exterior of body (vestibule)
    • -hymen= membrane over vaginal opening
  112. Uterine artery runs how?
    - comes off int. iliac aa & crosses over the ureter

    "water under the bridge"
  113. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?
    -occurs bc uterine tube is open into pelvis and bacteria can travel inside and settle in pelvic cavity
  114. Prolapsed uterus?
    uterus can fall through vaginal opening
  115. Ectopic Pregnancy?
    can occur within the uterine tube, implantation occurs on endometrial wall instead of inside 
  116. Hysteroralpingography?
    when you inject dye inside uterus to look for blockages inside uterine tube
  117. Anatomical relationships of organs are shifted during pregancy in order to?
    make room for the growing fetus
  118. What are some common pregnancy relared synotoms that are primarily due to anatomical changes?
    • 1. frequent urination
    • 2. back or leg discomfort/pain if lying on back
    • 3. "waddle" when walk (late term)
  119. Why must you be careful not to have a pregnant woman recline too far back in the chair during a dental exam?
    descending arota will put pressure on veins & vesseks & caN DEPRESS AA'S THAT ARE SUPPLYING FETUS IF YOU recline back too far
  120. Pregnancy Related Anatomical Changes:
    • -abdominal organs displaced (superiorly)
    • -bladder compressed; stress incontinence
    • -lumbar curvuture increased
  121. Describe the kidney.
    • -bean shaped
    • -along posterior abdominal wall, between vertebral leverls T12 & L3
    • -surround by ADIPOSE CAPSULE
    • -right kidney slightly lower than left
  122. Why is the right kidney lower than the left?
    -it is lower because of the liver
  123. Why is the adipose capsule important?
    protects the kidney from moving around, cushions it if hit
  124. Adrenal glands sit on what surface of kidneys?
    SUPERIOR SURFACE

    *** NOT PART OF URINARY SYSTEM
  125. in path of kidney blood flow there are no?
    -no lobar or segmental veins
  126. Know path of kidney blood flow chart.
  127. Ureters

    Wall composed of?
    smooth muscle
  128. Urine moves by?
    peristalis
  129. Valve like folds of bladder mucosa over openins PREVENT..?
    prevents retrograde flow of urine
  130. Ureters:

    Retroperitoneal course?
    • -from renal hilus
    • -to posterior aspect of bladder
  131. Urinary Bladder:

    lined with?

    Volume when moderately full?

    wall contains__ layers of smooth muscle
    -lined with TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

    - volume about 500 ml when moderately full

    -wall contains 3 laters smooth muscle
  132. Urinary bladder:

    Trigone?
    3 opening of urinary bladder

    • -2 ureters
    • -1 urethra
  133. describe urethra.
    • -thin walled tube
    • -urine carried by peristalis
    • -2sphincters: internal urethral sphincter & external urethral sphincter
  134. Internal urethral sphincer?
    • -bladder to urethra junction
    • -smooth muscle
    • -involuntary control
  135. External urethral sphincter?
    • -at passage of urethra through pelvic floor
    • -skeletal muscle
    • -voluntary control
  136. In which region of the male urethra is the external urethral sphincter located?
    membranous region
  137. Sex Differences in Urethra?

    Name Male & Female.
    • Male=
    • relatively long about 20cm
    • opens at tip of penis
    • 3 named regions: prostatic, membranous, spongy

    • Female=
    • relatively short 3-4 cm long (women more susceptible to UTIS due to short distance)
    • external orifice anterior to vaginal opening
  138. Micturition (process of urination)
    • 1. Stretch receptors in bladder activated
    • 2. Nerve impulsed sent via splahnic nerves
    • 3. Bladder contracts (reflex)
    • 4. Internal urethral sphincter relaxes (opens)
    • 5. Urine flow into urethra stimulates urge to void
    • 6. External urethral sphincter relaxes to void (voluntary control)
  139. Renal Calculi?
    =kidney stones

    most common narrowest part and most painful when going through the ureter
  140. Urinary incontinence?
    • <2yrs old, normal development of voluntary control
    • older children sleep too deeply to sense stimulus to void ("bed wetters")
  141. Urinary retention?
    • -post operarively following general anesthesis
    • -prostatic hyperplasia

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