Radiology Test #4

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kbourg002
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Radiology Test #4
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2012-12-04 02:04:52
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rads
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chapters 17, 18, 20-25
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  1. a degree of excellence
    quality
  2. Three things quality includes
    • -equipment
    • -accessories
    • -radiography personnel
  3. Performs the monitoring and testing of equipment and control of variables in a clinical setting
    quality assurance tech
  4. Order of the administrative pyramid from bottom to top
    patients- radiographer controls 25+ variables- rads equipment with numerous malfunctions- image processing system- acceptable radiograph
  5. hospitals' organizationals charts illustrating the errors through the production of a radiograph
    administrative pyramid
  6. psychological aspects of the patient are evaluated when?
    before procedure begins
  7. How to treat patients
    care, competence, respect, by age
  8. Treat old
    respect
  9. Treat young
    smiles
  10. Treat ill
    gentleness
  11. Treat dying
    empathy
  12. Three ways for administrative evaluation
    • -observations of tech work
    • -interview patients
    • -interview fellow techs
  13. Four good physical conditions for the patient
    • -read request for patient name and procedure for correctness
    • -set up exam room
    • -touch gently to do no more harm
    • -provide comfort items like blankets, pillows, sponges
  14. most complex and complicating factor in the pyramid
    equipment
  15. number one problem in most departments
    film processing equipment
  16. used to expose films precisely so each film will have the same density, processor chemicals, temperature, etc
    sensitometer
  17. measures amount of light transmitted through the radiograph
    densitometer
  18. develop latent images into visible images automatically
    developer solutions
  19. remove unexposed silver bromide crystals from film and hardems film to preserve image
    fixer solutions
  20. Five things QA techs check
    • kV
    • mA
    • timer settings
    • focal spot size
    • collimator accuract
  21. Radiographers control three factors in producing a radiograph
    density, contrast, detail
  22. learning the equipemtn and procedures in a department
    orientation
  23. major cause of excessive exposure of patients to radiation
    repeats due to positioning errors
  24. photo limiting and terminates exposture when centered over the part
    automatic exposure devices
  25. adjustment of voltage, amperage, distance, time
    exposure factors
  26. provides opportunity for techs to stay abreast of advancements
    continuing education
  27. continuing education is required by two groups
    ARRT and state
  28. How many CE credits required?
    24 every two years
  29. most important part of quality control
    radiologists
  30. only person who may legally make a diagnosis from a radiograph
    radiologist
  31. expert in production of radiographic image
    radiologic technologist
  32. determined by radiologists to say if an image in too light or too dark
    acceptance limits
  33. acceptance limits are wider with..?
    digital imaging
  34. determined by radiographer or QA tech subjectively to determine image quality
    personal standard
  35. communication between radiologist and tech includes
    explaining to radiologist the circumstance prohibiting an acceptable radiograph
  36. communcation between tech and patient includes
    duration of pain, intensity, procedure explanations
  37. 15 ways to maintain an optimal rating in quality
    • 1. approach problems directly
    • 2. overcome pyramid communication problems
    • 3. consider psychologics and emotions of pt
    • 4. create good physical conditions
    • 5. understand how managers evaluate care
    • 6. awareness of importance of film processor to quality film
    • 7. awareness of complexity of equipment and minimization of variables
    • 8. be familiar with equipment
    • 9. develop good positioning skills
    • 10. develop good exposure factor skills
    • 11. assist managers in determining rating of services
    • 12. awareness of each radiologist's acceptance limits
    • 13. awareness of department's acceptance limits
    • 14. maintain optimal ratings through high personal acceptance limits
    • 15. assist radiologist with pathient history and explanations
  38. causes damage to living cells
    ionizing radiation
  39. Three sources of ionizing radiation
    • -natural
    • -background: airplane, atmosphere
    • -manmade: xrays
  40. absorbed dose and traditional and SI measurement
    rad- gray
  41. dose equivalent and Traditional and SI measurement
    rem- sievert
  42. exposure and traditional and SI measurement
    Roentgen (R)- coulomb/kg
  43. amount radiation required to turn skin red
    erythema dose
  44. established in 1964 to control radiation protection and measurements
    NCRP
  45. Four functins of NCRP
    • 1. provide info and recommendations in the public interest
    • 2. allow pooling of resources to facilitate studies
    • 3. develop basic concepts about radiation protection
    • 4. make effort to cooperate with international government and private organizations
  46. nucleus surrounded by electrons
    atoms
  47. packets of energy in xrays
    photons
  48. created when photons knock electrons out of their orbits
    electrically charged ions
  49. process of ionization results
    transfer of energy
  50. Three main types of photon interactions
    • absorbed
    • scattered
    • pass with no interaction
  51. most common type of photon interaction
    photoelectric effect
  52. absorbed photon interaction
    photoelectric effect
  53. photoelectric effect is an interaction with....?
    inner shell electrons
  54. photoelectron production occurs with ...?
    low energy photons
  55. electron that has enough energy to knock other electrons from orbit
    photoelectron
  56. scattered photon interaction
    compton scatter
  57. compton scatter is a photon interaction with...?
    outer shell electrons
  58. During compton scatter, an atom is ___, photons change ___ and ___ energy.
    ionized; directions; loses
  59. source of most occupational exposure
    compton scatter
  60. photon interaction where photons pass through with no interaction
    pair production
  61. Pair production sends electron close to the ___ before disappearing
    nucleus
  62. Pair production produces what two things?
    positron and electron
  63. photon must have energy of...?
    1.02 meV
  64. Pair production rarely occurs in ___ range and mainly occurs in ___.
    diagnostic; radiation therapy
  65. Four possible results of radiation on a cell
    • 1. pass through with no damage
    • 2. temporarily damage
    • 3. permanently damage
    • 4. kill the cell
  66. two sources of medical radiation exposure
    xray and radionuclides
  67. external course of medical radiation exposure
    xrays
  68. internal source of medical radiation exposure
    radionuclides
  69. contains half life of radiation, but patients are radioactive until it dies out
    radionuclides injected tests
  70. produced when a stream of electrons hits the atoms of a target in the tube
    xrays
  71. applied to accelerate electrons
    kilovoltage
  72. controls quality of beam
    kV
  73. controls quantity or amount of radiation produced
    mA
  74. xrays produced from the tube
    primary radiation
  75. primary radiation interacting with matter produces what two types of radiation
    secondary or scattered
  76. Three methods of protection:
    • - less time
    • - farther distance
    • - shields
  77. most sensitve mature cells
    gonadal sex cells
  78. used for treatment of cancer patients in radiation therapy or oncology and in nuclear medicine
    radionuclides
  79. Good housekeeping for protection from radionuclides is important because they can be ___, ___, and ____ to enter the body.
    ingested, inhaled, absorbed through skin
  80. related to rate of exposure as function of inverse square law
    distance
  81. intensity of beam is inversely proportional to square of the distance
    inverse square law
  82. aluminum used to absorb harmful soft radiation
    filtration
  83. inside the tube should be 0.5- 0.9 mm aluminum
    inherent filtration
  84. as high as possible to decrease skin dose
    kV
  85. Total filtration of what should be equal to 2.5 mm Al?
    primary beam
  86. automatic or manual restriction of primary radiation to a limited area located on tube housing
    collimation
  87. Three methods to minimize repeat exposures
    • - restraining devices
    • - technique charts
    • - quality control programs
  88. Best projection method for shielding
    PA
  89. Three shielding devices
    lead aprons, gloves, gonad shields
  90. measure exposure to radiation and is to be worn at all times by employers
    film badge/ radiation dosimeter
  91. How often should film badges be turned in and reported?
    once a month
  92. provides certification and registrations for RT profession
    American Registry of Radiologic Technologists- ARRT
  93. established in 1992 in St. Paul, Minnesota to organize who is registered in RT
    ARRT
  94. Primary certification exams
    • radiography
    • radiation therapy
    • nuclear medicine
  95. advanced level exams
    • cardiovascular-intervention
    • mammography
    • CT
    • MRI
    • quality management
    • sonography
  96. ARRT board of trustees
    5 RTs; 4 physicians
  97. ARRT consultants
    one from each discipline
  98. ARRT publication saying who lost licenses, test stats, etc.
    Annual Report to RTs Journal
  99. Eight steps of procedures to take certification exams
    • 1. general qualifications: good moral character
    • 2. education
    • 3. military
    • 4. competency exams
    • 5. application
    • 6. aggrement of applicants
    • 7. registry exam
    • 8. score report
  100. Five areas of content on registry exams in greatest to least order
    • - radiographic procedures
    • - image production and evaluation
    • - radiation protection
    • - patient care
    • - equipment operation and maintenance
  101. Name, RT (R)
    radiography
  102. Name, RT (N)
    nuclear medicine
  103. Name, RT (T)
    radiation therapy
  104. makes sure RT programs are teaching students correctly to ensure an accredited program
    Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology- JRCERT
  105. goes into hospital to ensure quality
     joint commission
  106. establisted in 1969 by ASRT and ACR
    JRCERT
  107. what year did JRCERT become free standing?
    1992
  108. national accrediting agency
    JRCERT
  109. JRCERT Board of directions
    • -RTs
    • -radiologists
    • -oncologists
    • -public
  110. Five functions of JRCERT
    • -documentation of programs
    • - peer review
    • -educational standards
    • - respond to student allegations
    • - enforce compliance with national education standards
  111. JRCERT deems program in order to be "good enough" for certification
    accreditation
  112. Nine areas of program standards
    • -mission and goals
    • -integrity
    • -organization and administration
    • -curriculum practices
    • -resources
    • -students
    • -radiation safety
    • -effectiveness
    • -satisfaction
  113. Steps of the accreditation process
    • -self study
    • -set site visit date
    • -site visit
    • -JRCERT members give an exit interview
    • -JRCERT reports to program on what was seen and what to fix
    • -program responds with what has been fixed and how
    • -accreditation is rewarded
  114. When does self study occur?
    four years after initial accreditation
  115. longest possible accreditation award
    8 years
  116. Three things to happen if program is not up to par
    • -probation
    • -accreditation revoked
    • -program withdraws
  117. classroom instruction
    didactic
  118. hospital, RTs, professors, students evaluation
    clinical instruction
  119. safety and efficiency evaluation
    lab instruction
  120. Three areas of evaluation by JRCERT
    didactic- clinical- lab
  121. Allegation process
    • -allegation made in writing
    • -JRCERT alerts program
    • -program responds
    • -board decides
    • -program submits report
  122. Five values of accreditation
    • -assure public RT is qualified
    • -assures quality of service
    • -on going assessment
    • -self evaluation of programs
    • -assures educational standards
  123. Four services of JRCERT
    • consultation
    • educational presentations
    • resources
    • review
  124. founded in 1920 as a national professional society to build up RTs as a profession
    American Society of Radiologic Technologists - ASRT
  125. ASRT House of Delegates
    • -2 reps from each state
    • -10 regional delegates
    • -10 radiation therapists
    • -10 nuclear medicinist
    • -10 radiographers
    • -speaker
    • -vice speaker
  126. ASRT board of directors
    • president
    • vice president
    • president elect
    • secretary-treasurer
    • immediate past president
  127. Four purposed of ASRT
    • -continuing education
    • -establish guidelines for CE programs
    • -publications
    • -position descriptions and Scopes
  128. ASRT peer reviewed journal
    Radiologic Technology
  129. socioeconomics regarding technologists set by ASRT
    wage and salary survey
  130. state society that tracks continuing education credits and student involvement
    Louisiana Society of Radiologic Technologists- LSRT
  131. how many conferences held by LSRT and when?
    two per year- one summer, one spring
  132. society to give skills for leading people and dealing with changing health care environment
    American Healthcare Radiology Administrators- AHRA
  133. Three goals of AHRA
    • -education and training of administrators
    • -maintenance of high ethical standards
    • -communication among members
  134. publication of AHRA published quarterly
    Radiology Management
  135. publication of AHRA published monthly
    AHRA Link
  136. Two services of AHRA
    • sponsor meetings for continuing education
    • conduct surveys
  137. Three purposed of the AERS
    • -strives to advance the profession and support high standards of education
    • -promotes exchange of information through communication channels
    • -promotes research
  138. AERS
    Association of Educators in Rad Sciences
  139. ARTS
    Association of Radiologic Technology Students
  140. Above average pay for RTs
    $16-18/ hr for RT; $20/ hr for special
  141. Four jobs of an RT
    • -provide radiologist with images to assist diagnosis
    • -provide patient care
    • -positioning skills
    • -selection of exposure factors
  142. RT facts:
    • -nationwide shortage
    • -one of 10 occupations for new jobs
    • -demanding field
    • -hours depend on area
    • -described by ASRT
  143. education required for RT
    higher level
  144. Specialty areas of RT
    • -diagnostic
    • -fluoroscopy
    • -radiation therapy
    • -nuclear medicine
    • -ultrasound
    • -mammography
    • -CT
    • -MRI
    • -bone densitometry
  145. routine xrays, portable, orthopedics, trauma, surgery
    diagnostics
  146. administer targeted doses of radiation to a patient's body to treat cancer and other diseases
    radiation therapy
  147. gradually shrink and destroy the nucleus of malignant tumor cells
    highly energized ions
  148. determine how much radiation will be delivered to a tumor site by calculations from the oncologist's plan
    medical dosimetrists
  149. radioactive material introduced into the body to produce images of major organs
    nuclear medicine
  150. two procedures of nuc med
    • PET
    • PET/CT
  151. ultrasound in invasive procedures
    sonography
  152. Heart cath, myelogram, stents, angiography
    cardiovascular interventional
  153. contrast into spine to look for bulging discs
    myelogram
  154. contrast into veins
    angiography
  155. radiography of breast for breast cancer awareness and education
    mammography
  156. sectional imaging that used radiation to slice axial images for several different views to improve diagnosis in emergency situation
    computed tomography
  157. uses magnetic fields and radio waves to see sectional views
    magnetic resonance imaging
  158. measures indications of strength to determine osteoporosis
    bone densitometry
  159. advanced level RT
    radiologist assistant
  160. What can an RA do?
    • -patient assessment, education, and management
    • -fluoroscopy and radiography procedures
    • -make initial image observations
  161. Four opportunities for RTs out of the medical setting
    • -education
    • -administration
    • -quality management
    • -sales
  162. radiaton therapist, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, special procedures
    short term postgraduate education
  163. master of science in rad science
    masters in healthcare administration
    doctorate in education
    long term postgraduate education
  164. radiologic and management expertise involved in purchasing, personnel management, budget preparation, regulatory specifications, decision making, and planning
    administrative radiology
  165. formal training recognized in 1933
    radiographer educator
  166. qualifications for radiographer educator
    baccalaureate degree and 2 years clinicals
  167. oversee the equipment in the department and guarantee that the equipment meets standards set by JCAHO, federal, state, and local agencies
    quality assurance
  168. ensures radiation producing machinery are properly handled and monitors radiation exposure of staff with film badges
    radiation safety officer
  169. preventative and non-preventative maintenance and repair of equipment
    biomedical technicians
  170. have a background in electronics and a high mechanical aptitude
    equipment specialists
  171. train technologists on equipment on site to establish protocols and procedures
    applications specialists
  172. has a business background and involved in equipment, film, supplies
    sales reps
  173. Bacelor of science is required for what two jobs?
    applications specialists and sales reps
  174. Six reasons continuing education is required
    • 1. bridge gap between formalized education and advanced needs
    • 2. prevent obsolescence in the profession
    • 3. assure the public that all techs are competent
    • 4. advance profession through growth of all techs
    • 5. provide oppotunities for advanced preparation
    • 6. reinforce code of ethics for all practices
  175. required in order for a tech to use RT*(R) credentials adn be placed on registry
    national certification exam of ARRT
  176. How often must tech renew certification?
    annually
  177. unit of measurement based on a 50-minute contact hour
    continuing education credit
  178. Three things to be knowledgable about for CE
    • ARRT
    • state licenses
    • institution specific requirements
  179. When are CE credits and documentation due?
    every two years at end of the month before the birth month
  180. Seven CE documentation requirements
    • -dates
    • -topic
    • -content
    • -number of contact hours
    • -speaker name
    • -authorized rep name
    • -reference number
  181. Passing an advanced level exam (ie. mammo, CV, CT, MRI, nuc med, rad therapy, ultrasound, etc) gives how many CE credits?
    24
  182. What happens when an RT does not comply with ARRT?
    probation for 6 months or loss of registration
  183. How many states require full or limited licensure?
    39
  184. How many states require CE?
    30
  185. Does the ARRT require CE from ALL states?
    yes
  186. approved programs for CE by ARRT
    Recognized Continuing Education Evaluation Mechanisms - RCEEMs
  187. Five examples of RCEEMs
    • -ASRT
    • -Society of Nuc Med Techs Section (VOICE)
    • -SDMS
    • -AHRA
    • -ACR
  188. provides 24 journals with tests approved for CE credits
    ASRT
  189. Four most effective means of CE
    • -professional societies
    • -in service education
    • -seminars
    • -academic courses
  190. How many credits given for academic courses?
    16 per semester hour; 12 per quarter hour
  191. designed to ensure that qualified personnel perform medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures and that state licensures are required to be covered by Medicare
    Consumer Assure of Radiologic Excellence (CARE) Bill
  192. Quality assurance is the responsibility of
    • -the chief radiologist
    • -the chief tech
    • -each rad employee
  193. Quality assurance does not involve
    the ethnic origin of employees
  194. What is the advantage of the pyramidal arrangement for departmental administration?
    economy in personnel cost
  195. What is the disadvantage of the pyramidal administrative arrangement?
    communication from the base to the upper level is difficult
  196. Evluating quality in the radiology department may not include
    checking the patient's code of ethics
  197. Troubleshooting is an activity for
    equipment testing after malfunction occurs
  198. Equipment monitoring is an activity involving
    periodic routine equipment testing
  199. The radiographic latent image is made visible by
    • chemical processing
    • computer image processing
    • automatic processing
  200. Checking the equipment is the most logical place to start when
    several images were too light for interpretation
  201. The acceptance level of a radiograph should be determing by the
    person who can legally make a radiographic diagnosis
  202. The roentgen unit is a measure of
    the number of ions created in the air
  203. What is the filtration manufactured into the xray tube called?
    inherent filtration
  204. What do the letters rad stand for?
    radiation absorbed dose
  205. When radiation interacts with matter and changes direction, it is called
    scatter radiation
  206. What will affect patient dose?
    filtration, distance, time
  207. Which exam will give the patient the highest gonadal dose?
    lumber spine
  208. The law of Bergonie and Tribondeau implies that sensitivity is greatest in
    rapidly dividing cells with shortest life spans at the youngest stage of the organism
  209. The basis for the NCRP policies and regulations for personnel and patients is the
    ALARA
  210. The general population is allowed what fraction of the dose allowed for occupationally exposed people?
    one tenth
  211. The dosimeter worn by most radiologic technologists measures
    the amount of total body radiation
  212. What cells of the body are most sensitive?
    white blood cells
  213. During portable xray exams, the tech's best protection is
    distance
  214. The primary concern in radiation to the gonads is to prevent
    genetic effects
  215. Sensitivity to radiation in humans is greatest when?
    during the embryonic stage
  216. The ARRT offered its first certificate in
    1906
  217. The ARRT does what?
    examines technologists for advanced level specialties and surveys programs in rad educ for accreditation
  218. The ARRT exams consist of
    200 questions computerized test plus pilot questions
  219. A score is defined as passing when
    a composite score of 75
  220. The ARRT is the national organization for
    the certifying of qualified technologists
  221. Eligibility to sit for the ARRT exam in radiography requires
    completion of an ARRT recognized accredited program in rad, baccalaureate in radiation physics, and masters in radiation biology
  222. In 1997, what became a requirement for registration for ARRT exam?
    showing evidence of CE
  223. The ARRT is one of the oldest certifying agencies in heal professions and is also the
    second largest
  224. The purpose of the ARRT is to
    encourage education, elevate standards of rad techs, and examine and certify eligible techs
  225. What governmental agency is responsible for the oversight of institutional and programatic accreditation?
    united states department of education
  226. In what way does the JRCERT accreditation benefit students?
    ensures that a program meets national established professional standards
  227. Site visitors' responsibilites include
    evaluating a program through on site visits and developing a report of findings
  228. What is likely when a program's deficiencies threaten the capability of a program to provide acceptable education?
    program awarded probationary accreditation
  229. Educational standards address
    program effectiveness, curriculum, and radiation safety
  230. THE JRCERT is
    a non profit accreditation authority of educational programs
  231. The JRCERT board of directors includes
    radiologic techs, physicians, and rep of the public
  232. The JRCERT investigates complaints that
    relate to program's compliance with educational standards
  233. What is a responsbility of the JRCERT?
    evaluation of educational programs
  234. The accreditation process includes
    submit documentations, peer site visit, and JRCERT action
  235. JRCERT accredited programs may exist in what settings?
    health care facilities, colleges, proprietary schools
  236. Responsibilites of JRCERT board of directors include
    accreditation, corporate, policy development
  237. Services offered by the JRCERT include
    identification of accredited programs for prospective students
  238. What is true of accreditation?
    peer reviewed, voluntary, conducted by nongovernmental agency
  239. What is true of a program's self study report?
    evaluation of the program by personnel including information about outcomes in relation to mission and goals
  240. What individuals may serve as site visitors?
    rad tec educators and radiologists and oncologists
  241. Radiologic sciences education has evolved from the ___ to the __ model.
    apprentice; academic
  242. A national organization primarily for radiologic technology educators is the
    ACERT
  243. A national organization primarily for radiologic technology managers is
    AHRA
  244. A national organization for all radiologic technologists is
    ASRT
  245. What was the primary reason that the ASRT was formed?
    education
  246. Today, the ASRT serves its members with
    CE and scholar publications, professional reps, education program curricula
  247. The ASRT holds continuing education opportunities in conjunction with the annual meeting of
    radiological society of north america
  248. The professional jounral published by the ASRT is called
    radiologic technology
  249. The ASRT currently represents how many rad techs?
    more than 100,000
  250. Other professionals who work in diagnostic imaging and therapy include
    radiolgoists, physicists, nurses
  251. The ASRT was founded in
    1920
  252. coalition of organization to communicate and plan for issues that affect diagnostics
    summit on rad sciences
  253. Which procedure is not an xray exam?
    MRI
  254. The distinguishing difference between CT and MRI
    magnetic field vs radiation
  255. Which imaging modality is most useful in studying the brain and spinal cord through visualization of soft tissue?
    MRI
  256. The formulation of radiopharmaceuticals and localization of each within the body are unique to what discipline?
    nuc med
  257. The speacialty that allows the most patient contact is
    radiation therapy
  258. Which subject in the curriculum is not common to all disciplines?
    treatment planning
  259. Which specialty is involved in the treatment of disease rather than diagnosis?
    radiation therapy
  260. Which specialty may national certification be obtained through an organization rather than the ARRT?
    ultrasound
  261. An advantage of ultrasound over other imaging modalities
    no radiation is used and it can monitor fetal development
  262. Upward and lateral mobility depends primarily on what?
    education
  263. Personnel management, budget preparation, union negotiations, and purchasing are a few areas of involvement of
    deparment administrator
  264. The formal training of xray techs in the US began in
    1933
  265. Formal training of xray tech in Europe was undertaken by
    Marie Curie
  266. The ASRT was established in
    1920
  267. Qualifications for rad science program director, faculty, clinical coordinator, and clinical instructor are addressed by
    JRCERT
  268. The Joint Commission requires that rad departments establish
    quality assurance or quality control program
  269. What is of utmost importance in quality assurance or quality control program?
    proceessor monitoring
  270. The monitoring of personnel radiation exposure is the responsbility of the
    radiation safety officer
  271. Minor radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment problems are often serviced by the
    equipment specialist
  272. CE for radiologic technologists is
    mandatory for all registered techs
  273. What is not acceptable for CE credit
    registry review seminars
  274. The organization requiring CE for renewal of certification is the
    ARRT
  275. What organization is not responsbile for approving education activities for CE credit
    ASRT
  276. CE credits may be obtained from an accredited postsecondary educational institution in
    courses in disciplines specified by the ARRT
  277. For an academic course to be acceptable for CE credit, the learner must receive at least
    Pass
  278. The ASRT established the ECE program in
    1978
  279. The main objective for CE is to
    provide efficient care for patients

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